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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765579/antagonistic-effect-of-isolated-probiotic-bacteria-from-natural-sources-against-intestinal-escherichia-coli-pathotypes
#1
Sahar Karimi, Ehsan Rashidian, Mehdi Birjandi, Leila Mahmoodnia
Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which are beneficial bacteria that are normal flora of the digestive system which, in determined amounts, show beneficial effects on host health, and can balance gastrointestinal microflora. Digestive tract diseases such as diarrhea are one of the major causes of child mortality in developing countries. Different pathotypes of Escherichia coli cause diarrhea that affects children, therefore reduction of these colonization strains in humans or animals can decline gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748124/contribution-of-the-filmarray-%C3%A2-gastrointestinal-panel-in-the-laboratory-diagnosis-of-gastroenteritis-in-a-cohort-of-children-a-two-year-prospective-study
#2
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744928/parasutterella-in-associated-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-intestinal-chronic-inflammation
#3
Yan-Jie Chen, Hao Wu, Sheng-Di Wu, Nan Lu, Yi-Ting Wang, Hai-Ning Liu, Ling Dong, Tao-Tao Liu, Xi-Zhong Shen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder. Recent studies have showed increasing important role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiological changes of IBS. Our study aims to elaborate the association between intestinal flora with the genesis and the development of IBS. METHODS: Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate microbial communities of IBS patients and healthy donors...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741145/tandem-mass-spectrometric-cell-wall-proteome-profiling-of-a-candida-albicans-hwp2-mutant-strain
#4
Andy Awad, Pamela El Khoury, Brigitte Wex, Roy A Khalaf
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is present as part of the normal gut flora and detected in the oral cavities and GI tracts of around fifty percent of adults. Benign colonization can turn pathogenic causing a variety of mild to severe infections. In a pathogen, the cell wall and cell surface proteins are major antigenic determinants and drug targets as they are the primary structures that contact the host. Cell surface proteins perform a variety of functions necessary for virulence such as adhesion, host degradation, resistance to oxidative stress, and drug resistance...
May 9, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734661/nad-p-h-oxidase-activity-in-the-small-intestine-is-predominantly-found-in-enterocytes-not-professional-phagocytes
#5
Randall L Lindquist, Jannike Bayat-Sarmadi, Ruth Leben, Raluca Niesner, Anja E Hauser
The balance between various cellular subsets of the innate and adaptive immune system and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract is carefully regulated to maintain tolerance to the normal flora and dietary antigens, while protecting against pathogens. The intestinal epithelial cells and the network of dendritic cells and macrophages in the lamina propria are crucial lines of defense that regulate this balance. The complex relationship between the myeloid compartment (dendritic cells and macrophages) and lymphocyte compartment (T cells and innate lymphoid cells), as well as the impact of the epithelial cell layer have been studied in depth in recent years, revealing that the regulatory and effector functions of both innate and adaptive immune compartments exhibit more plasticity than had been previously appreciated...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730269/atrioesophageal-fistula-considerations-for-the-neurological-clinician
#6
Laura A Zima, Linden E Fornoff, Daniel L Surdell
Atrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is a rare complication of cardiac ablation for atrial fibrillation. It can present in many ways, but neurological signs and symptoms are common initial signs sometimes resulting in neurosurgeons and neurologists first evaluating patients with the condition. We present a case report of at 68-year-old female who presented with acute stroke symptoms and multifocal hemorrhages on MRI who was worked up through our neurosurgery department and diagnosed with AEF. This case highlights three clues to alert neurological clinicians to AEF as a possible diagnosis; clinical worsening of neurological symptoms in correlation to episodes of emesis, septic emboli on CT/MRI, and bacteremia caused by a gram positive oral or GI flora...
April 27, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705426/potential-probiotic-characterization-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-from-traditional-chinese-highland-barley-wine-and-application-for-room-temperature-storage-drinkable-yogurt
#7
Su Chen, Lin Chen, Lie Chen, Xueliang Ren, Hongjuan Ge, Baolei Li, Guanghui Ma, Xueqin Ke, Jun Zhu, Li Li, Yuhong Feng, Yanjun Li
The aim of this study was to select probiotic strains that could be used in drinkable yogurt to yield viable cells following storage at room temperature (RT). The uniquely high altitude conditions in Tibet and the alcoholic environment of certain products, such as the highland barley wine homemade in Tibet, may induce unusual characteristics of microbial strains. A total of 27 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from homemade highland barley wines. One strain, Lactobacillus reuteri WHH1689, demonstrated no ability for lactose utilization, exhibited a high survival rate during storage at RT in drinkable yogurts, and produced very weak post-acidification...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705422/influence-of-bactrian-camel-milk-on-the-gut-microbiota
#8
Zhaoxia Wang, Wenyi Zhang, Bini Wang, Fuxin Zhang, Yuyu Shao
Bactrian camel milk has become popular in the market as an important source of nutrients with diverse functional effects. In this study, the influence of Bactrian camel milk on the gut microbiota of mice was studied using metagenomic-based sequencing of the V3 and V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla, accounting for more than 80% of the bacteria present. At the genus level, Allobaculum, Akkermansia, Romboutsia, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus were most abundant in the gut microbiota; of these, Allobaculum and Akkermansia were the predominant genera, representing 40...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698134/dental-diseases-and-intestinal-dysbiosis-among-children
#9
T Shishniashvili, T Suladze, M Makhviladze, M Kalandaze, V Margvelashvili
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study correlates dental hard tissue mineralization, mucosal pathologies in the oral cavity and different degrees of intestinal dysbiosis. STUDY DESIGN: the study examined two groups: the study group (Group I) included 229 children and adolescents aged 1-17 (mean age 5±1years) with oral pathologies (caries, acute or chronic candidiasis) and confirmed dysbiosis of varying severity and stages as well. Group II (the Control Group) was composed of 50 patients aged 1 - 16 (mean age 5±1years) with oral pathologies but with no detected changes in gastrointestinal (GI) flora...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694952/dysbiosis-in-functional-bowel-disorders
#10
Paul Enck, Nazar Mazurak
Functional bowel disorders (FBD) resemble a group of diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are without a clear pathogenesis; the best known is probably the "irritable bowel syndrome" (IBS). Only recently we have been able to explore the role of the gut microbiota in FBD due to progress in microbiological analytic techniques. There are different ways to explore the role of the gut microbiota and its dysbiosis in FBD. Comparison of the microbial composition in a group of patients with FBD, for example, with IBS to a group of healthy volunteers is one way...
April 25, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682542/gut-microbial-changes-interactions-and-their-implications-on-human-lifecycle-an-ageing-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Ravichandra Vemuri, Rohit Gundamaraju, Madhur D Shastri, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Krishnakumar Kalpurath, Madeleine Ball, Stephen Tristram, Esaki M Shankar, Kiran Ahuja, Rajaraman Eri
Gut microbiota is established during birth and evolves with age, mostly maintaining the commensal relationship with the host. A growing body of clinical evidence suggests an intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and the immune system. With ageing, the gut microbiota develops significant imbalances in the major phyla such as the anaerobic Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as a diverse range of facultative organisms, resulting in impaired immune responses. Antimicrobial therapy is commonly used for the treatment of infections; however, this may also result in the loss of normal gut flora...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679334/metabolic-surgery-and-diabesity-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Lionel El Khoury, Elie Chouillard, Elias Chahine, Elias Saikaly, Tarek Debs, Radwan Kassir
Bariatric surgery is used to induce weight loss (baros = weight). Evidence has shown that bariatric surgery improves the comorbid conditions associated with obesity such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM. Hence, shifting towards using metabolic surgery instead of bariatric surgery is currently more appropriate in certain subset of patients. Endocrine changes resulting from operative manipulation of the gastrointestinal tract after metabolic surgery translate into metabolic benefits with respect to the comorbid conditions...
April 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669961/aciduricity-and-acid-tolerance-mechanisms-of-streptococcus-anginosus
#13
Minoru Sasaki, Yoshitoyo Kodama, Yu Shimoyama, Taichi Ishikawa, Shigenobu Kimura
Although Streptococcus anginosus constitutes a proportion of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts, and the oral cavity, it has been reported that S. anginosus infection could be closely associated with abscesses at various body sites, infective endocarditis, and upper gastrointestinal cancers. The colonization in an acidic environment due to the aciduricity of S. anginosus could be the etiology of the systemic infection of the bacteria. To elucidate the aciduricity and acid tolerance mechanisms of the microbe, we examined the viability and growth of S...
April 17, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629422/can-diet-influence-our-health-by-altering-intestinal-microbiota-derived-fecal-metabolites
#14
Qiang Lyu, Cheng-Chih Hsu
The human gastrointestinal tract harbors a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora which could produce a myriad of specialized metabolites. These specialized metabolites are the chemical cellphones that gut microflora use to communicate with their human host and could potentially be used to cure diseases. Chemical compounds in diet also shape the gut flora. In order to understand which and how the gut microbe-derived specialized metabolites affect human health, the "gut microbiome-metabolomic-human health axis" is thus proposed...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626219/smoking-and-the-intestinal-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Ziv Savin, Shaye Kivity, Hagith Yonath, Shoenfeld Yehuda
Studies are emerging alluding to the role of intestinal microbiome in the pathogenesis of diseases. Intestinal microbiome is susceptible to the influence of environmental factors such as smoking, and recent studies have indicated microbiome alterations in smokers. The aim of the study was to review the literature regarding the impact of smoking on the intestinal microbiome. A literature review of publications in PUBMED was performed using combinations of the terms "Intestinal/Gut/Gastrointestinal/Colonic" with "Microbiome/Microbiota/Microbial/Flora" and "Smoking/Smoker/Tobacco"...
April 6, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624003/investigation-of-the-correlation-between-virulence-factors-and-genotypic-profiles-of-candida-albicans-isolated-from-turkeys
#16
I Sokół, A Gaweł, K Bobrek
Candida albicans exists as an element of the normal flora in the skin, mucosa, and gastrointestinal tract, which is the principal reservoir for this organism. When the delicate balance in the host-yeast relationship is tipped in favour of the microorganism by antimicrobial treatment, illness, or other debilities of the host, fungi may overgrow and cause disease, such as candidiasis. The aim of this study was to analyse three virulence factors, haemolysin, proteinase, and phospholipase, with the genotypic profiles of C...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618667/evaluation-of-the-broad-spectrum-lytic-capability-of-bacteriophage-cocktails-against-various-salmonella-serovars-and-their-effects-on-weaned-pigs-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium
#17
Byoung-Joo Seo, Eu-Tteum Song, Kichan Lee, Jong-Won Kim, Chang-Gi Jeong, Sung-Hyun Moon, Jee Soo Son, Sang Hyeon Kang, Ho-Seong Cho, Byeong Yeal Jung, Won-Il Kim
The broad-spectrum lytic capability of Salmonella bacteriophages against various Salmonella species was evaluated to determine their potential as an alternative for antibiotics, and the safety and preventive effects of the bacteriophages were assessed on mice and pigs. Four bacteriophage cocktails were prepared using 13 bacteriophages, and the lytic capability of the four bacteriophage cocktails was tested using Salmonella reference strains and field isolates. Bacteriophage cocktail C (SEP-1, SGP-1, STP-1, SS3eP-1, STP-2, SChP-1, SAP-1, SAP-2; ≥109 pfu/ml) showed the best lytic activity against the Salmonella reference strains (100% of 34) and field isolates (92...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607440/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-its-potential-therapeutic-uses-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Ryan D Heath, Courtney Cockerell, Ravinder Mankoo, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Typical human gut flora has been well characterized in previous studies and has been noted to have significant differences when compared with the typical microbiome of various disease states involving the gastrointestinal tract. Such diseases include Clostridium difficile colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, functional bowel syndromes, and various states of liver disease. A growing number of studies have investigated the use of a fecal microbiota transplant as a potential therapy for these disease states.
2018: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605022/posttransplant-complications-in-adult-recipients-of-intestine-grafts-without-bowel-decontamination
#19
Jared W Clouse, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Jonathan A Fridell, Richard S Mangus
BACKGROUND: Selective digestive decontamination is commonly used to decrease lumenal bacterial flora. Preoperative bowel decontamination may be associated with a lower wound infection rate but has not been shown to decrease risk of intra-abdominal abscess or lower leak rate for enteric anastomoses. Alternatively, the decontamination disrupts the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract and may affect normal physiology, including immunologic function. This study reports complication rates of an intestine transplant program that has never used bowel decontamination...
May 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581919/liver-abscesses-caused-by-streptococcus-intermedius-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#20
Sireesha Reddy, Kalbir Singh, Susan Hughes
Streptococcus intermedius is a Gram-positive bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity, as well as in the upper respiratory, female urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts. It may also be found in human feces and is the dominant species found in subgingival plaque. We present a case of a 50-year-old man who came to the emergency room with abdominal pain for weeks associated with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed numerous cysts throughout the liver...
January 24, 2018: Curēus
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