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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786923/biodiversity-of-the-human-oral-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#1
H M H N Bandara, C P Panduwawala, L P Samaranayake
The organisms that colonize the human body over a lifetime are diverse, extensive and gargantuan. A fair proportion of the microbiota that constitutes this human microbiome live within our oral cavities mostly as harmonious associates causing only sporadic disease. An important core constituent of the microbiome is the mycobiome, representing various fungal genera. Up until recently, only a few species of fungi, mainly Candida species, were thought to constitute the human oral mycobiome. The reasons for this are manifold, although the uncultivable nature of many fungi in conventional laboratory media, and their complex genetic composition seem to be the major factors which eluded their detection over the years...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782555/langerin-dcs-regulate-innate-il-17-production-in-the-oral-mucosa-during-candida-albicans-mediated-infection
#2
Florian Sparber, Tamas Dolowschiak, Sarah Mertens, Laura Lauener, Björn E Clausen, Nicole Joller, Patrizia Stoitzner, Roxane Tussiwand, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans frequently causes diseases such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in immunocompromised individuals. Although it is well appreciated that the cytokine IL-17 is crucial for protective immunity against OPC, the cellular source and the regulation of this cytokine during infection are still a matter of debate. Here, we directly visualized IL-17 production in the infected tongue of experimentally infected mice, thereby demonstrating that this key cytokine is expressed by three complementary subsets of CD90+ leukocytes: RAG-dependent αβ and γδ T cells, as well as RAG-independent ILCs...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782541/an-unappreciated-role-for-neutrophil-dc-hybrids-in-immunity-to-invasive-fungal-infections
#3
J Scott Fites, Michael Gui, John F Kernien, Paige Negoro, Zeina Dagher, David B Sykes, Jeniel E Nett, Michael K Mansour, Bruce S Klein
Neutrophils are classically defined as terminally differentiated, short-lived cells; however, neutrophils can be long-lived with phenotypic plasticity. During inflammation, a subset of neutrophils transdifferentiate into a population called neutrophil-DC hybrids (PMN-DCs) having properties of both neutrophils and dendritic cells. While these cells ubiquitously appear during inflammation, the role of PMN-DCs in disease remains poorly understood. We observed the differentiation of PMN-DCs in pre-clinical murine models of fungal infection: blastomycosis, aspergillosis and candidiasis...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782308/activation-of-herpes-simplex-infection-after-tattoo
#4
Antigona Begolli Gerqari, Mybera Ferizi, Merita Kotori, Aferdita Daka, Syzana Hapciu, Ilir Begolli, Mirije Begolli, Idriz Gerqari
Tattooing is a procedure where ink is applied to an area of the skin, mostly intraepidermally (1). This procedure is carried out mainly for aesthetic purposes. Lately, it has been used as a corrective medical procedure following amputation of mammilla. The procedure is aggressive (2), and the fact that skin is punctured many times with the same needle which cannot be fully sterilized may cause infection of the treated area with bacterial, fungal, or viral agents that may lead to health consequences manifesting in the form of verrucae vulgaris, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes simplex...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782305/tatami-mats-a-source-of-pitted-keratolysis-in-a-martial-arts-athlete
#5
Anamaria Balić, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos, Branka Marinović, Daniela Ledić Drvar
Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781797/from-plants-to-nematodes-serratia-grimesii-bxf1-genome-reveals-an-adaptation-to-the-modulation-of-multi-species-interactions
#6
Francisco Nascimento, Cláudia Vicente, Peter Cock, Maria Tavares, Márcio Rossi, Koichi Hasegawa, Manuel Mota
Serratia grimesii BXF1 is a bacterium with the ability to modulate the development of several eukaryotic hosts. Strain BXF1 was isolated from the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causative agent of pine wilt disease affecting pine forests worldwide. This bacterium potentiates Bursaphelenchus xylophilus reproduction, acts as a beneficial pine endophyte, and possesses fungal and bacterial antagonistic activities, further indicating a complex role in a wide range of trophic relationships. In this work, we describe and analyse the genome sequence of strain BXF1, and discuss several important aspects of its ecological role...
May 21, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781195/effect-of-white-mustard-cover-crop-residue-soil-chemical-fumigation-and-trichoderma-spp-root-treatment-on-black-foot-disease-control-in-grapevine
#7
Carmen Berlanas, Marcos Andrés-Sodupe, Beatriz López-Manzanares, María Mercedes Maldonado-González, David Gramaje
BACKGROUND: Black-foot disease is one of the main soilborne fungal diseases affecting grapevine production worldwide. Two field experiments were established to evaluate the effect of white mustard cover crop residue amendment and chemical fumigation with propamocarb + fosetyl-Al combined with Trichoderma spp. root treatment on the viability of black-foot inoculum in soil and fungal infection in grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants. RESULTS: A total of 876 black-foot pathogens isolates were collected from grafted plants and grapevine seedlings used as bait plants in both fields...
May 20, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780795/a-novel-de-novo-mutation-in-the-cd40-ligand-gene-in-a-patient-with-a-mild-x-linked-hyper-igm-phenotype-initially-diagnosed-as-cvid-new-aspects-of-old-diseases
#8
Tábata T França, Luiz F B Leite, Tiago A Maximo, Christiane G Lambert, Nuria B Zurro, Wilma C N Forte, Antonio Condino-Neto
Mutations in the CD40 ligand (CD40L) gene ( CD40LG ) lead to X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM), which is a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by decreased serum levels of IgG and IgA and normal or elevated IgM levels. Although most X-HIGM patients become symptomatic during the first or second year of life, during which they exhibit recurrent infections, some patients exhibit mild phenotypes, which are usually associated with hypomorphic mutations that do not abrogate protein expression or function...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780018/overview-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-turkey-the-one-health-concept-and-future-threats
#9
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779358/-the-clinical-value-of-diagnostic-driven-therapy-of-invasive-fungal-disease-ifd-type-unclassified-c%C3%A2-group-in-multiple-myeloma-patients-during-inducing-chemotherapy
#10
M L Chen, J Li, B H Huang, J R Liu, L F Kuang, S W Yuan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777829/biocontrol-of-botrytis-cinerea-and-calonectria-gracilis-by-eucalypts-growth-promoters-bacillus-spp
#11
Isabel Cristina Padula Paz, Rita de Cássia Madail Santin, Alexandre Martins Guimarães, Osmar Paulo Pereira da Rosa, Maria Carolina Quecine, Michele de Cássia Pereira E Silva, João Lúcio Azevedo, Aida Terezinha Santos Matsumura
The clonal Eucalyptus plants are commonly obtained by vegetative propagation under a protected environment. This system improves the Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria spp infection on the young eucalypts plantings, resulting gray mold and cutting rot respectively. Currently, the unique available control method is based on chemicals. As alternative, novel methods to manage plant diseases, endophytic microorganisms could be an interesting alternative. Thus, we aimed to evaluate endophytic Bacillus isolated from eucalypts as a biocontrol agent against Botrytis cinerea and Calonectria gracilis, important fungal pathogens in the greenhouse, using clonal plantlets of E...
May 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777151/integrated-proteomics-genomics-metabolomics-approaches-reveal-oxalic-acid-as-pathogenicity-factor-in-tilletia-indica-inciting-karnal-bunt-disease-of-wheat
#12
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776333/transcriptomic-analysis-of-genes-in-soybean-in-response-to-peronospora-manshurica-infection
#13
Hang Dong, Shuangfeng Shi, Chong Zhang, Sihui Zhu, Mei Li, Jie Tan, Yue Yu, Liping Lin, Shirong Jia, Xujing Wang, Yuanhua Wu, Yuhui Liu
BACKGROUND: Soybean downy mildew (SDM), caused by Peronospora manshurica (Pm), is a major fungal disease in soybean. To date, little is known regarding the defense mechanism at molecular level and how soybean plants response to Pm infection. In this study, differential gene expression in SDM-resistant (HR) and SDM-susceptible (HS) genotype was analyzed by RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following Pm infection. RESULTS: Of a total of 55,017 genes mapped to the soybean reference genome sequences, 2581 DEGs were identified...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775784/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-virulence-gene-in-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae-using-a-genotyping-by-sequencing-approach
#14
Siripar Korinsak, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Wirulda Pootakham, Samart Wanchana, Anucha Plabpla, Chatchawan Jantasuriyarat, Sujin Patarapuwadol, Apichart Vanavichit, Theerayut Toojinda
Magnaporthe oryzae is a fungal pathogen causing blast disease in many plant species. In this study, Seventy three isolates of M. oryzae collected from rice (Oryza sativa) in 1996-2014 were genotyped using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to detect genetic variation. Association study was performed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with virulence genes using 831 selected SNP and infection phenotypes on local and improved rice varieties. Population structure analysis revealed eight subpopulations...
May 15, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#15
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774383/acute-invasive-fungal-rhinosinusitis-mr-imaging-features-and-their-impact-on-prognosis
#16
Ye Ra Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Hye Sook Min, Jae-Kyung Won, Hyun Jik Kim, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Sun-Won Park, Tae Jin Yun, Seung Hong Choi, Chul-Ho Sohn, Jung Hyo Rhim, Soo Chin Kim, Jae Wook Ryu, Dong Gyu Na
PURPOSE: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a life-threatening disease that is difficult to diagnose. Its overall imaging features have not been evaluated and the prognostic impact is unclear. The purpose of our study was to present MR imaging features and their impact on prognosis of AIFRS. METHODS: MR images and clinical records of 23 patients with AIFRS were retrospectively evaluated to identify the imaging features and to determine the factors affecting patients' survival...
May 17, 2018: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773612/improved-draft-genome-sequence-of-a-monoteliosporic-culture-of-the-karnal-bunt-tilletia-indica-pathogen-of-wheat
#17
Anil Kumar, Pallavi Mishra, Ranjeet Maurya, A K Mishra, Vijai K Gupta, Pramod W Ramteke, Soma S Marla
Karnal bunt of wheat is an internationally quarantined fungal pathogen disease caused by Tilletia indica and affects the international commercial seed trade of wheat. We announce here the first improved draft genome assembly of a monoteliosporic culture of the Tilletia indica fungus, consisting of 787 scaffolds with an approximate total genome size of 31.83 Mbp, which is more accurate and near to complete than the previous version.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773475/concordance-between-aspergillus-specific-precipitating-antibody-and-igg-in-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Kazuki Harada, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Akemi Saito, Yuma Fukutomi, Jun Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu, Masami Taniguchi, Koichiro Asano
BACKGROUND: Several serological tests for specific precipitin or IgG are available to demonstrate type III hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus species and are essential for infectious fungal disease diagnosis. These assays are also important for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) diagnosis; however, their concordance in ABPA was not well studied. METHODS: Fifty-two ABPA patients diagnosed based on ISHAM criteria were enrolled. Precipitins and IgG specific to Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusflavus, or Aspergillusterreus were measured using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion tests and ImmunoCAP method, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773435/epidemiology-of-antifungal-susceptibility-review-of-literature
#19
REVIEW
I Hadrich, A Ayadi
Fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite the latest developments of diagnostic tools and therapeutic options. Early initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy has been demonstrated to have a direct impact on the patient's outcome. Antifungal susceptibility testing methods are available to detect antifungal resistance and to determine the best treatment for a specific fungus. American and European standards have been developed, as well as equivalent commercial systems, which are more appropriate for clinical laboratories...
May 14, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772715/effects-of-sparassis-crispa-in-medical-therapeutics-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Le Thi Nhu Ngoc, You-Kwan Oh, Young-Jong Lee, Young-Chul Lee
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential and medical applications of Sparassis crispa ( S. crispa ) by conducting a systematic review of the existing literature and performing a meta-analysis. The original efficacy treatment of the mushroom extract is considered primarily and searched in electronic databases. A total of 623 articles were assessed, 33 randomized controlled experiments were included after the manual screening, and some papers, review articles, or editorials that did not contain data were excluded...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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