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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351264/identification-of-cyclic-dipeptides-from-escherichia-coli-as-new-antimicrobial-agents-against-ralstonia-solanacearum
#1
Shihao Song, Shuna Fu, Xiuyun Sun, Peng Li, Ji'en Wu, Tingyan Dong, Fei He, Yinyue Deng
Ralstonia solanacearum is a causative agent of bacterial wilt in many important crops throughout the world. How to control bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum is a major problem in agriculture. In this study, we aim to isolate the biocontrol agents that have high efficacy in the control of bacterial wilt. Three new bacterial strains with high antimicrobial activity against R. solanacearum GMI1000 were isolated and identified. Our results demonstrated that these bacteria could remarkably inhibit the disease index of host plant infected by R...
January 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348716/cylindrocarpon-destructans-ilyonectria-radicicola-species-complex-%C3%A2-causative-agent-of-ginseng-root-rot-disease-and%C3%A2-rusty%C3%A2-symptoms
#2
REVIEW
Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I...
January 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346417/xylose-donor-transport-is-critical-for-fungal-virulence
#3
Lucy X Li, Carsten Rautengarten, Joshua L Heazlewood, Tamara L Doering
Cryptococcus neoformans, an AIDS-defining opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Cryptococcal glycans are required for fungal survival in the host and for pathogenesis. Most glycans are made in the secretory pathway, although the activated precursors for their synthesis, nucleotide sugars, are made primarily in the cytosol. Nucleotide sugar transporters are membrane proteins that solve this topological problem, by exchanging nucleotide sugars for the corresponding nucleoside phosphates...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#4
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345972/trypsin-inhibitors-from-cajanus-cajan-and-phaseolus-limensis-possess-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-activity
#5
Tooba Naz Shamsi, Romana Parveen, Sumbul Afreen, Mudasser Azam, Priyankar Sen, Yamini Sharma, Qazi Mohd Rizwanul Haque, Tasneem Fatma, Nikhat Manzoor, Sadaf Fatima
Protease inhibitors are one of the most promising and investigated subjects for their role in pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies. This study aimed to investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) from two plant sources (Cajanus cajan and Phaseolus limensis). TI was purified from C. cajan (PUSA-992) by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography. TI from Phaseolus limensis (lima bean trypsin inhibitor; LBTI) was procured from Sigma-Aldrich, St...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345102/the-mycobiota-of-the-sand-fly-phlebotomus-perniciosus-involvement-of-yeast-symbionts-in-uric-acid-metabolism
#6
Elena Martin, Ilaria Varotto Boccazzi, Leone De Marco, Gioia Bongiorno, Matteo Montagna, Luciano Sacchi, Priscilla Mensah, Irene Ricci, Luigi Gradoni, Claudio Bandi, Sara Epis
The knowledge of the fungal mycobiota of arthropods, including the vectors of human and animal diseases, is still limited. Here, we investigated the mycobiota associated with the sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of leishmaniasis in the western Mediterranean area, by a culture-dependent approach (microbiological analyses and sequencing of the 26S rRNA gene), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA amplicon-based next-generation sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and genome sequencing of the dominant yeast species...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342100/modulation-of-the-fungal-host-interaction-by-the-intra-species-diversity-of-c-albicans
#7
REVIEW
Christina Braunsdorf, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann
The incidence of human infections caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is on the rise due to increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. The importance of the immune system in preventing overgrowth of the colonizing fungus and thereby limiting infection is well recognized and host protective mechanisms widely investigated. Only recently, it was recognized that the natural diversity in the fungal species could also influence the outcome of the interaction between the fungus and the host...
January 17, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339191/current-status-and-perspectives-of-fungal-entomopathogens-used-for-microbial-control-of-arthropod-pests-in-brazil
#8
REVIEW
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes, Ítalo Delalibera, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Christian Luz, Marcos Faria
Entomopathogenic fungi play a central role in Brazil's biopesticide market. Approximately 50% of registered microbial biopesticides comprise mycoinsecticides consisting of hypocrealean fungi, with most based on Metarhizium anisopliae sensu stricto (s.str.) and Beauveria bassiana (s.str.). These fungi are used to control spittlebugs in sugarcane fields and whiteflies in row crops, respectively, with annual applications surpassing three million hectares. Research in Brazil also emphasizes the potential of fungal entomopathogens to manage arthropod vectors of human diseases...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337419/evolution-of-resistance-to-chytridiomycosis-is-associated-with-a-robust-early-immune-response
#9
Laura F Grogan, Scott D Cashins, Lee F Skerratt, Lee Berger, Michael S McFadden, Peter Harlow, David A Hunter, Ben C Scheele, Jason Mulvenna
Potentiating the evolution of immunity is a promising strategy for addressing biodiversity diseases. Assisted selection for infection resistance may enable the recovery and persistence of amphibians threatened by chytridiomycosis; a devastating fungal skin disease threatening hundreds of species globally. However, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the natural evolution of immunity to chytridiomycosis is limited. Understanding the mechanisms of such resistance may help speed assisted-selection. Using a transcriptomics approach we examined gene expression responses of endangered alpine tree frogs (Litoria verreauxii alpina) to subclinical infection, comparing two long-exposed populations with a naïve population...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336595/exploitation-of-microbial-antagonists-for-the-control-of-postharvest-diseases-of-fruits-a-review
#10
Ajinath Shridhar Dukare, Sangeeta Paul, V Eyarkai Nambi, Ram Kishore Gupta, Rajbir Singh, Kalyani Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Vishwakarma
Fungal diseases result in significant losses of fruits and vegetables during handling, transportation and storage. At present, post-production fungal spoilage is predominantly controlled by using synthetic fungicides. Under the global climate change scenario and with the need for sustainable agriculture, biological control methods of fungal diseases, using antagonistic microorganisms, are emerging as ecofriendly alternatives to the use of fungicides. The potential of microbial antagonists, isolated from a diversity of natural habitats, for postharvest disease suppression has been investigated...
January 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336227/extracts-from-lupinus-albescens-antioxidant-power-and-antifungal-activity-in-vitro-against-phytopathogenic-fungi
#11
Tássia C Confortin, Izelmar Todero, Juliana F Soares, Luciana Luft, Thiarles Brun, Jéssica E Rabuske, Cicero U Nogueira, Marcio A Mazutti, Giovani L Zabot, Marcus V Tres
Fungi are considered the most damaging microorganisms in agriculture. The indiscriminate use of chemical treatments in agricultural products causes the development of pest resistance and affects human health. An alternative to synthetic fungicides is the use of natural products such as plant extracts for the management of fungal diseases in plants. Extracts from different parts of Lupinus albescens (roots, stalks, leaves, and flowers) were obtained by extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) or compressed liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332141/cultivable-fungi-present-in-antarctic-soils-taxonomy-phylogeny-diversity-and-bioprospecting-of-antiparasitic-and-herbicidal-metabolites
#12
Eldon C Q Gomes, Valéria M Godinho, Débora A S Silva, Maria T R de Paula, Gislaine A Vitoreli, Carlos L Zani, Tânia M A Alves, Policarpo A S Junior, Silvane M F Murta, Emerson C Barbosa, Jaquelline G Oliveira, Fabio S Oliveira, Camila R Carvalho, Mariana C Ferreira, Carlos A Rosa, Luiz H Rosa
Molecular biology techniques were used to identify 218 fungi from soil samples collected from four islands of Antarctica. These consisted of 22 taxa of 15 different genera belonging to the Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Mortierella, Antarctomyces, Pseudogymnoascus, and Penicillium were the most frequently isolated genera and Penicillium tardochrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosus, Goffeauzyma gilvescens, and Mortierella sp. 2 the most abundant taxa. All fungal isolates were cultivated using solid-state fermentation to obtain their crude extracts...
January 13, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330406/adjuvant-role-of-septifast-to-improve-the-diagnosis-of-sepsis-in-a-large-cohort-of-hematological-patients
#13
Raffaella Greco, Maria Chiara Barbanti, Nicasio Mancini, Lara Crucitti, Chiara Oltolini, Alessandra Forcina, Francesca Lorentino, Luca Vago, Carlo Messina, Daniela Clerici, Mara Morelli, Fabio Giglio, Maria Teresa Lupo Stanghellini, Laura Infurnari, Matteo G Carrabba, Sarah Marktel, Andrea Assanelli, Paolo Scarpellini, Massimo Bernardi, Jacopo Peccatori, Consuelo Corti, Massimo Clementi, Fabio Ciceri
Febrile neutropenia and sepsis are common and life-threatening complications in hematological diseases. This study was performed retrospectively in 514 patients treated for febrile neutropenia at our institute, to investigate the clinical usefulness of a molecular tool, LightCycler® SeptiFast test (SF), to promptly recognize pathogens causing sepsis in hematological patients. We collected 1837 blood samples of 514 consecutive hematological patients. The time of processing is short. Overall, 757 microorganisms in 663 episodes were detected by molecular test and standard blood cultures (BC): 73...
January 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328532/population-genomic-footprints-of-host-adaptation-introgression-and-recombination-in-coffee-leaf-rust
#14
Diogo Nuno Silva, Vítor Várzea, Octávio Salgueiro Paulo, Dora Batista
Coffee Leaf Rust, caused by Hemileia vastatrix (Hv), represents the biggest threat to coffee production worldwide and ranks amongst the most serious fungal diseases in history. Despite a recent series of outbreaks and emergence of hyper-virulent strains, the population evolutionary history and potential of this pathogen remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we used RADseq to generate ∼19,000 SNPs across a worldwide collection of 37 Hv samples. Contrarily to the longstanding idea that Hv represents a genetically unstructured and cosmopolitan species, our results reveal the existence of a cryptic species complex with marked host tropism...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327953/multicentric-cryptococcosis-in-a-congo-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-erithacus
#15
Raina S K Schunk, Nicholas E Sitinas, Katherine E Quesenberry, Jessica L Grodio
An approximately 10-year-old, female Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus erithacus) developed progressive, unilateral exophthalmos and buphthalmos. Survey radiographs revealed a large, coelomic, soft tissue mass, which was confirmed on computed tomography scan. Aspirates of both the contents of the buphthalmic globe and coelomic mass were consistent with Cryptococcus species. Initial results were later confirmed with serum antigen latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction testing, and the organism was then identified as Cryptococcus neoformans with DNA sequencing...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327941/infection-is-not-required-for-mucoinflammatory-lung-disease-in-cftr-knockout-ferrets
#16
Bradley H Rosen, T Idil Apak Evans, Shashanna R Moll, Jaimie S Gray, Bo Liang, Xingshen Sun, Yulong Zhang, Chandler W Jensen-Cody, Anthony M Swatek, Weihong Zhou, Nan He, Pavana G Rotti, Scott R Tyler, Nicholas W Keiser, Preston J Anderson, Leonard Brooks, Yalan Li, R Marshall Pope, Maheen Rajput, Eric A Hoffman, Kai Wang, J Kirk Harris, Kalpaj R Parekh, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, John F Engelhardt
RATIONALE: Classical interpretation of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease pathogenesis suggests that infection initiates disease progression, leading to an exuberant inflammatory response, excessive mucus, and ultimately bronchiectasis. While symptomatic antibiotic treatment controls lung infections early in disease, life-long bacterial residence typically ensues. Processes that control the establishment of persistent bacteria in the CF lung, and the contribution of non-infectious components to disease pathogenesis, are poorly understood...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327534/gastric-angioinvasive-mucormycosis-in-immunocompetent-adult-a-rare-occurrence
#17
Mukesh Nasa, Zubin Sharma, Lipika Lipi, Randhir Sud
Mucormycosis is a rare, opportunistic fungal infection that occurs almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts such as patients with diabetes mellitus, leukemia, lymphoma, renal disease, septicemia, burns, malnutrition, and following long-term treatment with steroids and antibiotics. Based on the clinical presentation and involvement, mucormycosis is classified as six major forms, namely, rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal (GI), disseminated and miscellaneous, with rhinocerebral and pulmonary being the common forms...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327521/cerebrospinal-fluid-a-clinicopathologic-analysis
#18
Asha Shenoy, Heena Desai, Aparna Mandvekar
Context and Objective: This study aims to emphasize the importance of an appropriate CSF examination in patients of suspected CNS disease and the necessity of correlating it with the clinico-radiologic findings which will help in early diagnosis of CNS diseases and guide the further management of the disease. Design: In this 2 year study, 215 CSF samples from patients with clinically suspected diseases of the CNS were studied. The CSF samples were analyzed for gross examination, protein, sugar, adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels, microscopic examination and microbiologic examination...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326852/unusual-course-of-crystalline-keratopathy-in-a-patient-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#19
Başak Bostancı, Yonca Aydın Akova
We present a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy in a patient with Graft-versus-Host disease (GVHD) who developed satellite fungal keratitis. A 51-year-old man was referred for bilateral total persistent corneal epithelial defects with severe dry eye. Although persistent epithelial defect healed with medical therapy, he developed stromal keratitis with satellite lesions confirmed to be secondary to Candida albicans. After three months of antifungal treatment and debridement, improvement of the infiltrates was obtained...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326525/mucormycosis-in-a-diabetic-patient-a-case-report-with-an-insight-into-its-pathophysiology
#20
Syeda Neelam Afroze, Rajani Korlepara, Guttikonda Venkateswara Rao, Jayakiran Madala
Mucormycosis is one of the most rapidly progressing and fulminant forms of fungal infection which usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses following inhalation of fungal spores. It is caused by organisms of the subphylum Mucormycotina, including genera as Absidia, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. The incidence of mucormycosis is approximately 1.7 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year. Mucormycosis affecting the maxilla is rare because of rich blood vessel supply of maxillofacial areas although more virulent fungi such as Mucor can overcome this difficulty...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
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