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Immunocompromised infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913132/rapid-identification-of-candida-spp-frequently-involved-in-invasive-mycoses-by-using-flow-through-hybridization-and-gene-chip-fhgc-technology
#1
Chen Li, Xiurong Ding, Zhizhong Liu, Juanjuan Zhu
The incidence of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients has increased in recent decades. Rapid and accurate identification of these pathogenic fungi is crucial for initiating a timely, safe, and effective antifungal therapy. Here we developed a microarray based on flow-through hybridization gene chip technology. The microarray was tested for its specificity using a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The results proved that this microarray was highly discriminative, leading to the unequivocal identification of each species, including Candida famata and the highly related species Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910184/clinical-significance-of-pre-transplant-circulating-cd3-cd4-cd161-cell-frequency-on-the-occurrence-of-neutropenic-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Tae Woo Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Seok Lee, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Chang-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to identify factors that are associated with an increased risk of infections during the neutropenic period in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The aim of this study was to identify the host immune cells responsible for infections before engraftment. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent allo-SCT were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were collected before conditioning therapy...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908271/host-directed-therapeutics-against-mycobacterial-infections
#3
Haruaki Tomioka, Chiaki Sano, Yutaka Tatano
The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the world, especially in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the global increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections in immunocompromised hosts have prompted the quest for novel antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such antimicrobial chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress even with using the bioinformatics-based methodology for drug design. It thus appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacterial infections using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of new antimycobacterial drugs...
December 2, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907975/-is-it-necessary-to-revaccinate-against-hepatitis-b-virus-when-the-titer-of-anti-hbs-drops-below-10-iu-l
#4
Pavel Polák, Petr Husa, Petr Smejkal, Jan Kamelander, Gabriela Chlupová, Miroslav Penka
Viral hepatitis B still represents a major epidemiological issue worldwide. After recombinant vaccine administration, a titer of anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 IU/L has long been considered to be seroprotective. Persons without this antibody level after complete vaccination are referred to as non-responders. A progressive decline in anti-HBs levels over years is also commonly seen in responders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence that the titer of anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L does not provide 100 % protection against infection and clinically manifest illness...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906864/potential-for-treatment-and-a-zika-virus-vaccine
#5
Natalie Quanquin, Lulan Wang, Genhong Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) has only recently been exposed as a significant public health threat, and much of our limited knowledge of its pathogenesis and triggered immune responses were discovered in only the last few years. There are currently no ZIKV-specific therapeutics or vaccines available. This review seeks to bring the reader up-to-date with the latest developments in finding a way to combat this emerging infectious disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Current strategies used for developing ZIKV vaccines or treatments follow proven methods used against other flaviviruses...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905900/prevalence-clinical-and-economic-burden-of-mucormycosis-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-a-retrospective-study
#6
Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Hongbo Yang, Jinlin Song, Sneha S Kelkar, Xi Yang, Nkechi Azie, Rachel Harrington, Alan Fan, Edward Lee, James R Spalding
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a rare but devastating fungal infection primarily affecting immunocompromised patients such as those with hematological malignancy, bone marrow and solid organ transplantation, and patients with diabetes, and, even more rarely, immunocompetent patients. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and burden, both clinical and economic, of mucormycosis among hospitalized patients in the U.S. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using the Premier Perspective(TM) Comparative Database, with more than 560 participating hospitals covering 104 million patients (January 2005-June 2014)...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#7
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905343/unilateral-hemorrhagic-maculopathy-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#8
Manish Tandon, Abhishek Gupta, Priyanka Singh, Gnanavelu N Subathra
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. We report a case of HFD in an immunocompetent adult male with unilateral ocular involvement presenting as hemorrhagic maculopathy and its management with complete anatomical and functional recovery...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904826/infective-abdominal-aortitis-due-to-campylobacter-fetus-bacteremia-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Abhinav Agrawal, Rutuja R Sikachi
Infectious aortitis (IA) is a rare but life-threatening condition, and most commonly affects the abdominal aorta or thoracic aorta. Various microorganisms have been associated with infectious thoracic aortitis, most commonly Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Salmonella species. Campylobacter fetus (C. fetus) has been seen as a cause of infective aortitis only in a few case reports. We report a rare case of infective aortitis of the abdominal aorta caused due to C. fetus bacteremia. While C. fetus infections usually occur in patients with immunosuppression, such as malignancy, or those with diabetes mellitus, but our patient was not immunocompromised...
November 2016: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904603/prevalence-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-environmental-samples-in-iran-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Azad Khaledi, Abbas Bahador, Davood Esmaeili, Alireza Tafazoli, Kiarash Ghazvini, Davood Mansury
BACKGROUND: While the most nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) species are considered as opportunistic pathogens, some of them are related to several human infections. It is believed that environment is the main source for these infections. Distribution and scattering pattern of NTMs has not been well studied in Iran and a few studies about this subject have been done, so the aim of this study was to determine prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data about prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran were obtained by searching databases...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904204/a-rare-case-of-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#11
Piyabi Sarkar, Keya Basu, Mamata Guha Mallick Sinha
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Immunocompetent individuals usually have self-limiting or localized disease whereas immunocompromised individuals develop disseminated disease. The occurrence of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus is extremely rare with only one reported case in literature showing such association. Therefore, we report a case of severe opportunistic fungal infection caused by Histoplasma in a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed with juvenile lupus erythematosus, subsequently developed septic shock and died of the disease despite of aggressive antifungal therapy...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#12
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903788/treatment-of-adenoviral-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-using-cidofovir-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-case-series-and-literature-review
#13
Minhyeok Lee, Seulgi Kim, Oh Jung Kwon, Ji Hye Kim, Inbeom Jeong, Ji Woong Son, Moon Jun Na, Yoo Sang Yoon, Hyun Woong Park, Sun Jung Kwon
Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902353/corrigendum-to-follicular-helper-t-cells-and-virus-specific-antibody-response-in-primary-and-reactivated-human-cytomegalovirus-infections-of-the-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-transplant-patients
#14
Francesca Bruno, Chiara Fornara, Paola Zelini, Milena Furione, Elena Carrara, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Ilaria Cane, Federico Mele, Federica Sallusto, Daniele Lilleri, Giuseppe Gerna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900242/management-of-rhinomaxillary-mucormycosis-with-posaconazole-in-immunocompetent-patients
#15
Sachin Rai, Shikha Yadav, Dinesh Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Vidya Rattan
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic, uncommon and serious systemic fungal infection mostly presenting in immunocompromised patients. The combination of surgical debridement, parenteral therapy with Amphotericin B and management of the underlying systemic disease is the standard treatment modality for mucormycosis. The drawback of this regime is the need for long hospitalization due to the serious side effects of Amphotericin B requiring regular monitoring. Oral Posaconazole is one of the newer antifungals that have shown promising results...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899225/humoral-and-cellular-response-after-varicella-vaccination-in-vzv-igg-seronegative-kidney-transplant-candidates
#16
Marcia M L Kho, Joke M Zuijderwijk, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Ronella de Kuiper, Marieken J Boer-Verschragen, Willem Weimar, Nicole M van Besouw
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, primary infection with VZV may have a disastrous clinical course. Vaccination of VZV-seronegative patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation may prevent severe disease. However, the immunologic response of end-stage renal disease patients to peptide vaccines is far from optimal. Our question was whether end-stage renal disease patients with undetectable VZV-IgG levels were able to mount an adequate humoral and cellular response to a live attenuated varicella vaccine...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897041/novel-antifungal-agents-a-patent-review-2013-present
#17
María Victoria Castelli, Marcos Gabriel Derita, Silvia Noelí López
Superficial infections involving the skin and mucosa are the most common fungal disease in humans. Fungi can also produce invasive infections (IFI), which are increasing in incidence among the growing population of immunocompromised patients, and are characterized by a high mortality rate. Amphotericin B, new triazoles and echinocandins have improved treatment options in IFI. However, the frequency of less common and more resistant fungi, the limited activity of available antifungal drugs and their undesirable side effects reflect the urgent need for the development of new therapeutic strategies...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895947/subacute-bacterial-endocarditis-with-leptotrichia-goodfellowii-in-a-patient-with-a-valvular-allograft-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Wilfredo R Matias, Daniel L Bourque, Tomoko Niwano, Andrew B Onderdonk, Joel T Katz
Leptotrichia species are normal constituents of the oral cavity and the genitourinary tract microbiota that are known to provoke disease in immunocompromised patients and rarely in immunocompetent individuals. Following the description of Leptotrichia goodfellowii sp. nov., two cases of endocarditis by this species have been reported. Here, we report a case of Leptotrichia goodfellowii endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient with a valvular allograft. The isolation and identification of Leptotrichia can be challenging, and it is likely that infection with this pathogen is significantly underdiagnosed...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895635/molecular-characteristic-and-virulence-gene-profiles-of-community-associated-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pediatric-patients-in-shanghai-china
#19
Xing Wang, Xia Li, Wei Liu, Weichun Huang, Qihua Fu, Min Li
Staphylococcus aureus is a globally important human pathogen, especially among children and immunocompromised patients. The emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a serious public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, molecular characteristics and virulence profiles of CA-MRSA infections from pediatric patients in a university hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 80 CA-MRSA isolates were collected from July 2012 to December 2013 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center and analyzed by multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcus chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, and spa typing...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895446/a-case-of-fatal-sepsis-due-to-multidrug-resistant-corynebacterium-striatum
#20
M Chatzopoulou, T Koufakis, I Voulgaridi, I Gabranis, M Tsiakalou
BACKGROUND: Although non-diphtheria corynebacteria have traditionally been regarded as avirulent members of human bacterial flora, their pathogenic potential is increasingly recognized in our time. Reasons for this include the prolonged survival of severely ill and immunocompromised patients, the development of more invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the sub-optimal use of antibiotics that disrupts normal microbial balance and favors superinfections. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum in a 76-year-old host...
January 2016: Hippokratia
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