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gi flora

Jin-Xuan Fan, Zi-Hao Li, Xin-Hua Liu, Diwei Zheng, Ying Chen, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Oral drug administration is widely adopted for diverse drugs, and enjoys the convenience of use and capbility to reach different parts of the body via the bloodstream. However, it is generally not feasible for biomacromolecular anti-tumor drugs such as protein and nucleic acids due to the the limited absorption through gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the poor tumor targeting. Here, we report a non-invasive thermally-sensitive programmable therapetic system using bacteria E. coli MG1655 as an vehicle for tumor treatments via oral administration...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Peddi Maharshi, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Ankit Kumar Yadav, Varun Garg, Bimlesh Kumari, K Gowthamarajan
A major challenge in targeting orally administered drugs to colon is their passage through the long gastrointestinal path comprising highly variant conditions in terms of pH, viscosity, gut motility and microbial flora. Approaches of pH controlled release and microbially triggered release have proved to be successful in achieving colon targeting only to a partial extent. In an attempt to improve targeting, both these approaches have been combined together with the approach of liquisolid technology which, hitherto, remains unexplored for colon targeting...
March 19, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Taher Azimi, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Alireza Salimi Chirani, Ramin Pouriran, Hossein Dabiri
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term used for the ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD); in addition, IBD principally refers to a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract in which mediated by immune system. Consequently, IBD could progress in individuals who are genetically prone. Infections role in the development of inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract has been studied by quite many clinical studies; furthermore, the possible role of some pathogens in the development and exacerbation of the inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract have been described...
March 6, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
T Shishniashvili, T Suladze, M Makhviladze, M Pkhaladze
On the background of microecological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, mineral and protein metabolism is disrupted, biochemical changes occur in the phosphorus-calcium metabolism in the bones of the skeleton and hard tissues of the teeth. The aim of the research was to study the activity of the caries process, characterized by progressive decalcification, under conditions of microecological changes in the intestine and its effect on the processes of endogenous calcium assimilation in adolescence. Within the frames of the research 68 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years with various degrees of pathology of the gastrointestinal tract were examined...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Foong Way David Tai, Mark E McAlindon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes the effects of NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity on the small bowel, wherein injury is as prevalent as in the gastroduodenum. This is well documented by capsule endoscopy, which also provides an endoscopic endpoint for novel treatment strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Appreciation of the prevalence of NSAID enteropathy has grown with capsule endoscopy and the use of composite end points that include obscure haemoglobin decreases in clinical studies...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
L E Peachey, R A Molena, T P Jenkins, A Di Cesare, D Traversa, J E Hodgkinson, C Cantacessi
A growing body of evidence, particularly in humans and rodents, supports the existence of a complex network of interactions occurring between gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasites and the gut commensal bacteria, with substantial effects on both host immunity and metabolic potential. However, little is known of the fundamental biology of such interactions in other animal species. Nonetheless, given the considerable economic losses associated with GI parasites, particularly in livestock and equines, as well as the global threat of emerging anthelmintic resistance, further explorations of the complexities of host-helminth-microbiota interactions in these species are needed...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Sophia J Oak, Rajesh Jha
Over 60 percent of the human population has a reduced ability to digest lactose due to low levels of lactase enzyme activity. Probiotics are live bacteria or yeast that supplements the gastrointestinal flora. Studies have shown that probiotics exhibit various health beneficial properties such as improvement of intestinal health, enhancement of the immune responses, and reduction of serum cholesterol. Accumulating evidence has shown that probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can be used to alleviate the clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance (LI)...
February 9, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Vida Eraghi, Azar Motamedi Boroojeni, Malihe Akbarzadeh Niaki, Sahar Zare, Zahra Naziri
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal flora of gastrointestinal tracts of humans and warm-blooded animals including dogs that has close vicinity with humans. Because the inter-species transmission of E. coli between pets and human beings, within a household, obtaining more information about the epidemiology, genetics, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance of E. coli from dogs and their owners will help to control the inter-species transmission and treatment of E. coli infections. In this study we characterize and compare the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of fecal E...
January 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Victoria Bîrluţiu, Codruța Mihaela Luca, Rareș-Mircea Bîrluțiu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) is recognized as the etiologic agent of newborn and infant meningitis, aged up to 90 days, starting from the colonization of the maternal genital or gastrointestinal tract, but it is rarely responsible for meningitis in old infants. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 9 month-old infant diagnosed with S. agalactiae meningoencephalitis associated with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)...
February 1, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Angélica Torres-Arroyo, Arturo Ruiz-Lara, Adriana Castillo-Villanueva, Sara Teresa Méndez-Cruz, Sara Elvia Espinosa-Padilla, Francisco Javier Espinosa-Rosales, Flora Zarate-Mondragón, Roberto Cervantes-Bustamante, Vanessa Bosch-Canto, Iris Vizzuett-López, Juan Carlos Ordaz-Fávila, Jesús Oria-Hernández, Horacio Reyes-Vivas
Proteomics is the study of the expression of changes and post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins along a metabolic condition either normal or pathological. In the field of health, proteomics allows obtaining valuable data for treatment, diagnosis or pathophysiological mechanisms of different illnesses. To illustrate the aforementioned, we describe two projects currently being performed at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría: The immuno-proteomic study of cow milk allergy and the Proteomic study of childhood cataract...
May 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Sunite A Ganju, Neha Gautam, Garima Sharma
Streptococcus anginosus forms a part of the commensal flora of the oral cavity. However, it can be aggressive and may lead to gastrointestinal and urogenital infections. We present an interesting case and course in a 38-year-old immunocompetent female patient with pyogenic liver abscess due to S. anginosus infection who had multiple carious teeth and underlying pulmonary tuberculosis.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Ilva Daugule, Daiga Karklina, Silvija Remberga, Ingrida Rumba-Rozenfelde
Purpose: To analyze presence of Helicobacter pylori infection and environmental risk factors among children with and without allergy. Methods: Parents of children at primary health care centres/kindergartens and allergologist consultation were asked to answer a questionnaire and to bring a faecal sample. H. pylori infection was detected by monoclonal stool antigen test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors were compared between individuals with and without allergy using χ2 test, ANOVA test and parameters and logistic regression...
December 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Silvia Corcione, Antonio Curtoni, Ivana A Paolucci, Giovanni Di Perri, Francesco G De Rosa, Rossana Cavallo
Actinomyces species are part of the commensal flora of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. Actinomyces europaeus is a short, nonmotile, facultative anaerobic rod first described in 1997, susceptible in vitro to a wide range of b-lactam antibiotics which are regarded as first choice. In this report we described the case of A. europaeus infection in a young female patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit and the possible damage of vascular endothelium due to a chronic progressive actinomycosis that at first involved neck soft tissue, then cervical lymphnodes, and finally extended to the vascular structure...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Paurush Ambesh, Sarah Stroud, Eva Franzova, Joseph Gotesman, Kavita Sharma, Lawrence Wolf, Stephan Kamholz
Lactobacillus species are a commensal flora of the human gastrointestinal and the female genitourinary tract. Lactobacilli especially the rhamnosus species, are common components of commercial probiotics. They are rarely associated with pathology in immunocompetent people, but they have been known to cause dental caries, bacteremia, and endocarditis in patients with suppressed immune function. Cases of Lactobacillus bacteremia have been reported in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, large granular lymphocytic leukemia, and in transplant recipients...
October 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Ann-Kathrin Lederer, Przemyslaw Pisarski, Lampros Kousoulas, Stefan Fichtner-Feigl, Carolin Hess, Roman Huber
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to identify the relationship between the gut microbiome and the development of postoperative complications like anastomotic leakage or a wound infection. Recent reviews focusing on underlying molecular biology suggested that postoperative complications might be influenced by the patients' gut flora. Therefore, a review focusing on the available clinical data is needed. METHODS: In January 2017 a systematic search was carried out in Medline and WebOfScience to identify all clinical studies, which investigated postoperative complications after gastrointestinal surgery in relation to the microbiome of the gut...
December 4, 2017: BMC Surgery
Loretta Brabin, Stephen A Roberts, Sabine Gies, Andrew Nelson, Salou Diallo, Christopher J Stewart, Adama Kazienga, Julia Birtles, Sayouba Ouedraogo, Yves Claeys, Halidou Tinto, Umberto d'Alessandro, E Brian Faragher, Bernard Brabin
BACKGROUND: Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. METHODS: Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months...
November 23, 2017: BMC Medicine
Yue Han, Yuxin Leng, Gaiqi Yao
Antibiotics are the cornerstone to cure infectious diseases, however, it also destroys the intestinal inherent microflora, and may cause serious gastrointestinal dysfunction, such as abdominal distension, diarrhea, mucosal barrier damage etc. In severe conditions, it may induce intestinal sepsis. With the development of the human microbiology group program and the popularity of microbial sequencing technology, people can comprehend the effects of antibiotics on intestinal flora deeply, meanwhile the traditional biomedical model (the basis of bacterial disease) is questioned...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Flora Wong, Neil Sargison
Haemonchosis is a common problem on goat farms in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Prevention of production losses generally depends on the use of anthelmintic drugs, but is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. This study investigates anthelmintic efficacy on small-scale Malaysian goat farms and describes putative risk factors. Adult goats had moderate to high pre-treatment faecal trichostrongyle egg counts, despite being housed on slatted floors and fed on cut-and-carry forage, raising questions about the source of nematode infection...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Moni Roy, Ashish Kumar Roy, Sharjeel Ahmad
Parvimonas species are anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci that are a constituent of normal oral and gastrointestinal flora. We present a case of right knee joint septic arthritis due to Parvimonas micra in an immunocompromised patient. A 61-year-old male renal and pancreatic transplant recipient on immunosuppressive therapy was admitted to our hospital due to intense pain, joint swelling and inability to move his right knee over the past 9 months. After synovial fluid was drawn, cultures were positive for P. micra, an anaerobic pathogen that is part of the flora of the oral cavity...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Jong Myong Park, Young-Hyun You, Jong-Han Park, Hyeong-Hwan Kim, Sa-Youl Ghim, Chang-Gi Back
Larvae of Bradysia agrestis, an insect vector that transports plant pathogens, were sampled from geographically isolated regions in Korea to identify their cutaneous fungal and bacterial flora. Sampled areas were chosen within the distribution range of B. agrestis; each site was more than 91 km apart to ensure geographical segregation. We isolated 76 microbial (fungi and bacteria) strains (site 1, 29; site 2, 29; site 3, 18 strains) that were identified on the basis of morphological differences. Species identification was molecularly confirmed by determination of universal fungal internal transcribed spacer and bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in comparison to sequences in the EzTaxon database and the NCBI GenBank database, and their phylogenetic relationships were determined...
September 2017: Mycobiology
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