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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892494/infections-by-human-gastrointestinal-helminths-are-associated-with-changes-in-faecal-microbiota-diversity-and-composition
#1
Timothy P Jenkins, Yasara Rathnayaka, Piyumali K Perera, Laura E Peachey, Matthew J Nolan, Lutz Krause, Rupika S Rajakaruna, Cinzia Cantacessi
Investigations of the impact that patent infections by soil-transmitted gastrointestinal nematode parasites exert on the composition of the host gut commensal flora are attracting growing interest by the scientific community. However, information collected to date varies across experiments, and further studies are needed to identify consistent relationships between parasites and commensal microbial species. Here, we explore the qualitative and quantitative differences between the microbial community profiles of cohorts of human volunteers from Sri Lanka with patent infection by one or more parasitic nematode species (H+), as well as that of uninfected subjects (H-) and of volunteers who had been subjected to regular prophylactic anthelmintic treatment (Ht)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885921/acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-during-travel
#2
Clinton K Murray, Dana M Blyth
The rate of multidrug resistance has continued to increase worldwide, presenting clinicians with further challenges related to patient care. In this article, we review information related to the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms among travelers, including deployed personnel, as well as the potential impact on wound microbiology and travelers' diarrhea. Travel to Asia, experiencing travelers' diarrhea, and use of antibiotics, whereas abroad have been associated with an increased risk of acquiring MDR Enterobacteriaceae colonization...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884754/bifidobacteria-exert-species-specific-effects-on-constipation-in-balb-c-mice
#3
Linlin Wang, Lujun Hu, Qi Xu, Tian Jiang, Shuguang Fang, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether edible bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, B. infantis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. adolescentis or B. breve) exhibit interspecies differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyse the main reasons for the interspecies differences. BALB/c mice were given bifidobacteria by gavage once per day for 8 days. The primary outcome measures, which included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures, which included changes in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in faeces and changes in the faecal flora, were used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the edible bifidobacteria on constipation...
September 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864929/antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-an-urban-river-as-impacted-by-bacterial-community-and-physicochemical-parameters
#4
Zhen-Chao Zhou, Ji Zheng, Yuan-Yuan Wei, Tao Chen, Randy A Dahlgren, Xu Shang, Hong Chen
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in urban rivers are a serious public health concern in regions with poorly planned, rapid development. To gain insights into the predominant factors affecting the fate of ARGs in a highly polluted urban river in eastern China, a total of 285 ARGs, microbial communities, and 20 physicochemical parameters were analyzed for 17 sites. A total of 258 unique ARGs were detected using high-throughput qPCR, and the absolute abundance of total ARGs was positively correlated with total organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations (P < 0...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864559/cerebellar-abscesses-infective-endocarditis-and-bacteraemia-due-to-a-rare-pathogen-streptococcus-constellatus
#5
Rafael García Carretero
Intracranial infections may result from contiguity, such as mastoiditis or acute otitis media, or from haematogenous dissemination from an infectious source. Streptococcus constellatus, a coccus from the normal genital, oral and gastrointestinal flora, has a tendency to form abscesses, but not to cause infective endocarditis (IE). Also, S. constellatus is an extremely rare causative agent of brain abscess. We report the case of a woman with a colorectal tumour who presented with IE and cerebellar abscesses due to a S...
September 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852305/are-our-endoscopy-patients-at-risk-for-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#6
EDITORIAL
Herwig Cerwenka, Peter Schemmer
This is an editorial comment on a recent publication reporting an increased rate of pyogenic liver abscesses (PLAs) after upper gastrointestinal panendoscopy. Its aim is to critically highlight the findings, limitations and potential clinical implications of this study. Issues of the mucosal barrier, the microbial flora, administration of antibiotics and underlying diseases are discussed. The probability of PLAs after endoscopies is not exactly known and the length of the "incubation period" remains unclear, but a possible causality should already suffice to make us think how to avoid them...
August 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837361/role-of-honey-in-topical-and-systemic-bacterial-infections
#7
Muhammad Barkaat Hussain
BACKGROUND: The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799667/coadministration-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-augments-metabolic-health-benefits-of-cinnamaldehyde-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#8
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Pragyanshu Khare, Vandana Bijalwan, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
Bacteriostatic properties of a potential anti-obesity agent cinnamaldehyde (CMN) may present untoward effects on the resident gut microbiota. Here, we evaluated whether the combination of Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs) with CMN prevents unwanted effects of CMN on gut microbiota and associated metabolic outcomes in HFD-fed mice. Male Swiss albino mice divided into four groups (n = 10), were fed on normal chow, or HFD (58% fat kcal), HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) and HFD + CMN (10 mg kg(-1) ) + IMOs (1 g kg(-1) ) for 12 weeks...
August 11, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732789/effect-of-ceftiofur-and-enrofloxacin-on-e-coli-sub-population-in-pig-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
Dachuan Lin, Kaichao Chen, Miaomiao Xie, Lianwei Ye, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant sub-population of the gut microbiome in both human and animals may be enriched during antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: This study investigated how the size and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of antibiotic resistant sub-population organisms in the animal gastrointestinal tract changed upon exposure to different levels of ceftiofur and enrofloxacin by plating fecal samples collected from piglets before and after antibiotic treatment onto MacConkey agar containing 0...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703111/clinical-and-microbiological-aspects-of-the-use-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-pl1-strains-in-proctological-patients-with-symptoms-of-chronic-proctitis
#10
K Borycka-Kiciak, M Strus, P Pietrzak, K Wawiernia, D Mikołajczyk, M Gałęcka, P Heczko, W Tarnowski
Recurrent proctitis and the symptoms associated therewith pose significant clinical problem in proctological patients. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL1 strain on the clinical presentation and composition of intestinal microbiota in patients with symptoms of proctitis in the course of hemorrhoidal disease and diverticulosis. Material consisted of 24 patients in whom no complete clinical improvement could be obtained after the treatment of the underlying disease...
June 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686541/the-role-of-probiotics-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-prospective-open-label-study
#11
Sanaa Y Shaaban, Yasmin G El Gendy, Nayra S Mehanna, Waled M El-Senousy, Howaida S A El-Feki, Khaled Saad, Osama M El-Asheer
OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the efficacy of probiotics in children with ASD, therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of probiotics in an Egyptian cohort of children with ASD. METHODS: Gastrointestinal (GI) flora were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR of stool samples of 30 autistic children from 5 to 9 years old. GI symptoms of autistic children were assessed with a modified six-item Gastrointestinal Severity Index (6-GSI) questionnaire, and autistic symptoms were assessed with Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after 3 months of supplementation of probiotics nutritional supplement formula (each gram contains 100 × 10(6) colony forming units of three probiotic strains; Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacteria longum)...
July 7, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683093/regulation-of-gut-luminal-serotonin-by-commensal-microbiota-in-mice
#12
Tomokazu Hata, Yasunari Asano, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Tae Kimura-Todani, Noriyuki Miyata, Xue-Ting Zhang, Shu Takakura, Yuji Aiba, Yasuhiro Koga, Nobuyuki Sudo
Gut lumen serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) contributes to several gastrointestinal functions such as peristaltic reflexes. 5-HT is released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in response to a number of stimuli, including signals from the gut microbiota. However, the specific mechanism by which the gut microbiota regulates 5-HT levels in the gut lumen has not yet been clarified. Our previous work with gnotobiotic mice showed that free catecholamines can be produced by the deconjugation of conjugated catecholamines; hence, we speculated that deconjugation by bacterial enzymes may be one of the mechanisms whereby gut microbes can produce free 5-HT in the gut lumen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680375/tlr-myd88-mediated-innate-immunity-in-intestinal-graft-versus-host-disease
#13
REVIEW
Young-Kwan Lee, Myungsoo Kang, Eun Young Choi
Graft-versus-host disease (GHVD) is a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The degree of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, a major GVHD target organ, correlates with the disease severity. Intestinal inflammation is initiated by epithelial damage caused by pre-conditioning irradiation. In combination with damages caused by donor-derived T cells, such damage disrupts the epithelial barrier and exposes innate immune cells to pathogenic and commensal intestinal bacteria, which release ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
June 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659559/microflora-in-the-soft-tissue-of-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-to-the-harmful-microalga-heterosigma-akashiwo
#14
Shinkuro Takenaka, Takeshi Yoshikawa, Shusaku Kadowaki, Suguru Okunishi, Hiroto Maeda
 A marine raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a causative agent of harmful microalgal blooms, which often cause the massive mortality of aquacultured finfish. In the present study, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was reared with H. akashiwo, and effect of the microalga on filter-feeding behavior and microflora of the gastrointestinal tract was investigated. The intake of the raphidophyte cells inhibited the molluscan filter-feeding activities, suggesting the negative physiological effect of the microalgal cell contents...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655409/concurrent-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor
#15
María Agud Fernández, Flora López López, Carmen Díaz Pedroche, Carlos Gómez-Martín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 24, 2017: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653519/-dyspnea-and-cardia-cancer-an-unusual-etiology
#16
S Speybrouck, L Claeys, A Hendlisz, A P Meert
CASE REPORT: a 63-year old man, followed for a metastatic cardia cancer, develop a pericardial effusion with sign of pre-tamponade. A CT scanner suggests the presence of a gastro- esophageal-pericardial fistula. A surgical drainage brings a purulent fluid, infected by a polymicrobial flora. Despite early antibiotics with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam, the patient dies five days after the drainage. DISCUSSION: purulent pericarditis associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia may be due to sepsis or a proximity invasion ...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646079/identification-of-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-5-fmo5-as-a-regulator-of-glucose-homeostasis-and-a-potential-sensor-of-gut-bacteria
#17
Flora Scott, Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Brett A O'Brien, Diede Fennema, Sunil Veeravalli, Clarissa R Coveney, Ian R Phillips, Elizabeth A Shephard
We have previously identified flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 (FMO5) as a regulator of metabolic aging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of FMO5 in glucose homeostasis and the impact of diet and gut flora on the phenotype of mice in which the Fmo5 gene has been disrupted (Fmo5(-)(/)(-) mice). In comparison with wild-type (WT) counterparts, Fmo5(-)(/)(-) mice are resistant to age-related changes in glucose homeostasis and maintain the higher glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity characteristic of young animals...
September 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625867/understanding-the-holobiont-how-microbial-metabolites-affect-human-health-and-shape-the-immune-system
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Siegmund Postler, Sankar Ghosh
The human gastrointestinal tract is populated by a diverse, highly mutualistic microbial flora, which is known as the microbiome. Disruptions to the microbiome have been shown to be associated with severe pathologies of the host, including metabolic disease, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Mood and behavior are also susceptible to alterations in the gut microbiota. A particularly striking example of the symbiotic effects of the microbiome is the immune system, whose cells depend critically on a diverse array of microbial metabolites for normal development and behavior...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624518/role-of-gut-microbiota-against-calcium-oxalate
#19
REVIEW
Humaira Sadaf, Syed Irfan Raza, Syed Waqas Hassan
Nephrolithiasis is a condition marked by the presence or formation of stones in kidneys. Several factors contribute to kidney stones development such as environmental conditions, type of dietary intake, gender and gastrointestinal flora. Most of the kidney stones are composed of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate, which enter in to the body through diet. Both sources of oxalates become dangerous when normal flora of gastrointestinal tract is disturbed. Oxalobacter and Lactobacillus species exist symbiotically in the human gut and prevent stone formation by altering some biochemical pathways through production of specific enzymes which help in the degradation of oxalate salts...
August 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587887/effect-of-diet-and-gut-environment-on-the-gastrointestinal-formation-of-n-nitroso-compounds-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Jun Kobayashi
Diet is associated with the development of cancer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, because dietary nitrate and nitrite are the main nitrosating agents that are responsible for the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) when nitrosatable substrates, such as amine and amide, are present in the GI tract. However, whether the nitroso compounds become beneficial S-nitroso compounds or carcinogenic NOCs might depend on dietary and environmental factors including food stuffs, gastric acidity, microbial flora, and the mean transit time of digesta...
June 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
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