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Sha Yan, Pengfei Huang, Ying Wang, Xiongzhi Zeng, Yiya Zhang
Spider venoms are known to contain various toxins that are used as an effective means to capture their prey or to defend themselves against predators. An investigation of the properties of Ornithoctonus huwena (O.huwena) crude venom found that the venom can block neuromuscular transmission of isolated mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and sciatic nerve-sartorius preparations. However, little is known about its electrophysiological effects on cardiac myocytes. In this study, electrophysiological activities of ventricular myocytes were detected by 100 μg/mL venom of O...
March 13, 2018: Channels
Niels Okkels, Christina Blanner Kristiansen, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Norman Sartorius
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on urban mental health and highlight the challenges that require urgent attention. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of the world's population live in towns and urbanization is expected to increase in all areas of the world. Challenges to mental health in urban areas include loneliness, violence, high crime rates, homelessness, noise and other pollutants, traffic accidents, drug abuse, and insufficiency of mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
William B Stoughton, Jianrong Li, Cindy Balog-Alvarez, Joe N Kornegay
Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) are X-linked disorders caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Autophagy was recently identified as a secondary therapeutic target for DMD. We hypothesized that autophagy would be reduced in GRMD. Methods Autophagic gene and protein expression was assessed in normal and GRMD skeletal muscles and correlated with phenotypic biomarkers. Results Muscles were differentially affected. Autophagy gene levels were lower than normal in the GRMD cranial sartorius (CS) but similar in the vastus lateralis (VL)...
March 7, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Sarah Morar Schneider, Vidya Sridhar, Amanda K Bettis, Heather Heath-Barnett, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Lee-Jae Guo, Rachel Johnson, Scott Jaques, Stanislav Vitha, Alan C Glowcwski, Joe N Kornegay, Peter P Nghiem
PURPOSE: Metabolic dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by reduced glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, decreased and abnormal mitochondria, decreased ATP, and increased oxidative stress. We analyzed glucose metabolism as a potential disease biomarker in the genetically homologous golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog with molecular, biochemical, and in vivo imaging. PROCEDURES: Pelvic limb skeletal muscle and left ventricle tissue from the heart were analyzed by mRNA profiling, qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy for the primary glucose transporter (GLUT4)...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Gabriella Fabbrocini, Katlein França, Torello Lotti, Claudio Marasca, Maria Carmela Annunziata, Sara Cacciapuoti, Anna Masarà, Marco Romanelli, Jacopo Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Georgi Tchernev, Nicola Zerbinati
AIM: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, commonly characterized by painful, deep dermal abscesses and chronic draining sinus tracts. Recently, laser and light-based therapies have become more commonly used in the management of HS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report 20 HS patients treated with a 1064 nm wavelength, emitted from a diode laser, launched in an optical fibre through intracavitary modalities. RESULTS: Each patient underwent four laser sessions, one every two weeks...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
C E Lloyd, A Nouwen, N Sartorius, H U Ahmed, A Alvarez, S Bahendeka, D Basangwa, A E Bobrov, S Boden, V Bulgari, L Burti, S K Chaturvedi, L C Cimino, W Gaebel, G de Girolamo, T M Gondek, M Guinzbourg de Braude, A Guntupalli, M G Heinze, L Ji, X Hong, A Khan, A Kiejna, A Kokoszka, T Kamala, N M Lalic, D Lecic Tosevski, B Mankovsky, M Li, A Musau, K Müssig, D Ndetei, G Rabbani, S S Srikanta, E G Starostina, M Shevchuk, R Taj, O Vukovic, W Wölwer, Y Xin
AIMS: To assess the prevalence and management of depressive disorders in people with Type 2 diabetes in different countries. METHODS: People with diabetes aged 18-65 years and treated in outpatient settings were recruited in 14 countries and underwent a psychiatric interview. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale. Demographic and medical record data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 2783 people with Type 2 diabetes (45...
February 25, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Kurt Sartorius, Benn Sartorius, Thandinkosi E Madiba, Cristina Stefan
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to test the association between high and low carbohydrate diets and obesity, and second, to test the link between total carbohydrate intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and obesity. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We sought MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar for observation studies published between January 1990 and December 2016 assessing an association between obesity and high-carbohydrate intake. Two independent reviewers selected candidate studies, extracted data and assessed study quality...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Christian Fastner, Michael Behnes, Benjamin Sartorius, Annika Wenke, Siegfried Lang, Gökhan Yücel, Katherine Sattler, Jonas Rusnak, Ahmad Saleh, Christian Barth, Kambis Mashayekhi, Ursula Hoffmann, Martin Borggrefe, Ibrahim Akin
BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) represents the interventional alternative to oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). The metabolism of acylcarnitines was shown to affect cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the influence of successful LAAC on the metabolism of acylcarnitines. METHODS: Patients undergoing successful LAAC were enrolled prospectively. Peripheral blood samples for metabolomics measurements were collected immediately before (i...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yong Chon Park, Shigenobu Kanba, Mian-Yoon Chong, Adarsh Tripathi, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Ajit Avasthi, Sandeep Grover, Kok Yoon Chee, Andi J Tanra, Marigarita M Maramis, Shu-Yu Yang, Norman Sartorius, Chay-Hoon Tan, Naotaka Shinfuku, Seon-Cheol Park
Our study aimed to assess the psychometric validity of the conceptual disorganization item and other items of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) for detecting disorganized speech in patients with schizophrenia. We included 357 schizophrenia patients with disorganized speech and 1082 without disorganized speech from the survey centers in India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, and Taiwan, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study. After adjusting the effects of confounding variables, a binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify BPRS items independently associated with disorganized speech...
February 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
E Coudert, C Praud, J Dupont, S Crochet, E Cailleau-Audouin, T Bordeau, E Godet, A Collin, C Berri, S Tesseraud, S Métayer-Coustard
Glucose transport into cells is the first limiting step for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In mammals, it is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) (encoded by SLC2A* genes), with a constitutive role (GLUT1), or insulin-sensitive transporters (GLUT4, GLUT8 and GLUT12). Compared to mammals, the chicken shows high levels of glycaemia and relative insensitivity to exogenous insulin. To date, only GLUT1, -8 and -12 have been described in chicken skeletal muscles but not fully characterized, whereas GLUT4 was reported as lacking...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jonathan Rochus Reinwald, Robert Becker, Anne Stephanie Mallien, Claudia Falfan-Melgoza, Markus Sack, Christian Clemm von Hohenberg, Urs Braun, Alejandro Cosa Linan, Natalia Gass, Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Fabian Tollens, Philipp Lebhardt, Natascha Pfeiffer, Dragos Inta, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Peter Gass, Alexander Sartorius, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr
BACKGROUND: To explore the domain-general risk factor of early-life social stress in mental illness, rearing rodents in persistent postweaning social isolation has been established as a widely used animal model with translational relevance for neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Although changes in resting-state brain connectivity are a transdiagnostic key finding in neurodevelopmental diseases, a characterization of imaging correlates elicited by early-life social stress is lacking...
December 28, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
George Kambondo, Benn Sartorius
Associated childhood obesity risk factors are not well established in developing countries such as Zimbabwe and this information is essential for tailored intervention development. This study aimed to identify prominent risk factors for overweight/obese and overfat/obese among primary school children of Mashonaland West Province in Zimbabwe. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage random cluster sampling approach (30 × 30). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was employed and identified the risk factors for overweight/obese and overfat/obese...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Thomas D Nielsen, Bernhard Moriggl, Jeppe Barckman, Jens A Kølsen-Petersen, Kjeld Søballe, Jens Børglum, Thomas F Bendtsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nerve blockade of the lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC) nerve provides some analgesia after hip surgery. However, knowledge is lacking about the extent of the cutaneous area anesthetized by established LFC nerve block techniques, as well as the success rate of anesthetic coverage of various surgical incisions. Nerve block techniques that rely on ultrasonographic identification of the LFC nerve distal to the inguinal ligament can be technically challenging. Furthermore, the branching of the LFC nerve is variable, and it is unknown if proximal LFC nerve branches are anesthetized using the current techniques...
January 29, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Wulf Dieker, Michael Behnes, Christian Fastner, Benjamin Sartorius, Annika Wenke, Ishar Sing-Gill, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Jürgen Kuschyk, Theano Papavassiliu, Ursula Hoffmann, Kambis Mashayekhi, Stefan O Schoenberg, Martin Borggrefe, Thomas Henzler, Ibrahim Akin
A standardized imaging algorithm by cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) (LOVE-view) was used in 30 patients to evaluate the influence of different left atrial appendage (LAA) morphologies on development of thrombosis in the LAA 6 months after implantation of an occlusion device (Watchman or Amplatzer-Cardiac-Plug) in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, CHA2DS2-VASc-Score >1 and a contraindication for oral anticoagulation. The distribution of different LAA morphologies was 40% windsock, 17% broccoli and 43% chicken wing type...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason W Robertson, Colin N Struthers, Douglas A Syme
The objective was to better understand how a series compliance alters contraction kinetics and power output of muscle to enhance the work done on a load. A mathematical model was created in which a gravitational point load was connected via a linear spring to a muscle (based on the contractile properties of the sartorius of leopard frogs, Rana pipiens). The model explored the effects of load mass, tendon compliance, and delay between onset of contraction and release of the load (catch) on lift height and power output as measures of performance...
2018: PloS One
Tanya Maistry, Michelle Gordon, Benn Sartorius, Datshana Prakash Naidoo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Fearghal P Behan, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Matt T G Pain, Jonathan P Folland
INTRODUCTION: Females experience higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries; males experience higher risk of hamstring strain injuries. Differences in injury may be partially due to sex differences in knee flexor (KF) to knee extensor (KE) muscle size ratio and the proportional size of constituent muscles. PURPOSE: To compare the absolute and proportional size, and mass distribution, of individual KE and KF muscles, as well as overall size and balance (size ratio) of these muscle groups between the sexes...
2018: PloS One
Tina Boortalary, Kanchan Misra, Sean McNish, Derek Jones, Victoria K Shanmugam
AIM: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory disease of the apocrine sweat glands. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors are commonly used to treat HS. However, prior to initiating therapy patients must be screened for mycobacterium tuberculosis (mTB) exposure. Several mTB screening tests based on interferon gamma release assays are commercially available, but the performance of these assays in the HS population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the QuantiFERON gold in-tube assay (QFT-GIT) in a cohort of patients with HS...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Khumbulani Welcome Hlongwana, Benn Sartorius, Joyce Tsoka-Gwegweni
BACKGROUND: South Africa has set an ambitious goal targeting to eliminate malaria by 2018, which is consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals' call to end the epidemic of malaria by 2030 across the globe. There are conflicting views regarding the feasibility of malaria elimination, and furthermore studies investigating malaria programme personnel's perspectives on strategy implementation are lacking. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 through a face-to-face investigator-administered semi-structured questionnaire to all eligible and consenting malaria programme personnel (team leader to senior manager levels) in three malaria endemic provinces (KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo) of South Africa...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Rachna T Shroff, Mark Yarchoan, Ashley O'Connor, Denise Gallagher, Marianna L Zahurak, Gary Rosner, Chimela Ohaji, Susan Sartorius-Mergenthaler, Rose Parkinson, Vivek Subbiah, Ralph Zinner, Nilofer S Azad
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.119.
January 9, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
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