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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413456/role-of-stem-cell-growth-factor-c-kit-in-the-pathogenesis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#1
Yuna Chai, Yusheng Huang, Hongmei Tang, Xing Tu, Jianbo He, Ting Wang, Qingye Zhang, Fen Xiong, Detang Li, Zhenwen Qiu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with a complicated etiopathogenesis, often characterized by gastrointestinal motility disorder and high visceral sensitivity. IBS is a comprehensive multi-systemic disorder, with the interaction of multiple factors, such as mental stress, intestinal function and flora, heredity, resulting in the disease. The existence of a common mechanism underlying the aforementioned factors is currently unknown. The lack of therapies that comprehensively address the disease symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a limitation of current IBS management...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404159/a-microbiota-centric-view-of-diseases-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
REVIEW
Gerardo Nardone, Debora Compare, Alba Rocco
The distinctive anatomy and physiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the difficulty of obtaining samples led to the theory that it was bacteria free. However, multiomics studies are indicating otherwise. Although influenced by both oral and gastric bacteria, the resident microbial ecosystem in the oesophagus is dominated by Streptococcus. A shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria occurs in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and this shift might be involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401078/probiotics-a-new-era-of-biotherapy
#3
REVIEW
Abhijeet Alok, Indra Deo Singh, Shivani Singh, Mallika Kishore, Prakash Chandra Jha, Md Asad Iqubal
Probiotics or health-beneficial bacteria have only recently been introduced in dentistry after years of successful use in mainly gastrointestinal disorders. The concept of bacteriotherapy was first introduced in the beginning of 20(th) century. They are administered in different quantities that allow for colon colonization. These products help in stimulating health promoting flora and also suppressing the pathologic colonization and disease spread. The use of probiotic plays an important aspect in dentistry too, ever since the oral infections occupied the prime spot among the other infections affecting the humans...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349964/probiotics-may-delay-the-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-restoring-the-gut-microbiota-structure-and-improving-intestinal-endotoxemia
#4
Li Xue, Juntao He, Ning Gao, Xiaolan Lu, Ming Li, Xiaokang Wu, Zeshi Liu, Yaofeng Jin, Jiali Liu, Jiru Xu, Yan Geng
Gut-derived bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation have been recognized to be involved in the onset of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little is known about the variation of LPS and TLR4 during the progression of NAFLD. Probiotics were able to inhibit proliferation of harmful bacteria and improve gastrointestinal barrier function. However, it's unclear whether LPS/TLR4 is involved in the protection effect of probiotics on NAFLD...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339024/effects-of-berberine-on-a-rat-model-of-chronic-stress-and-depression-via-gastrointestinal-tract-pathology-and-gastrointestinal-flora-profile-assays
#5
Xiaohui Zhu, Yangdong Sun, Chenggang Zhang, Haifeng Liu
Chronic stress and depression are challenging conditions to treat, owing to their complexity and lack of clinically available and effective therapeutic agents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which berberine acts, by examining alterations to gastrointestinal tract histopathology and flora profile in a rat model, following the induction of stress. Research associating gastrointestinal flora and depression has increased, thus, the present study hypothesized that stress induces depression and changes in the gastrointestinal system...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337876/the-efficacy-of-proanthocyanidins-and-secnidazole-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-periodontitis-after-scaling-and-root-planing-therapy
#6
M Li, R Li, Q Jin, J Pang, Z Xu
The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effect of the systemic antibiotic therapy of proanthocyanidins and secnidazole on periodontitis. Seventy-five subjects with chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into two treatment groups (secnidazole or proanthocyanidins) and one placebo control group (25 cases each). Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (BI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were carried out at baseline, post-treatment and 3 months after treatment...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293920/the-intriguing-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-disease
#8
Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese, Camilla Mattiuzzi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Human microbiota is a term conventionally used to define the normal flora of microbes living in all of us, most of which are resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite it having been known for some time that the vast majority of intestinal bacteria exert a strong influence on human life, recent technologic breakthroughs have made it possible to more accurately characterize the host microbial communities and explore their relationship with many human diseases. Notably, the evidence accumulated over the past 10 years suggests that a reasonable relationship can now be established between gut microbiota composition and the risk of cardiovascular disease...
March 14, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273703/-the-composition-of-the-gastrointestinal-bacterial-flora-of-mouse-embryos-and-the-placenta-tissue-bacterial-flora
#9
D Lei, Y Lin, X Jiang, L Lan, W Zhang, B X Wang
Objective: To explore the composition of the gastrointestinal bacterial flora of mouse embryos and the placenta tissue bacterial flora. Method: Twenty-four specimens were collected from pregnant Kunming mouse including 8 mice of early embryonic (12-13 days) gastrointestinal tissues, 8 cases of late embryonic (19-20 days)gastrointestinal tissues, 8 of late pregnancy placental tissues.The 24 samples were extracted by DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Result: The level of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actino-bacteria and Firmicutes were predominantin all specimens...
March 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270073/colon-cancer-and-specific-ways-to-deliver-drugs-to-the-large-intestine
#10
Hossein Derakhshankhah, Zhila Izadi, Alireza Lotfabadi, Loghman Alaei, Ali Akbar Saboury, Rassoul Dinarvand, Adeleh Divsalar, Arefeh Seyedarabi, Ebrahim Barzegari, Mina Evini
BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that colon cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Recently, colon-targeted drug delivery systems have been developed for improving systemic drug delivery and treatment of local colon associated diseases. Using such drug delivery systems increases the drug's effectiveness and results in reduced systemic side effects. Drug delivery systems formulated for the colon requires that the triggering of drug release mechanism is designed based on the colon's physiological conditions...
February 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267603/prophylactic-antibiotics-and-postoperative-complications-for-radical-cystectomy-a-population-based-analysis-in-the-united-states
#11
Ross E Krasnow, Matthew Mossanen, Sophia Koo, David W Kubiak, Mark A Preston, Benjamin I Chung, Adam S Kibel, Steven L Chang
PURPOSE: Infectious, wound and soft tissue events contribute to the morbidity of radical cystectomy, but the association between these events and antibiotic prophylaxis is not clear. We sought to describe the contemporary use of antibiotic prophylaxis in radical cystectomy, adherence to published guidelines, and identify regimens with the lowest rates of infectious events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a population-based, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent radical cystectomy across the United States between 2003 and 2013, we identified the intraoperative antibiotic prophylaxis regimen...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257583/the-oral-cavity-microbiota-between-health-oral-disease-and-cancers-of-the-aerodigestive-tract
#12
Pierre Le Bars, Sebastien Metamoros, Emmanuel Montassier, Françoise Le Vacon, Gilles Potel, Assem Soueidan, Fabienne Jordana, Marie-France De La Cochétière
Many studies show that the human microbiome plays a critical role in the chronic pathologies of obesity, inflammatory bowel diseases, and diabetes. More recently, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been highlighted. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota because it represents the most extensive bacterial community, and the body of evidence correlating it with gut syndromes is increasing. However, in the strict sense, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract begins in the oral cavity, and special attention should be paid to the specific flora of this cavity...
March 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#13
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230723/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-exerts-strain-specific-effects-on-constipation-induced-by-loperamide-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Boxing Yin, Dongsheng Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223908/elevated-urinary-glyphosate-and-clostridia-metabolites-with-altered-dopamine-metabolism-in-triplets-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-or-suspected-seizure-disorder-a-case-study
#15
William Shaw
CONTEXT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. OBJECTIVE: The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence...
February 2017: Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188734/mixing-and-pumping-functions-of-the-intestine-of-zebrafish-larvae
#16
Jinyou Yang, Yuji Shimogonya, Takuji Ishikawa
Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167596/epidemiology-and-prevalence-of-blastocystis-spp-in-north-cyprus
#17
Ayse Seyer, Djursun Karasartova, Emrah Ruh, Ayse Semra Güreser, Ebru Turgal, Turgut Imir, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. and its subtypes (STs) in North Cyprus; and to evaluate the presence of this parasite and its STs with respect to demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 230 volunteers. Each participant also filled out a questionnaire. The samples were examined microscopically by native-Lugol and trichrome methods and further tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155242/sensory-neuron-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-bacterial-host-defence
#18
N Y Lai, K Mills, I M Chiu
Sensory neurons in the gastrointestinal tract have multifaceted roles in maintaining homeostasis, detecting danger and initiating protective responses. The gastrointestinal tract is innervated by three types of sensory neurons: dorsal root ganglia, nodose/jugular ganglia and intrinsic primary afferent neurons. Here, we examine how these distinct sensory neurons and their signal transducers participate in regulating gastrointestinal inflammation and host defence. Sensory neurons are equipped with molecular sensors that enable neuronal detection of diverse environmental signals including thermal and mechanical stimuli, inflammatory mediators and tissue damage...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149496/pseudomoniasis-phytotherapy-a-review-on-most-important-iranian-medicinal-plants-effective-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#19
REVIEW
Mahmoud Bahmani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Hassan Hassanzadazar, Morovat Taherikalani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium found in water and soil. It is a normal flora in skin and gastrointestinal tract of human beings. P. aeruginosa as an opportunistic pathogen involved in nosocomial infections having multiple pathogenic factors and shows high rate of resistance to different antibiotics. The aim of this study was to identify the most important native medicinal plants of Iran effective on P. aeruginosa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All required information was obtained by searching keywords such as P...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141547/efficacy-of-and-potential-morbidities-associated-with-the-use-of-antacid-medications-in-preterm-neonates
#20
Uday P Patil, Sean M Bailey, Elena V Wachtel, Evan Orosz, Rebecca Zarchin, Pradeep V Mally
OBJECTIVES: Antacid medications are frequently administered to preterm infants. These medications can change gastric pH levels and can affect regular gastrointestinal function and gut micro-bacterial flora. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to antacid medications are at a greater risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis, and set out to determine any association, as well as to assess the clinical efficacy of these medications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart review of preterm infants ≤30 weeks' gestational age or birth weight ≤1250 g over a 2-year period at New York University Langone Medical Center...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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