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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913544/treatment-of-rare-factor-deficiencies-in-2016
#1
Flora Peyvandi, Marzia Menegatti
Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) are a heterogeneous group of coagulation disorders characterized by fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, X, XI, or XIII (FV, FVII, FX, FXI, or FXIII, respectively), and the combined factor V + VIII and vitamin K-dependent proteins deficiencies, representing roughly 5% of all bleeding disorders. They are usually transmitted as autosomal, recessive disorders, and the prevalence of the severe forms could range from 1 case in 500 000 for FVII up to 1 in 2-3 million for FXIII in the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913498/long-term-risk-of-second-malignancy-and-cardiovascular-disease-after-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#2
Flora E van Leeuwen, Andrea K Ng
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience several late adverse effects of treatment, with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) being the leading causes of death in these patients. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies (thyroid dysfunction, infertility), neck muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. HL survivors have two- to fourfold increased risks to develop SMNs and CVD compared with the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912797/helminth-infections-and-gut-microbiota-a-feline-perspective
#3
Ana M Duarte, Timothy P Jenkins, Maria S Latrofa, Alessio Giannelli, Elias Papadopoulos, Luís Madeira de Carvalho, Matthew J Nolan, Domenico Otranto, Cinzia Cantacessi
BACKGROUND: Investigations of the relationships between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes are attracting growing interest by the scientific community, driven by the need to better understand the contribution of parasite-associated changes in the composition of the gut flora to both host malnutrition and immune modulation. These studies have however been carried out mainly in humans and experimental animals, while knowledge of the make-up of the gut commensal flora in presence or absence of infection by parasitic nematodes in domestic animals is limited...
December 3, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871723/safety-and-efficacy-of-single-agent-bevacizumab-containing-therapy-in-elderly-patients-with-platinum-resistant-recurrent-ovarian-cancer-subgroup-analysis-of-the-randomised-phase-iii-aurelia-trial
#4
Roberto Sorio, Célia Roemer-Becuwe, Felix Hilpert, Emma Gibbs, Yolanda García, Janne Kaern, Manon Huizing, Petronella Witteveen, Flora Zagouri, David Coeffic, Hans-Joachim Lück, Antonio González-Martín, Gunnar Kristensen, Charles-Briac Levaché, Chee Khoon Lee, Val Gebski, Eric Pujade-Lauraine
BACKGROUND: The AURELIA trial demonstrated significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) with bevacizumab added to chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC). METHODS: Patients with PROC were randomised to receive investigator-selected single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab. Post-hoc exploratory analyses assessed efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes according to age <65 versus ≥65years. RESULTS: In the 133 patients (37%) aged ≥65years, baseline hypertension was more frequent and ascites was less common than in patients <65years...
November 18, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859774/a-metabolic-way-to-investigate-related-hurdles-caused-poor-bioavailability-in-oral-delivery-of-isoacteoside-in-rats-employing-uplc-q-tof-ms
#5
Qingling Cui, Yingni Pan, Xiaowei Yan, Bao Qu, Xiaoqiu Liu, Wei Xiao
RATIONALE: Isoacteoside (ISAT), a phenylethanoid glycoside, acting as the principal bioactive component in traditional Chinese medicines, possesses broad pharmacological effects such as neuroprotective, antihypertensive and hepatoprotective activities. However, its pharmaceutical development has been severely limited due to the poor oral bioavailability. It is essential and significant to investigate related hurdles leading to the poor bioavailability of isoacteoside. METHODS: Whole animal metabolism studies were conducted in rats, followed by metabolic mechanism including gastrointestinal stability, intestinal flora metabolism and intestinal enzyme metabolism employing the powerful ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
November 17, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849120/review-gut-microbiota-and-functional-diseases-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#6
Nicola Imperatore, Raffaella Tortora, Filomena Morisco, Nicola Caporaso
INTRODUCTION: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a common group of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases defined by symptom-based diagnostic criteria, which consider chronic or recurrent symptoms of the GI tract in the absence of other organic or biochemical reasons. Recent evidences have been highlighted the role of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of the FGIDs. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We focused our attention on critically analysis of the existing literature on the role of gut microbiota in FGIDs, by evaluating the differences of composition, functions and role of intestinal flora in FGIDs of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract...
November 16, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836421/human-milk-is-the-feeding-strategy-to-prevent-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
REVIEW
Diana Maffei, Richard J Schanler
Human milk is the preferred diet for preterm infants as it protects against a multitude of NICU challenges, specifically necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants who receive greater than 50% of mother's own milk (MOM) in the 2 weeks after birth have a significantly decreased risk of NEC. An additional factor in the recent declining rates of NEC is the increased utilization of donor human milk (DHM). This creates a bridge until MOM is readily available, thus decreasing the exposure to cow milk protein. Preterm infants are susceptible to NEC due to the immaturity of their gastrointestinal and immune systems...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829829/the-pretransplant-systemic-metabolic-profile-reflects-a-risk-of-acute-graft-versus-host-disease-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#8
Håkon Reikvam, Kimberley Hatfield, Øystein Bruserud
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is used in the treatment of younger patients with severe hematological diseases, especially hematological malignancies, and acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) is then an important immune-mediated posttransplant complication. Several risk factors for acute GVHD have been identified, including pretransplant factors that possibly influence the posttranspant course through their effects on host immunocompetent cells. Metabolic regulation is important for immunoregulation, and we therefore investigated whether the pretransplant metabolic status of allotransplant recipients was associated with later acute GVHD...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821716/postnatal-regulation-of-mamdc4-in-the-porcine-intestinal-epithelium-is-influenced-by-bacterial-colonization
#9
Alex J Pasternak, Glenn M Hamonic, Andrew Van Kessel, Heather L Wilson
The MAM domain-containing 4 (MAMDC4) protein is associated with the unique endocytotic mechanism observed in the intestine of mammals during the immediate postnatal period. Transcriptional expression of MAMDC4 was substantially upregulated at birth in both the piglet jejunum and ileum and its expression decreases after birth. The protein was found localized specifically to the apical region of the luminal epithelium, however, MAMDC4 protein expression was lost at day 10 and 15 in the jejunum and ileum, respectively, and was not associated with "fetal" enterocyte replacement...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817757/association-between-storage-interval-and-contamination-of-reprocessed-flexible-endoscopes-in-a-pediatric-gastrointestinal-procedural-unit
#10
Patricia Scanlon, Kathleen Flaherty, Erik A Reilly, Ellen G Barth, Gail Potter-Bynoe, Jeff Cardini, Ann Marie Riley, Alexander J McAdam, Thomas J Sandora
OBJECTIVE The maximum safe storage interval after endoscope reprocessing remains unknown. We assessed the association between storage interval and endoscope contamination to evaluate the need for scope reprocessing prior to use. METHODS We conducted a study in 2 phases. In phase 1, we cultured 9 gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes that had been stored for at least 7 days since reprocessing. Each scope was cultured in 3 places: external surfaces of hand piece, insertion tube, and internal channels. In phase 2, after reprocessing these scopes, we hung and cultured them prospectively in a similar fashion at 1-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-week intervals without patient use...
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807544/qualitative-parameters-of-the-colonic-flora-in-patients-with-hnf1a-mody-are-different-from-those-observed-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Sandra Mrozinska, Piotr Radkowski, Tomasz Gosiewski, Magdalena Szopa, Malgorzata Bulanda, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Galezowska, Iwona Morawska, Agnieszka Sroka-Oleksiak, Bartlomiej Matejko, Przemyslaw Kapusta, Dominika Salamon, Maciej T Malecki, Pawel Wolkow, Tomasz Klupa
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is determined by genetic and environmental factors. There have been many studies on the relationship between the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora, T2DM, and obesity. There are no data, however, on the gut microbiome structure in monogenic forms of the disease including Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Methods. The aim of the investigation was to compare the qualitative parameters of the colonic flora in patients with HNF1A-MODY and T2DM and healthy individuals...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777602/dietary-green-plant-thylakoids-decrease-gastric-emptying-and-gut-transit-promote-changes-in-the-gut-microbial-flora-but-does-not-cause-steatorrhea
#12
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769943/mucoadhesive-chitosan-hydrogels-as-rectal-drug-delivery-vessels-to-treat-ulcerative-colitis
#13
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samaei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
: Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721824/selective-induced-altered-coccidians-to-immunize-and-prevent-enteritis
#14
Helieh S Oz
Microbiomic flora in digestive tract is pivotal to the state of our health and disease. Antibiotics affect GI, control composition of microbiome, and shift equilibrium from health into disease status. Coccidiosis causes gastrointestinal inflammation. Antibiotic additives contaminate animal products and enter food chain, consumed by humans with possible allergic, antibiotic resistance and enigmatic side effects. Purposed study induced nonpathogenic, immunogenic organisms to protect against disease and abolish antibiotics' use in food animals and side effects in man...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696372/antibiotic-treatment-for-the-sexual-partners-of-women-with-bacterial-vaginosis
#15
REVIEW
Jairo Amaya-Guio, David Andres Viveros-Carreño, Eloisa Mercedes Sierra-Barrios, Mercy Yolima Martinez-Velasquez, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an infection that has a prevalence between 10% to 50% worlwide. BV results in an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora. Microorganisms associated with BV have been isolated from the normal flora of the male genital tract, and their presence could be related to the recurrence of BV after antibiotic treatment. Therefore, the treatment of sexual partners could decrease the recurrence of infection and possibly the burden of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness in women and the safety in men of concurrent antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of women treated for BV...
October 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667310/the-role-of-skin-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-development-of-atopic-eczema
#16
T Marrs, C Flohr
Conventional culture-based studies have suggested that a reduction in microbial exposure in early life predisposes to atopic eczema and allergies. However, molecular microbiological methods have shown that conventional culture fails to grow around 80% of the bacterial flora. More recent work reviewed in this paper has employed next generation sequencing to study the influence of the gut and skin microbiota, both with regard to the risk of developing atopic eczema but also the role of pathogenic and commensal bacteria in established disease...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652124/is-it-bowel-associated-dermatosis-arthritis-syndrome-induced-by-small-intestinal-bacteria-overgrowth
#17
Hongjun Zhao, Lijuan Zhao, Wei Shi, Hui Luo, Liping Duan, Yunhui You, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
INTRODUCTION: Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome is rare systemic diseases characterized by a prodrome of fever, chills, and influenza-like symptoms with subsequent skin eruptions, myalgias, and polyarthralgias. It is reported to be occurred in Intestinal bypass surgery and inflammatory bowel disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein, we described a 29-years-old man with Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. He had no history of gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory bowel disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646582/-current-status-of-translational-research-on-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Yong Hwan Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood. Genetic, immune, environmental, inflammatory, neurological and psychological factors contribute to the risk of this condition. Traditional research explored gastrointestinal motor abnormalities, central neural dysregulation, abnormal psychological features, and visceral hypersensitivity. More recent investigations consider bacterial overgrowth, abnormal serotonin pathways, altered gut flora, immune activation and mucosal inflammation...
September 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630763/intra-abdominal-abscess-and-primary-peritonitis-caused-by-streptococcus-anginosus
#19
Huseyin Agah Terzi, Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu, Guner Cakmak, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci, Ahmet Ozbek, Mustafa Altindis
INTRODUCTION: The Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria are low-virulence bacteria existing as commensals in the oral flora and gastrointestinal tracts of humans. S. anginosus may spread to the blood in individuals with poor oral hygiene in cases of oral infections, such as gingivitis and tooth abscesses, that develop following the loss of mucosal unity. This may lead to infections in the whole body, primarily as brain and liver abscesses. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old male patient presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615546/burn-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-pediatric-burn-patients-time-distribution-of-etiologic-agents
#20
İlker Devrim, Ahu Kara, Mine Düzgöl, Aytaç Karkıner, Nuri Bayram, Günyüz Temir, Arzu Şencan, Yelda Sorguç, Gamze Gülfidan, Münevver Hoşgör
BACKGROUND: Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burns in burn units. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with burns may result from burn wound infection, use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters, and translocation of the gastrointestinal flora. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance of causative pathogens in children with burns and the durational changes of microorganisms in the distribution of BSIs in children...
September 8, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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