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Abdalla Bowirrat, Thomas J H Chen, Kenneth Blum, Margaret Madigan, John A Bailey, Amanda Lih Chuan Chen, B William Downs, Eric R Braverman, Shahien Radi, Roger L Waite, Mallory Kerner, John Giordano, Siohban Morse, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Mark Gold
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Although the biological underpinnings of immediate and protracted trauma-related responses are extremely complex, 40 years of research on humans and other mammals have demonstrated that trauma (particularly trauma early in the life cycle) has long-term effects on neurochemical responses to stressful events. These effects include the magnitude of the catecholamine response and the duration and extent of the cortisol response. In addition, a number of other biological systems are involved, including mesolimbic brain structures and various neurotransmitters...
December 2010: Current Neuropharmacology
Emilio Fernandez-Espejo, Maria-Paz Viveros, Luis Núñez, Bart A Ellenbroek, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca
RATIONALE: Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabis sativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand. RESULTS: On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people, may lead to a worse outcome of the disease, or it can affect normal brain development during adolescence, increasing the risk for schizophrenia in adulthood...
November 2009: Psychopharmacology
Neilson Martin, Megan McDougall, David A Hay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe the considerable advances in consolidating the empirical evidence on several key topics in the genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, namely the quantitative genetic studies of the nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its comorbidities, the molecular genetic studies that show modest but consistent effects of specific genotypes, and the growing recognition of genotype by environment interaction. Such interactions are studied to explain what happens when individuals with a susceptible genotype are exposed to a particular environment...
July 2008: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Dalila Benmessaoud, Nora Hamdani, Claudette Boni, Nicolas Ramoz, Michel Hamon, Farid Kacha, Philip Gorwood
BACKGROUND: The -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HT2A gene has been found to be associated with clinical response to clozapine and other second generation antipsychotics. Testing the impact of this marker on response to first generation antipsychotics (which have a lower affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor) provides the opportunity to help disentangling the two different roles that this polymorphism might have. A psychopharmacogenetic role should be detected only for antipsychotics with high affinity to the 5-HT2A receptor (therefore to second generation antipsychotics)...
2008: BMC Psychiatry
Nora Hamdani, Philip Gorwood
Psychopharmacogenetics was born with the development of psychotropic drugs in psychiatry, that is, slightly after the discovery of the role of lithium in bipolar disorders and of antipsychotic agents in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacogenetics relies on the analyses of the genes involved in treatment response adverse effects, efficacy, and their mechanisms. The utility of psychopharmacogenetics may be substantial. Being able to give each patient the appropriate dosage of the right treatment should enhance not only its immediate efficacy, but also compliance and therefore long-term efficacy...
May 2008: La Presse Médicale
Nora Hamdani, Jean-Pierre Tabeze, Nicolas Ramoz, Jean Ades, Michel Hamon, Yves Sarfati, Claudette Boni, Philip Gorwood
Neurobiological research suggests a significant role of the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia vulnerability and also in the quality of response to antipsychotics. Genetics offer an opportunity to disentangle its involvement in the disease vulnerability vs an influence on antipsychotics' effects. The possible role of a tag SNP (the 1359G/A polymorphism) of the gene encoding the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) in schizophrenia and/or therapeutic response to atypical antipsychotics was assessed in a cohort of 133 French schizophrenic patients compared to 141 normal control subjects...
January 2008: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
H Knoblauch
The human genome project has substantially increased our knowledge about the genetic basis of psychiatric diseases. In daily clinical practice the physician is asked about the diagnosis of genetically dependent diseases with an increased psychiatric risk, particularly schizophrenia group disorders, about the recurrence risk of psychiatric diseases in the relatives and children of the patients, on the use of psychopharmaceuticals during pregnancy and their potential consequences for the offspring, as well as psychopharmacogenetics...
March 2007: Der Nervenarzt
Brigitta Bondy
Genetic factors are believed to play a major role in the variation of treatment response and the incidence of adverse effects to medication. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to elucidate this variability according to hereditary differences. Considering current hypotheses for the mechanisms of action of antidepressants, most investigations to date have concentrated on mutations in genes coding either for the pathways in the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems or for drug-metabolizing enzymes. Recent studies shifted the emphasis on the main mechanism of drug action from changes in neurotransmitter concentration or receptor function toward long-lasting adaptive processes within the neurons...
2005: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
Klaus Peter Lesch, Lise Gutknecht
Response to psychopharmacologic drugs is genetically complex, results from an interplay of multiple genomic variations with environmental influences, and depends on the structure or functional expression of gene products, which are direct drug targets or indirectly modify the development and synaptic plasticity of neural networks critically involved in their effects. During brain development, the serotonin (5HT) system, which is commonly targeted by antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic drugs, controls neuronal specification, differentiation, and phenotype maintenance...
July 2005: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Beatriz Camarena, Haydee Santiago, Alejandro Aguilar, Elsa Ruvinskis, Jorge González-Barranco, Humberto Nicolini
Family studies have reported that obesity has a strong heritable component. It has been suggested that a neurotransmitter dysfunction could be involved in mental disorders and obesity; therefore, candidate genes in psychiatric disorders could be a risk factor for obesity. We investigated the association between the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene and obesity. Fifty obese subjects and their parents were included in the study. Two polymorphisms designated EcoRV and upstream variable number tandem repeats of the MAO-A gene were analysed using polymerase chain reaction...
2004: Neuropsychobiology
Brigitta Bondy, Peter Zill
Genetic factors play a major role in the differential responses to treatment or the incidence of adverse drug effects in psychopharmacotherapy. The aim of pharmacogenetics is to elucidate this variability caused by hereditary differences. From hypotheses on the mechanisms of drug action, several mutations in genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors, neurotransmitter-degrading enzymes, transport proteins or enzymes of the drug metabolizing system have been identified and investigated. Although there exists some controversy among the results, many studies are supportive of the hypothesis that psychopharmacogenetics will be helpful in predicting an individual's drug response while minimizing the rate of side effects...
February 2004: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Philip Gorwood
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are eating disorders with common clinical and psychological features, potentially shared mechanisms, significant morbidity and, at least for anorexia nervosa, a high mortality rate. Among the numerous risk factors involved, the importance of a genetic vulnerability has been demonstrated, and the heritability, in the broad sense, has being estimated to be between 50 and 70%. Studies have thus focused on different candidate genes. Serotonin transmission and regulation has been extensively studied with regard to its role in core mechanisms such as feeding and fasting, but also in different clinical characteristics of eating disorders...
2004: American Journal of Pharmacogenomics: Genomics-related Research in Drug Development and Clinical Practice
G Brousse, A Schmitt, I Chereau, A Eschalier, C Dubray, P-M Llorca
The principal stakes of depression treatment are to accelerate and enhance the clinical effects of antidepressant drug. The onset of antidepressant action of Serotonin (5HT) selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was attributed in part to the decrease in firing activity of serotonin neurons produced by the activation of raphe 5HT1A autoreceptors at the time of treatment initiation. Pindolol, an antagonist at somatodendritic pre-synaptic 5HT1A receptors has been investigated as a potential accelerator or potentialisator of antidepressant response...
July 2003: L'Encéphale
B Bondy, P Zill
Differences in response to treatment or the incidence of adverse drug effects are quite common in clinical psychopharmacotherapy. Although several factors may account for these discrepancies, there is increasing knowledge that genetic factors play a major role. The aim of pharmacogenetics, a new and rapidly growing field in research, is to elucidate the variability in drug response and metabolism due to hereditary differences. According to the hypotheses on the mechanisms of drug action, several mutations in genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors, degrading enzymes, transport proteins or enzymes of the drug metabolizing system (P-450 isoenzymes) have been identified and investigated in psychiatric disorders over the last years...
October 2001: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
K P Lesch
Individual differences in drug effects and treatment response are relatively enduring, continuously distributed, as well as substantially heritable, and are therefore likely to result from an interplay of multiple genomic variations with environmental influences. As the etiology and pathogenesis of behavioral and psychiatric disorders is genetically complex, so is the response to drug treatment. Psychopharmacologic drug response depends on the structure and functional expression of gene products, which may be direct drug targets or may indirectly modify the development and synaptic plasticity of neural networks critically involved in drug response...
December 2001: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M J Arranz, D Mancama, R W Kerwin
Psychiatric treatment requires the use of drugs which are in many cases associated with severe side effects and inadequate response. In the past decade extensive research has investigated the link between gene alterations and treatment response and several strong associations have been reported. The identification of genes influencing treatment outcome will facilitate the pre-treatment selection of the most beneficial drug according to an individual's pharmacogenetic profile. Recent advances indicate that this goal is achievable in the near future...
January 2001: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
S F Stoltenberg, M Burmeister
The reputation of the field of psychiatric genetics has recently become tarnished in the view of many human geneticists. Too many linked loci were claimed and withdrawn, too many association studies published and not confirmed and, more recently, too many new and different chromosomal regions have been implicated for the same disorder. Here, we summarize recent trends, focusing on research that moves away from traditional linkage studies. Some promising strategies include psychopharmacogenetics, and consideration of endophenotypes such as neurophysiological and behavioral markers in addition to the clinical diagnosis...
April 12, 2000: Human Molecular Genetics
E H Cook
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1999: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
M Catalano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1999: American Journal of Human Genetics
M Maziade, M A Roy, C Mérette, L Bissonnette, R Quirion, R Palmour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1999: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
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