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gi flora

Helieh S Oz
Microbiomic flora in digestive tract is pivotal to the state of our health and disease. Antibiotics affect GI, control composition of microbiome, and shift equilibrium from health into disease status. Coccidiosis causes gastrointestinal inflammation. Antibiotic additives contaminate animal products and enter food chain, consumed by humans with possible allergic, antibiotic resistance and enigmatic side effects. Purposed study induced nonpathogenic, immunogenic organisms to protect against disease and abolish antibiotics' use in food animals and side effects in man...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Jairo Amaya-Guio, David Andres Viveros-Carreño, Eloisa Mercedes Sierra-Barrios, Mercy Yolima Martinez-Velasquez, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an infection that has a prevalence between 10% to 50% worlwide. BV results in an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora. Microorganisms associated with BV have been isolated from the normal flora of the male genital tract, and their presence could be related to the recurrence of BV after antibiotic treatment. Therefore, the treatment of sexual partners could decrease the recurrence of infection and possibly the burden of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness in women and the safety in men of concurrent antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of women treated for BV...
October 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
T Marrs, C Flohr
Conventional culture-based studies have suggested that a reduction in microbial exposure in early life predisposes to atopic eczema and allergies. However, molecular microbiological methods have shown that conventional culture fails to grow around 80% of the bacterial flora. More recent work reviewed in this paper has employed next generation sequencing to study the influence of the gut and skin microbiota, both with regard to the risk of developing atopic eczema but also the role of pathogenic and commensal bacteria in established disease...
October 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Hongjun Zhao, Lijuan Zhao, Wei Shi, Hui Luo, Liping Duan, Yunhui You, Yisha Li, Xiaoxia Zuo
INTRODUCTION: Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome is rare systemic diseases characterized by a prodrome of fever, chills, and influenza-like symptoms with subsequent skin eruptions, myalgias, and polyarthralgias. It is reported to be occurred in Intestinal bypass surgery and inflammatory bowel disease. CASE DESCRIPTION: Herein, we described a 29-years-old man with Bowel-associated dermatosis-arthritis syndrome. He had no history of gastrointestinal surgery and inflammatory bowel disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yong Hwan Kwon, Hyun Jin Kim
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS is not completely understood. Genetic, immune, environmental, inflammatory, neurological and psychological factors contribute to the risk of this condition. Traditional research explored gastrointestinal motor abnormalities, central neural dysregulation, abnormal psychological features, and visceral hypersensitivity. More recent investigations consider bacterial overgrowth, abnormal serotonin pathways, altered gut flora, immune activation and mucosal inflammation...
September 25, 2016: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
Huseyin Agah Terzi, Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu, Guner Cakmak, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci, Ahmet Ozbek, Mustafa Altindis
INTRODUCTION: The Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria are low-virulence bacteria existing as commensals in the oral flora and gastrointestinal tracts of humans. S. anginosus may spread to the blood in individuals with poor oral hygiene in cases of oral infections, such as gingivitis and tooth abscesses, that develop following the loss of mucosal unity. This may lead to infections in the whole body, primarily as brain and liver abscesses. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old male patient presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
İlker Devrim, Ahu Kara, Mine Düzgöl, Aytaç Karkıner, Nuri Bayram, Günyüz Temir, Arzu Şencan, Yelda Sorguç, Gamze Gülfidan, Münevver Hoşgör
BACKGROUND: Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with burns in burn units. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients with burns may result from burn wound infection, use of invasive devices such as central venous catheters, and translocation of the gastrointestinal flora. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the distribution and antimicrobial drug resistance of causative pathogens in children with burns and the durational changes of microorganisms in the distribution of BSIs in children...
September 8, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Carmen Martos Plasencia, Pilar Olivencia Palomar, Roberto Patón Arenas, Cristina Verdejo Gil, Rosario Salmoral Luque, Melvyn Peña Gómez, Eva De la Santa Belda, Bartolomé López Viedma, José Olmedo Camacho
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic radiotherapy is associated with early and late local complication. Actinomyces bacterium is part of the saprophyte flora, although some infection underlying factors are known , the pathophysiology of the disease is still unexplained. Frequently it is involved in oral, gastrointestinal and respiratory infections. CASE REPORT: We present the description of a clinical case supported with images. So that we have developed a bibliographical research in Pubmed data base including the following key words: Ulcer, rectum, brachitherapy and Actinomyces...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Dietmar Enko, Gernot Kriegshäuser
OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori infection is considered to alter the bacterial flora in the upper gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at investigating the presence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in patients with active H. pylori infection assessed by functional breath testing. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 109 outpatients, who were referred for the H. pylori(13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) by general practitioners and specialists, were also tested for the presence of SIBO by the glucose hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath test (HMBT)...
August 30, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Belén Herreros Martínez
Growing research on the human microbiome, even beyond the gastrointestinal area, is not surprising mainly due to significant advances in study methods. Current reporting in this area is so intensive that clinicians are changing the unsuitable "bacterial flora" expression for more appropriate terms such as "microbiota" (the entire microbial community colonizing an ecologic niche), "microbiome" (their collective genome), or "dysbiosis" (microbial composition imbalance with respect to the normatively considered pattern)...
September 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Rani H Shayto, Rachel Abou Mrad, Ala I Sharara
Rifaximin is a broad spectrum oral antibiotic with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. It is poorly absorbed and thus has a highly favorable safety profile. Rifaximin has been shown to be effective in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea, functional bloating and irritable bowel syndrome, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and in the prevention of recurrent overt hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, there is emerging evidence for a possible beneficial effect of rifaximin in the treatment of uncomplicated diverticular disease and in the prevention of recurrent diverticulitis...
August 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Lydia E Wroblewski, Richard M Peek, Lori A Coburn
Humans are host to complex microbial communities previously termed normal flora and largely overlooked. However, resident microbes contribute to both health and disease. Investigators are beginning to define microbes that contribute to the development of gastrointestinal malignancies and the mechanisms by which this occurs. Resident microbes can induce inflammation, leading to cell proliferation and altered stem cell dynamics, which can lead to alterations in DNA integrity and immune regulation and promote carcinogenesis...
September 2016: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Sanfang Tu, Danli Zhong, Weixin Xie, Wenfa Huang, Yangyang Jiang, Yuhua Li
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. Recent work has demonstrated that the two complications are interdependent. GVHD occurs when allo-reactive donor T lymphocytes are activated by major histocompatibility antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens on host antigen-presenting cells (APCs), with the eventual attack of recipient tissues or organs...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Shibu Yooseph, Derek M Harkins, Kelvin J Moncera, Keri B Zabokrtsky, Manolito G Torralba, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Sarah K Highlander, Rembert Pieper, Leonard Sender, Karen E Nelson
BACKGROUND: An estimated 15,000 children and adolescents under the age of 19 years are diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma and other tumors in the USA every year. All children and adolescent acute leukemia patients will undergo chemotherapy as part of their treatment regimen. Fortunately, survival rates for most pediatric cancers have improved at a remarkable pace over the past three decades, and the overall survival rate is greater than 90 % today. However, significant differences in survival rate have been found in different age groups (94 % in 1-9...
2016: BMC Genomics
Sevinç Baba, Mustafa Derya Aydın
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS), a member of normal flora of human gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems, is a leading cause of sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia particularly in newborn. GBS can also cause severe infections in pregnant women and adults with underlying disease, as well as mild diseases, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). GBS strains exhibit 10 different serotypes, and the identification of serotype distribution is important epidemiologically. The role of biofilm production is one of the virulence factors that has been discussed in the pathogenesis of GBS infections...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Lýdia Hermanovská, Jan Bardoň, Pavel Čermák
Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora of humans and animals. Under certain circumstances, they are capable of extraintestinal conversion to opportunistic pathogens. They cause endogenous as well as exogenous community and nosocomial infections. The gastrointestinal tract of mammals provides them with favorable conditions for acquisition and spread of resistance genes, for example to vancomycin (van), from other symbiotic bacteria. Thus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) become potential reservoirs and vectors of the van genes...
June 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Dong Yang, Xiaomin Yu, Yaoping Wu, Xingxing Chen, Hua Wei, Nagendra P Shah, Feng Xu
In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Elio Castagnola, Eliana Ruberto, Alfredo Guarino
AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: "gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children", "gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children", "liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children", "liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child", "neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children", "thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children", "infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology", "abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology", "perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology", "colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy", "microflora AND children AND malignancy", "microbiota AND children AND malignancy", "fungal flora AND children AND malignancy"...
July 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Silvio De Flora, Anna Camoirano, Rosanna T Micale, Sebastiano La Maestra, Vincenzo Savarino, Patrizia Zentilin, Elisa Marabotto, Mina Suh, Deborah M Proctor
Evaluation of the reducing capacity of human gastric fluid from healthy individuals, under fasted and fed conditions, is critical for assessing the cancer hazard posed by ingested hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and for developing quantitative physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models used in risk assessment. In the present study, the patterns of Cr(VI) reduction were evaluated in 16 paired pre- and post-meal gastric fluid samples collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Human gastric fluid was effective both in reducing Cr(VI), as measured by using the s-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method, and in attenuating mutagenicity in the Ames test...
September 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Ya-Ling Chen, Fang-Hsuean Liao, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Yi-Wen Chien
We aimed to investigate the effect of enriched 3-prebiotic formula (including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and galactooligosaccharides) on toddler gut health by measuring fecal microbiota. Our results revealed that the consumption of 3-prebiotic formula three times per day giving total intake of 1.8 g prebiotic ingredients significantly showed the increased number of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. colonies and the reduced populations of both C. perfringens and total anaerobic bacteria on the fecal bacterial flora in toddlers at 18~36 months...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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