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"Anesthetic pharmacology"

Hyung-Chul Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Eun-Jin Chung, Chul-Woo Jung
BACKGROUND: The discrepancy between predicted effect-site concentration and measured bispectral index is problematic during intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. We hypothesized that bispectral index during total intravenous anesthesia would be more accurately predicted by a deep learning approach. METHODS: Long short-term memory and the feed-forward neural network were sequenced to simulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parts of an empirical model, respectively, to predict intraoperative bispectral index during combined use of propofol and remifentanil...
March 2018: Anesthesiology
Julie A Balko, Sathya K Chinnadurai
Anesthesia and sedation of pet nondomestic species are often necessary for both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Even minimally invasive procedures can be stressful for small prey species that are not domesticated or acclimated to human contact and restraint. Recent advancements in evidence-based practice will continue to improve the field based on scientifically sound best practices and rely less on anecdotal recommendations. This article focuses on new scientific literature that has been published in the past 5 years...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
John W Sear
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of Anesthesia History
Yuri Miyamoto, Tetsuya Miyashita, Shunsuke Takaki, Takahisa Goto
Mitochondrial disease has been uncommon conditions, still results in death during childhood in many cases. The ideal anesthetic pharmacological management strategy for adult patients with mitochondrial disease is currently unclear. In this study, we presented features of the anesthesia methods employed and the perioperative complications of patients in our institution and in previously published case reports. We report the use of general anesthesia 7 times in 6 adult patients with mitochondrial disease during 2004-2014...
January 2016: Mitochondrion
Harish Ramakrishna, Kent H Rehfeldt, Octavio E Pajaro
From uncertain beginnings over four decades ago, heart transplantation is now the definitive therapy for end-stage heart failure. This review will attempt to comprehensively cover the broad gamut of anesthetic, hemodynamic, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive and hemostatic agents used by the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist in the perioperative management of patients with endstage heart disease.
2015: Current Clinical Pharmacology
P Álvarez, L Tapia, L A Mardones, J C Pedemonte, J G Farías, R L Castillo
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) cycle in the myocardium is associated with activation of an injurious cascade, thus leading to new myocardial challenges, which account for up to 50% of infarct size. Some evidence implicates reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a probable cause of myocardial injury in prooxidant clinical settings. Damage occurs during both ischemia and post-ischemic reperfusion in animal and human models. The mechanisms that contribute to this damage include the increase in cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration and induction of ROS sources during reperfusion...
July 25, 2014: Chemico-biological Interactions
Tumul Chowdhury, Andrea Petropolis, Marshall Wilkinson, Bernhard Schaller, Nora Sandu, Ronald B Cappellani
Despite great advancements in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), outcomes following SAH rupture have remained relatively unchanged. In addition, little data exists to guide the anesthetic management of intraoperative aneurysm rupture (IAR), though intraoperative management may have a significant effect on overall neurological outcomes. This review highlights the various controversies related to different anesthetic management related to aneurysm rupture. The first controversy relates to management of preexisting factors that affect risk of IAR...
2014: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Sarah Soh, Wyun Kon Park, Sang Wook Kang, Bo Ra Lee, Jeong Rim Lee
PURPOSE: Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil can suppress coughing during emergence from general anesthesia; nevertheless, previous studies under different clinical conditions recommend significantly different effective effect-site concentrations (effective Ce) of remifentanil for 50% of patients (EC₅₀). The differences among these studies include type of surgery and patient sex. In recent years, study of sex differences in regards to anesthetic pharmacology has drawn greater interest...
May 2014: Yonsei Medical Journal
Stephen Aniskevich, Sher-Lu Pai, Timothy S Shine
Kidney transplants are routinely performed at medical centers around the world. Concurrent with improved surgical techniques, a better understanding of the pharmacology involved in the perioperative anesthetic management has led to improved outcomes in these patients. This chapter reviews the perioperative pharmacologic considerations surrounding kidney transplant patients from the viewpoint of the transplant anesthesiologist.
2015: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Harish Ramakrishna, Kent H Rehfeldt, Octavio E Pajaro
From uncertain beginnings over four decades ago, heart transplantation is now the definitive therapy for end-stage heart failure. This review will attempt to comprehensively cover the broad gamut of anesthetic, hemodynamic, antimicrobial, immunosuppressive and hemostatic agents used by the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist in the perioperative management of patients with end-stage heart disease.
February 11, 2014: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Robert L Mcclain, Harish Ramakrishna, Stephen Aniskevich, Joseph A Cartwright, Leah G Ward Phar, Sher-Lu Pai, Eduardo S Rodrigues, Archer K Martin, Timothy S Shine
The number of patients with end stage liver disease is growing worldwide. This is likely a result of advances in medical science that have allowed these patients to lead longer lives since the incidence of diseases such as alcoholic cirrhosis and viral hepatitis have remained stable or even decreased in recent years, at least in more developed nations. Many of these patients will require anesthetic care at some point. The understanding and application of basic principles of pharmacokinetics is paramount to the practice of anesthesia...
2015: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Jerry Ingrande, Hendrikus Jm Lemmens
Anesthesiologists are increasingly being faced with treating obese patients. Physiologic and anthropometric associated with obesity-most notably increases in cardiac output, changes in tissue perfusion and increases in total body weight (TBW), lean body weight (LBW), and fat mass affect the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anesthetic agents. In addition, redundancy of airway tissue, obstructive and central sleep apnea and CO2 retention affect the pharmacodynamics (PD) of anesthetics and narrow the therapeutic window of numerous anesthetic drugs...
March 1, 2013: Current Anesthesiology Reports
Cheng Zhou, Jin Liu
Application of volatile anesthetics greatly alters modern medicine. There are obvious advantages of volatile anesthetics such as strong anesthetic potency, rapid onset and elimination through respiration system. Isoflurane is one of the most widely used volatile anesthetics in clinic. Emulsified isoflurane, the emulsion of isoflurane, is a novel intravenous general anesthetic. With the development of emulsified isoflurane in the past fifteen years, its utility has spread from intravenous general anesthesia to various fields including regional anesthesia, organ protection, as well as anesthetic pharmacological study...
December 2012: Frontiers of Medicine
Abigail M Walsh, Benvon Moran, Sarah A Walsh
BACKGROUND: Local anesthesia is widely used in general dermatology practices. The onus is on the practitioner to have a sound knowledge of the pharmacology and dosing of any drug used, including local anesthesia. The dermatologist should also be aware of the signs, symptoms, and management of toxicity of local anesthetic use. The level of knowledge of dermatologists on this topic has not been previously assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess levels of knowledge of local anesthetic pharmacology, local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST), and the management of the latter of dermatologists...
June 2012: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Robert I Westphalen, No-Bong Kwak, Keir Daniels, Hugh C Hemmings
Stimulus evoked neurotransmitter release requires that Na(+) channel-dependent nerve terminal depolarization be transduced into synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Inhaled anesthetics block presynaptic Na(+) channels and selectively inhibit glutamate over GABA release from isolated nerve terminals, indicating mechanistic differences between excitatory and inhibitory transmitter release. We compared the effects of isoflurane on depolarization-evoked [(3)H]glutamate and [(14)C]GABA release from isolated nerve terminals prepared from four regions of rat CNS evoked by 4-aminopyridine (4AP), veratridine (VTD), or elevated K(+)...
September 2011: Neuropharmacology
Sean G Boynes, Jayme Zovko, Meghan R Bastin, Michele A Grillo, Brianna D Shingledecker
PURPOSE: The goal of this project was to investigate the educational experiences and the use of local anesthesia by dental hygiene providers in the U.S. METHODS: Approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pittsburgh and undertaken from February to May 2009, this study was designed using a questionnaire-based survey. Using a randomized list obtained via the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA), the survey questionnaires were sent via mail to 1,200 dental hygienists in the U...
2011: Journal of Dental Hygiene: JDH
Paul A Moore, Elliot V Hersh
The development of safe and effective local anesthetic agents has possibly been the most important advancement in dental science to occur in the last century. The agents currently available in dentistry are extremely safe and fulfill most of the characteristics of an ideal local anesthetic. These local anesthetic agents can be administered with minimal tissue irritation and with little likelihood of inducing allergic reactions. A variety of agents are available that provide rapid onset and adequate duration of surgical anesthesia...
October 2010: Dental Clinics of North America
Nilton Bezerra do Vale
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the use of medicinal teas - infusions, decoction, tisanes, dyeings - or drugs of vegetal origin are being systematically and increasingly revived to prevent and treat diseases together with conventional medicine in most Western countries. This review aimed at analyzing major herbs that were the basis for the progress of modern anesthetic therapy through their use as molecular models for organic synthesis in fine leading edge modern chemistry, as well as shedding more light on the advantages, potential adverse effects, interactions and risks for side-effects which may affect anesthesia in surgical patients users of phytotherapy...
June 2002: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
R D Sanders, D Brian, M Maze
G-Protein-coupled receptors mediate many of the hypnotic and analgesic actions of the drugs employed in anesthesia. Notably, opioid agonists represent the most successful and efficacious class of analgesic agents employed over the last century. Also, major clinical advances have been made by the study of alpha(2) adrenoceptor agonists, which possess both hypnotic and analgesic qualities that are being increasingly exploited in both anesthetic and critical care settings. Furthermore orexin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (B), and muscarinic cholinergic receptors have been identified as potential anesthetic targets; clinical exploitation of ligands at these receptors may lead to important advances in anesthetic pharmacology...
2008: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
B W Urban
The mechanisms of general anesthesia constitute one of the great unsolved problems of classical neuropharmacology. Since the discovery of general anesthesia, hundreds of substances have been tested and found to possess anesthetic activity. Anesthetics differ tremendously in their chemical, physical, and pharmacological properties, greatly varying in size, in chemically active groups, and in the combinations of interactions and chemical reactions that they can undergo. The large spectrum of targets makes it obvious that dealing with anesthetics pharmacologically is different from dealing with most other drugs used in pharmacology...
2008: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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