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Immunocompromised infections

Voon Kin Chin, Tze Yan Lee, Basir Rusliza, Pei Pei Chong
Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gordon G Carmichael
Murine polyomavirus (MPyV) infects mouse cells and is highly oncogenic in immunocompromised hosts and in other rodents. Its genome is a small, circular DNA molecule of just over 5000 base pairs and it encodes only seven polypeptides. While seemingly simply organized, this virus has adopted an unusual genome structure and some unusual uses of cellular quality control pathways that, together, allow an amazingly complex and varied pattern of gene regulation. In this review we discuss how MPyV leverages these various pathways to control its life cycle...
October 17, 2016: Viruses
Madhukar Pai, Marcel Behr
The identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is useful for both fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of disease and for clinical and public health interventions (i.e., to prevent progression to disease). Basic research suggests there is a pathogenetic continuum from exposure to infection to disease, and individuals may advance or reverse positions within the spectrum, depending on changes in the host immunity. Unfortunately, there is no diagnostic test that resolves the various stages within the spectrum of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Nicole Robbins, Gerard D Wright, Leah E Cowen
Invasive fungal infections are becoming an increasingly important cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly for immunocompromised populations. The fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus collectively contribute to over 1 million human deaths annually. Hence, the importance of safe and effective antifungal therapeutics for the practice of modern medicine has never been greater. Given that fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, the number of unique molecular targets that can be exploited for drug development remains limited...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Aritreyee Datta, Vikas Yadav, Anirban Ghosh, Jaesun Choi, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Rajiv K Kar, Humaira Ilyas, Arkajyoti Dutta, Eunseol An, Jayanta Mukhopadhyay, Dongkuk Lee, Kaustuv Sanyal, Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy, Anirban Bhunia
There is a significant need for developing compounds that kill Cryptococcus neoformans, the fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. Here, we report the mode of action of a designed antifungal peptide, VG16KRKP (VARGWKRKCPLFGKGG) against C. neoformans. It is shown that VG16KRKP kills fungal cells mainly through membrane compromise leading to efflux of ions and cell metabolites. Intracellular localization, inhibition of in vitro transcription, and DNA binding suggest a secondary mode of action for the peptide, hinting at possible intracellular targets...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Franz Puttur, Marcela Francozo, Gülhas Solmaz, Carlos Bueno, Marc Lindenberg, Melanie Gohmert, Maxine Swallow, Dejene Tufa, Roland Jacobs, Stefan Lienenklaus, Anja A Kühl, Lisa Borkner, Luka Cicin-Sain, Bernard Holzmann, Hermann Wagner, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic virus severely infecting immunocompromised individuals. In mice, endosomal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and downstream myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are central to activating innate immune responses against mouse CMV (MCMV). In this respect, the cell-specific contribution of these pathways in initiating anti-MCMV immunity remains unclear. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TLR9/MyD88 signaling selectively in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) strongly enhances MCMV clearance by boosting natural killer (NK) cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Ellen Van Damme, Kim Thys, Marianne Tuefferd, Carl Van Hove, Jeroen Aerssens, Marnix Van Loock
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus which rarely presents problems in healthy individuals, yet may result in severe morbidity in immunocompromised patients and in immune-naïve neonates. HCMV has a large 235 kb genome with a coding capacity of at least 165 open reading frames (ORFs). This large genome allows complex gene regulation resulting in different sets of transcripts during lytic and latent infection. While latent virus mainly resides within monocytes and CD34+ progenitor cells, reactivation to lytic infection is driven by differentiation towards terminally differentiated myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages...
2016: PloS One
Ishita Chen, Raymond B Fohtung, Hanadi Ajam Oughli, Robert Bauer, Caline Mattar, William G Powderly, Mark S Thoelke
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome (RHS) is a rare complication of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection that can occur in immunocompetent host. It usually involves ipsilateral facial paralysis, ear pain and facial vesicles. Disseminated herpes zoster is another complication of VZV infection typically seen in immunocompromised hosts. We describe a patient with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who presented simultaneously with RHS and disseminated herpes zoster. While other complications have been documented to coexist with RHS, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of concurrent RHS with disseminated herpes zoster...
2016: IDCases
Mai Ohba, Tomoichiro Oka, Takayuki Ando, Saori Arahata, Asaka Ikegaya, Hirotaka Takagi, Naohisa Ogo, Chelsea Zhu, Kazuhiro Owada, Fumihiko Kawamori, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Akira Asai
Caliciviruses are contagious pathogens of humans and various animals. They are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and can cause lethal diseases in domestic animals such as cats, rabbits and immunocompromised mice. In this study, we conducted cytopathic effect-based screening of 2080 selected compounds from our in-house library to find antiviral compounds against three culturable caliciviruses: feline calicivirus, murine norovirus (MNV) and porcine sapovirus (PoSaV). We identified active six compounds, of which two compounds, both related to theaflavins, showed broad antiviral activities against all three caliciviruses; three compounds (abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b; avermectin B1a; and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate hydrate) were effective against PoSaV only; and a heterocyclic carboxamide derivative (BFTC) specifically inhibited MNV infectivity in cell cultures...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Haruki Funao, Khaled M Kebaish, Norihiro Isogai, Takahiro Koyanagi, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii
BACKGROUND: Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when non-surgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe two cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with a percutaneous stabilization using S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Murali K Kolikonda, Priyanga Jayakumar, Srividya Sriramula, Steven Lippmann
A common inhabitant of skin, the Kocuria kristinae of the Micrococcaceae family, has gained attention in recent years because it can induce pathology in humans. Reported is a Kocuria kristinae-caused abdominal abscess in a patient treated for rheumatoid arthritis with adalimumab. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor drugs are known to cause various bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. This is the first known case where an opportunistic infection with Kocuria has presented with an abdominal abscess in an immunocompromised individual who is on long term TNF inhibitors...
October 18, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Joseph A Carcillo, J Michael Dean, Richard Holubkov, John Berger, Kathleen L Meert, Kanwaljeet J S Anand, Jerry Zimmerman, Christopher J Newth, Rick Harrison, Jeri Burr, Douglas F Willson, Carol Nicholson, Michael J Bell, Robert A Berg, Thomas P Shanley, Sabrina M Heidemann, Heidi Dalton, Tammara L Jenkins, Allan Doctor, Angie Webster
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection remains an important health problem in long stay (>3 days) pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Admission risk factors related to the development of nosocomial infection in long stay immune competent patients in particular are not known. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of the previously published Critical Illness Stress induced Immune Suppression (CRISIS) prevention trial database, to identify baseline risk factors for nosocomial infection...
November 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mariaconcetta Varano, Marco Gaspari, Angela Quirino, Giovanni Cuda, Maria Carla Liberto, Alfredo Focà
Ochrobactrum anthropi is a gram-negative rod belonging to the Brucellaceae family, able to colonize a variety of environments, and actually reported as a human opportunistic pathogen. Despite its low virulence, the bacterium causes a growing number of hospital-acquired infections mainly, but not exclusively, in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the global proteome changes occurring in O. anthropi in response to different growth temperatures, in order to achieve a major understanding of the mechanisms by which the bacterium adapts to different habitats and to identify some potential virulence factors...
October 18, 2016: Proteomics
Mai Yamamoto, Takashige Kashimoto, Yukihiro Yoshimura, Nao Tachibana, Shiho Kuroda, Yoshiko Miki, Sou Kitabayashi, Ping Tong, Jianbo Xiao, Koichi Tanaka, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Koichiro Yamamoto
The halophilic marine bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus, occasionally causes fatal septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Mice are commonly used as experimental animals to investigate the virulence of V. vulnificus, however, a large number of mice are generally required for bioassays. The present study examined whether the invertebrate species, silkworms, can be used instead of mice to investigate V. vulnificus virulence. When the silkworms were inoculated with 1.2x107 colony forming units of V. vulnificus OPU1‑Rf, a virulent strain of V...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
James Sutherland Lawson, Wendy K Glenn, Noel James Whitaker
High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case-control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Kelly Pennington, Martin Van Zyl, Patricio Escalante
Citrobacter koseri is a motile, gram-negative rod traditionally known to cause infection in individuals with significant comorbidities and immunocompromised status. While most cases represent nosocomial infections, rarely community-acquired infections have been reported. We present a previously healthy man in his 60s with C. koseri pneumonia who was subsequently found to have underlying pulmonary adenocarcinoma, illustrating the need for further investigation for immunodeficiency and/or intrapulmonary pathology...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Susanne Eigl, Martin Hoenigl, Birgit Spiess, Sven Heldt, Juergen Prattes, Peter Neumeister, Albert Wolfler, Jasmin Rabensteiner, Florian Prueller, Robert Krause, Mark Reinwald, Holger Flick, Dieter Buchheidt, Tobias Boch
In recent years galactomannan antigen testing (GM) and also Aspergillus PCR have become increasingly important for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Whether or not these tests need to be performed with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; i.e., primary site of infection), or testing of blood samples is sufficient, remains, however, a matter of debate. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of GM ELISA, and Aspergillus PCR by using BALF samples and blood samples obtained at the same day from a total of 53 immunocompromised patients (16 with probable/proven IA and 37 with no evidence of IA according to the revised EORTC/MSG criteria; 38 patients with hematological malignancies were prospectively enrolled at the Medical University of Graz, Austria, 15 patients with mixed underlying diseases at the Mannheim University Hospital)...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
F C A Odongo, L S Azevedo, E D Neto, H Yeh-Li, H Caiaffa, L C Pierrotti
BACKGROUND: Influenza virus infection can cause severe illness in certain high-risk groups. Solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients have been shown to present a greater risk for severe influenza and complications than the general population. METHODS: Retrospective descriptive cohort study of the features and outcomes of influenza infection in renal transplant recipients from July 2009 to May 2014. RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with influenza A infection within the specified period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fernanda Sangalli-Leite, Liliana Scorzoni, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Junya de Lacorte Singulani, Fernanda Patrícia Gullo, Rosangela Moraes da Silva, Luis Octávio Regasini, Dulce Helena Siqueira da Silva, Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection responsible for high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Combination of antifungal substances is a promising way to increase the percentage of successful treatment. Pedalitin (PED) is a natural substance obtained from Pterogyne nitens. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of PED alone and in combination with amphotericin B (AmB) in vitro and in vivo against Cryptococcus spp. In the in vitro assay, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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