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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323082/pyogenic-liver-abscess-associated-with-oral-flora-bacterium-streptococcus-anginosus-in-a-patient-with-underlying-tuberculosis
#1
Sunite A Ganju, Neha Gautam, Garima Sharma
Streptococcus anginosus forms a part of the commensal flora of the oral cavity. However, it can be aggressive and may lead to gastrointestinal and urogenital infections. We present an interesting case and course in a 38-year-old immunocompetent female patient with pyogenic liver abscess due to S. anginosus infection who had multiple carious teeth and underlying pulmonary tuberculosis.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302502/helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-risk-factors-in-relation-to-allergy-in-children
#2
Ilva Daugule, Daiga Karklina, Silvija Remberga, Ingrida Rumba-Rozenfelde
Purpose: To analyze presence of Helicobacter pylori infection and environmental risk factors among children with and without allergy. Methods: Parents of children at primary health care centres/kindergartens and allergologist consultation were asked to answer a questionnaire and to bring a faecal sample. H. pylori infection was detected by monoclonal stool antigen test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors were compared between individuals with and without allergy using χ2 test, ANOVA test and parameters and logistic regression...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277334/neurological-disease-may-precede-lymphadenopathies-in-actinomyces-europaeus-infection
#3
Silvia Corcione, Antonio Curtoni, Ivana A Paolucci, Giovanni Di Perri, Francesco G De Rosa, Rossana Cavallo
Actinomyces species are part of the commensal flora of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. Actinomyces europaeus is a short, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic rod first described in 1997, susceptible in vitro to a wide range of b-lactam antibiotics which are regarded as first choice. In this report we described the case of A. europaeus infection in a young female patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit and the possible damage of vascular endothelium due to a chronic progressive actinomycosis that at first involved neck soft tissue, then cervical lymphnodes, and finally extended to the vascular structure...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204452/recurrent-lactobacillus-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-leukemia
#4
Paurush Ambesh, Sarah Stroud, Eva Franzova, Joseph Gotesman, Kavita Sharma, Lawrence Wolf, Stephan Kamholz
Lactobacillus species are a commensal flora of the human gastrointestinal and the female genitourinary tract. Lactobacilli especially the rhamnosus species, are common components of commercial probiotics. They are rarely associated with pathology in immunocompetent people, but they have been known to cause dental caries, bacteremia, and endocarditis in patients with suppressed immune function. Cases of Lactobacillus bacteremia have been reported in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, large granular lymphocytic leukemia, and in transplant recipients...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202875/postoperative-changes-of-the-microbiome-are-surgical-complications-related-to-the-gut-flora-a-systematic-review
#5
Ann-Kathrin Lederer, Przemyslaw Pisarski, Lampros Kousoulas, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Carolin Hess, Roman Huber
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to identify the relationship between the gut microbiome and the development of postoperative complications like anastomotic leakage or a wound infection. Recent reviews focusing on underlying molecular biology suggested that postoperative complications might be influenced by the patients' gut flora. Therefore, a review focusing on the available clinical data is needed. METHODS: In January 2017 a systematic search was carried out in Medline and WebOfScience to identify all clinical studies, which investigated postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery in relation to the microbiome of the gut...
December 4, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166928/effects-of-long-term-weekly-iron-and-folic-acid-supplementation-on-lower-genital-tract-infection-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial-in-burkina-faso
#6
Loretta Brabin, Stephen A Roberts, Sabine Gies, Andrew Nelson, Salou Diallo, Christopher J Stewart, Adama Kazienga, Julia Birtles, Sayouba Ouedraogo, Yves Claeys, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d'Alessandro, E Brian Faragher, Bernard Brabin
BACKGROUND: Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. METHODS: Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months...
November 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151426/-effects-of-antibiotics-on-intestinal-microflora-and-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-and-its-mechanisms
#7
Yue Han, Yuxin Leng, Gaiqi Yao
Antibiotics are the cornerstone to cure infectious diseases, however, it also destroys the intestinal inherent microflora, and may cause serious gastrointestinal dysfunction, such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, mucosal barrier damage etc. In severe conditions, it may induce intestinal sepsis. With the development of the human microbiology group program and the popularity of microbial sequencing technology, people can comprehend the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora deeply, meanwhile the traditional biomedical model (the basis of bacterial disease) is questioned...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143232/assessment-of-gastrointestinal-nematode-infection-anthelmintic-usage-and-husbandry-practices-on-two-small-scale-goat-farms-in-malaysia
#8
Flora Wong, Neil Sargison
Haemonchosis is a common problem on goat farms in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Prevention of production losses generally depends on the use of anthelmintic drugs, but is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. This study investigates anthelmintic efficacy on small-scale Malaysian goat farms and describes putative risk factors. Adult goats had moderate to high pre-treatment faecal trichostrongyle egg counts, despite being housed on slatted floors and fed on cut-and-carry forage, raising questions about the source of nematode infection...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141929/septic-arthritis-of-knee-joint-due-to-parvimonas-micra
#9
Moni Roy, Ashish Kumar Roy, Sharjeel Ahmad
Parvimonas species are anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci that are a constituent of normal oral and gastrointestinal flora. We present a case of right knee joint septic arthritis due to Parvimonas micra in an immunocompromised patient. A 61-year-old male renal and pancreatic transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy was admitted to our hospital due to intense pain, joint swelling and inability to move his right knee over the past 9 months. After synovial fluid was drawn, cultures were positive for P. micra, an anaerobic pathogen that is part of the flora of the oral cavity...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138620/cutaneous-microflora-from-geographically-isolated-groups-of-bradysia-agrestis-an-insect-vector-of-diverse-plant-pathogens
#10
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Jong-Han Park, Hyeong-Hwan Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim, Chang-Gi Back
Larvae of Bradysia agrestis, an insect vector that transports plant pathogens, were sampled from geographically isolated regions in Korea to identify their cutaneous fungal and bacterial flora. Sampled areas were chosen within the distribution range of B. agrestis; each site was more than 91 km apart to ensure geographical segregation. We isolated 76 microbial (fungi and bacteria) strains (site 1, 29; site 2, 29; site 3, 18 strains) that were identified on the basis of morphological differences. Species identification was molecularly confirmed by determination of universal fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in comparison to sequences in the EzTaxon database and the NCBI GenBank database, and their phylogenetic relationships were determined...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127020/does-the-use-of-antifungal-agents-in-agriculture-and-in-food-foster-polyene-resistance-development-a-reason-for-concern
#13
REVIEW
Axel Dalhoff
Environmental fungicides are used in agriculture to reduce fungal spoilage of crop to a minimum and the polyene macrolide natamycin is used as a food preservative. The use of natamycin in yoghurt has recently been authorized in the USA and some other countries. However, resistance development is a serious risk associated with the use of antimicrobials as food additives and environmental fungicides. Cross-resistance between agricultural and medical azoles and amphothericin B, respectively, not being used in agriculture has been demonstrated in clinical and environmental isolates...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094223/can-probiotic-supplements-improve-outcomes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Annemarie Schorpion, Sharon L Kolasinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to frame the discussion of the potential use of probiotics for the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the historical and scientific context linking the human microbiota to the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of RA. Given this context, the review then details the clinical trials that have been carried out so far that have tried to address the question. RECENT FINDINGS: A variety of laboratory and clinical observations link the flora of the oral cavity and lower gastrointestinal tract with citrullination, as well as immunological alterations that may contribute to the risk of developing RA...
November 2, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061584/low-cerebral-exposure-cannot-hinder-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-panax-notoginsenosides
#15
Haofeng Li, Jingcheng Xiao, Xinuo Li, Huimin Chen, Dian Kang, Yuhao Shao, Boyu Shen, Zhangpei Zhu, Xiaoxi Yin, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
A bidirectional route of communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, termed the "gut-brain axis", is becoming increasingly relevant to treatment of cerebral damage. Panax Notoginsenoside extract (PNE) is extremely popular for prevention and treatment of cardio-cerebrovascular ischemic diseases although their plasma and cerebral exposure levels were extremely low. To date, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of PNE remain largely unknown. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of PNE are systematically studied via investigating the regulation of PNE on gastrointestinal microbial community and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors...
October 23, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026638/effect-of-antimicrobials-administered-via-liquid-feed-on-the-occurrence-of-sulphonamide-and-trimethoprim-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-case-control-study
#16
Oliver Heller, Roger Stephan, Sophie Thanner, Michael Hässig, Giuseppe Bee, Andreas Gutzwiller, Xaver Sidler
BACKGROUND: Drugs for the treatment of groups of pigs receiving liquid feed are frequently mixed into the feed and administered via the pipelines of the feeding installations. In-feed antimicrobials may select antimicrobial resistant strains among the bacteria which form the biofilm of these pipelines and are shed into the liquid feed. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In order to evaluate the risk of selecting antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the biofilm of liquid feeding installations, the effect of the administration of antimicrobials via the pipelines on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in the feed was examined in a case-control study...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023420/probiotics-for-the-prevention-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-outpatients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Sara Blaabjerg, Daniel Maribo Artzi, Rune Aabenhus
A common adverse effect of antibiotic use is diarrhea. Probiotics are living microorganisms, which, upon oral ingestion, may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) by the normalization of an unbalanced gastrointestinal flora. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the benefits and harms of probiotics used for the prevention of AAD in an outpatient setting. A search of the PubMed database was conducted and yielded a total of 17 RCTs with 3631 participants to be included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted for the primary outcome: the incidence of AAD...
October 12, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019472/microbiological-monitoring-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-and-resuscitation-equipment-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#18
Torben Christian Winking, Jörg Wüllenweber, Frank Kipp, Esther Rieger-Fackeldey
BackgroundTo investigate the colonization of respiratory equipment and the rate of respiratory infections of very-low birth weight (VLBW) infants.MethodsThe prospective study includes 26 VLBW infants on continuous airway pressure (CPAP) from September until December 2012. Swabs from respiratory equipment and colonization/infections were evaluated.ResultsA total of 603 swabs was cultured with 298 isolates; 59% of cultures from CPAP equipment (n=337; 95% confidence interval (CI; 54;64)) and 19% from ambu bags (n=51; 95% CI (14;24)) were positive...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016338/a-high-burden-of-asymptomatic-gastrointestinal-infections-in-traditional-communities-in-papua-new-guinea
#19
Paul F Horwood, Kevin W Soli, Tobias Maure, Yuichi I Naito, Ayako Morita, Kazumi Natsuhara, Kiyoshi Tadokoro, Jun Baba, Shingo Odani, Eriko Tomitsuka, Katsura Igai, Jo-Ann Larkins, Peter M Siba, William Pomat, Emma McBryde, Masahiro Umezaki, Andrew R Greenhill
Stool samples were collected from 148 healthy adults living a traditional subsistence lifestyle in Papua New Guinea and screened for enteric pathogens using real-time RT-PCR/PCR assays. Enteric pathogens were detected in a high proportion (41%) of individuals. Clear differences were observed in the detection of pathogens between highland and lowland communities. In particular, there was a marked difference in detection rates of norovirus GII (20% and 0%, respectively) and Shigella sp. (15% and 0%, respectively)...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993363/rare-postoperative-complication-clostridium-perfringens-septic-shock-following-elective-abdominal-surgery
#20
Michael Bath, Mark McKelvie, Khalid Canna
Postoperative infections are one of the most common complications in general surgery, and while rates have reduced with the routine administration of perioperative antibiotics, around 5% of patients undergoing a surgical procedure will develop an infective complication.(1) The Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium perfringens, is a well-known pathogen that forms part of both the environmental and gastrointestinal flora.(2) While more commonly associated with food poisoning, anaerobic cellulitis and traumatic gas gangrene, rare cases of spontaneous non-traumatic gas gangrene of abdominal viscera have also been recorded...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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