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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667756/pharmacokinetic-profiling-of-anticancer-phytocompounds-using-computational-approach
#1
Ashish Sharma, Shilpa Sharma, Mansi Gupta, Shehnaz Fatima, Ravi Saini, Subhash Mohan Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Natural products exhibit diverse scaffolds and are considered as suitable candidates for development of leads. However, poor pharmacokinetics often acts as a hindrance during the drug discovery process. OBJECTIVE: With a view of exploring the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) profile of plant-based anticancer compounds, open-access databases (NPACT, CancerHSP and TaxKB) were analysed to identify molecules having properties favourable for drug ability...
April 18, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667551/circulating-mir-10a-as-predictor-of-therapy-response-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-treated-with-methotrexate
#2
Honghai Hong, Haihui Yang, Yong Xia
BACKGROUND: Anti-inflammatory drugs and DMARDs, especially methotrexate, have dramatically improved the outlook of RA patient. However, in some patients the treatment effect is still not satisfactory and needs to change therapeutic regimen in time. So, prediction of patient treatment effect timely is particularly important. METHODS: miRNAs are a large family of highly conserved noncoding genes and some of them become potential biomarker of disease diagnosis. In present study, we found circulating miR-10a was significantly decreased in RA patients compared to osteoarthritic patients and healthy people...
April 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667367/how-to-use-prior-knowledge-and-still-give-new-data-a-chance
#3
Kristina Weber, Rob Hemmings, Armin Koch
A common challenge for the development of drugs in rare diseases and special populations, eg, paediatrics, is the small numbers of patients that can be recruited into clinical trials. Extrapolation can be used to support development and licensing in paediatrics through the structured integration of available data in adults and prospectively generated data in paediatrics to derive conclusions that support licensing decisions in the target paediatric population. In this context, Bayesian analyses have been proposed to obtain formal proof of efficacy of a new drug or therapeutic principle by using additional information (data, opinion, or expectation), expressed through a prior distribution...
April 17, 2018: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667344/concise-review-aggressive-colorectal-cancer-role-of-epithelial-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-cancer-stem-cells-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#4
REVIEW
Maximilian Boesch, Gilbert Spizzo, Andreas Seeber
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. In spite of various attempts to ameliorate outcome by escalating treatment, significant improvement is lacking particularly in the adjuvant setting. It has been proposed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are at least partially responsible for therapy resistance in CRC. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was one of the first CSC antigens to be described. Furthermore, an EpCAM-specific antibody (edrecolomab) has the merit of having launched the era of monoclonal antibody treatment in oncology in the 1990s...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667248/establishment-of-a-radiotelemetric-recording-technique-in-mice-to-investigate-gastric-slow-waves-modulatory-role-of-putative-neurotransmitter-systems
#5
Huichuan Wang, Zengbing Lu, Yuen Hang Liu, Yayi Sun, Longlong Tu, Man P Ngan, Chi-Kong Yeung, John A Rudd
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Gastric slow waves originating from interstitial cells of Cajal-smooth muscle syncytium are usually studied in culture or in tissue segments, but no studies have made recording of slow waves from conscious freely moving mice. Can radiotelemetry be used to record slow waves, and do they respond predictably to drug treatment? What is the main finding and its importance? Radiotelemetry may be used to record slow waves from conscious freely moving mice permitting an examination of drug action in vivo, which is critical to drug discovery projects characterizing drugs and metabolites on gastrointestinal function...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667069/the-versatile-role-of-exosomes-in-cancer-progression-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-implications
#6
REVIEW
Vignesh Sundararajan, Fazlul H Sarkar, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming...
April 17, 2018: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667038/complex-drug-drug-gene-disease-interactions-involving-cytochromes-p450-systematic-review-of-published-case-reports-and-clinical-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Flavia Storelli, Caroline Samer, Jean-Luc Reny, Jules Desmeules, Youssef Daali
Drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, among which concomitant medications are responsible for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may have a clinical relevance, resulting in adverse drug reactions or reduced efficacy. The addition of intrinsic factors affecting cytochromes P450 (CYPs) activity and/or expression, such as genetic polymorphisms and diseases, may potentiate the impact and clinical relevance of DDIs. In addition, greater variability in drug levels and exposures has been observed when such intrinsic factors are present in addition to concomitant medications perpetrating DDIs...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666902/effect-of-cyp2c19-ugt1a8-and-ugt2b7-on-valproic-acid-clearance-in-children-with-epilepsy-a-population-pharmacokinetic-model
#8
Shenghui Mei, Weixing Feng, Leting Zhu, Xingang Li, Yazhen Yu, Weili Yang, Baoqin Gao, Xiaojuan Wu, Fang Fang, Zhigang Zhao
PURPOSE: Valproic acid (VPA) is an important drug in seizure control with great inter-individual differences in metabolism and treatment effect. This study aims to identify the effects of genetic variants on VPA clearance in a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model in children with epilepsy. METHODS: A total of 325 VPA plasma concentrations from 290 children with epilepsy were used to develop the popPK model by using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling method...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666228/deep-learning-improves-prediction-of-drug-drug-and-drug-food-interactions
#9
Jae Yong Ryu, Hyun Uk Kim, Sang Yup Lee
Drug interactions, including drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and drug-food constituent interactions (DFIs), can trigger unexpected pharmacological effects, including adverse drug events (ADEs), with causal mechanisms often unknown. Several computational methods have been developed to better understand drug interactions, especially for DDIs. However, these methods do not provide sufficient details beyond the chance of DDI occurrence, or require detailed drug information often unavailable for DDI prediction. Here, we report development of a computational framework DeepDDI that uses names of drug-drug or drug-food constituent pairs and their structural information as inputs to accurately generate 86 important DDI types as outputs of human-readable sentences...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665774/prediction-of-microrna-disease-associations-based-on-distance-correlation-set
#10
Haochen Zhao, Linai Kuang, Lei Wang, Pengyao Ping, Zhanwei Xuan, Tingrui Pei, Zhelun Wu
BACKGROUND: Recently, numerous laboratory studies have indicated that many microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in and associated with human diseases and can serve as potential biomarkers and drug targets. Therefore, developing effective computational models for the prediction of novel associations between diseases and miRNAs could be beneficial for achieving an understanding of disease mechanisms at the miRNA level and the interactions between diseases and miRNAs at the disease level. Thus far, only a few miRNA-disease association pairs are known, and models analyzing miRNA-disease associations based on lncRNA are limited...
April 17, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665654/hypericin-affects-cancer-side-populations-via-competitive-inhibition-of-bcrp
#11
Jana Vargová, Jaromír Mikeš, Rastislav Jendželovský, Lucia Mikešová, Barbora Kuchárová, Ľubomír Čulka, Radek Fedr, Ján Remšík, Karel Souček, Alois Kozubík, Peter Fedoročko
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are considered a root of tumorigenicity and resistance. However, their identification remains challenging. The use of the side population (SP) assay as a credible marker of CSLCs remains controversial. The SP assay relies on the elevated activity of ABC transporters that, in turn, can be modulated by hypericin (HYP), a photosensitizer and bioactive compound of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a popular over-the-counter antidepressant. Here we aimed to comprehensively characterize the SP phenotype of cancer cells and to determine the impact of HYP on these cells...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665549/combination-of-cyp2c19-genotype-with-non-genetic-factors-evoking-phenoconversion-improves-phenotype-prediction
#12
Ádám Ferenc Kiss, Dorottya Vaskó, Máté Tamás Déri, Katalin Tóth, Katalin Monostory
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme, responsible for metabolism of approximately 10% of the drugs on the market. Large inter-individual differences exist in metabolic activities, which are primarily attributed to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 gene. Conflicting results have been published about the role of CYP2C19 polymorphisms in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates and clinical outcomes; thus, we aimed to investigate CYP2C19 genotype-phenotype associations, and we sought to elicit potential causes of discrepancies in the genotype-based prediction by incorporating the liver donors' demographic data, drug administration events and pathological conditions...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665446/absence-of-tetb-identifies-minocycline-susceptible-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Olga Lomovskaya, Dongxu Sun, Debora Rubio-Aparicio, Kirk J Nelson, Visanu Thamlikitkul, Michael N Dudley, Mark A Redell
BACKGROUND: Minocycline is one of the few options available to treat infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. Acquired resistance is associated with the presence of the TetB efflux pump. Previous studies suggest that the absence of tetB may predict minocycline MICs of ≤4 mg/L. METHODS: A collection of 258 isolates of A. baumannii was used to generate MIC frequency distributions for the tetB positive and negative sets of isolates. RESULTS: Of the tetB-negative strains, all 93 had minocycline MICs ≤4 mg/L, resulting in a negative predictive value of 100%...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665289/a-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-colistin-and-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-rat
#14
Salim Bouchene, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet, Lena E Friberg, Patrice Gobin, Isabelle Lamarche, Nicolas Grégoire, Sven Björkman, Mats O Karlsson
Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) Kp priors were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico...
April 17, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664891/reinventing-the-wheel-impact-of-prolonged-antibiotic-exposure-on-multi-drug-resistant-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-trauma-patients
#15
Richard H Lewis, John P Sharpe, Joseph M Swanson, Timothy C Fabian, Martin A Croce, Louis J Magnotti
INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of both Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) as causative VAP pathogens are becoming increasingly common. Still, the risk factors associated with this increased resistance have yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the changing sensitivity patterns of these pathogens over time and determine which risk factors predict MDR in trauma patients with VAP. METHODS: Patients with either AB or PA VAP over 10 years were stratified by pathogen sensitivity (sensitive (SEN) and MDR), age, severity of shock and injury severity...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664676/a-mathematical-analysis-of-adaptations-to-the-metabolic-fate-of-fructose-in-essential-fructosuria-subjects
#16
R J Allen, Cynthia J Musante
Fructose is a major component of Western diets and is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In response to an oral challenge, the majority of fructose is cleared during "first-pass" liver metabolism, primarily via phosphorylation by ketohexokinase (KHK). A rare benign genetic deficiency in KHK, called essential fructosuria (EF), leads to altered fructose metabolism. The only reported symptom of EF is the appearance of fructose in the urine following either oral or intravenous fructose administration...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664215/the-plasma-bile-acid-alterations-of-type-2-diabetes-correlated-with-insulin-secretion-in-two-step-hyperglycemic-clamp
#17
Shujie Wang, Yuying Deng, Xiaoyan Xie, Jing Ma, Min Xu, Xinjie Zhao, Weiqiong Gu, Jie Hong, Weiqing Wang, Guowang Xu, Guang Ning, Yanyun Gu, Yifei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bile acids (BAs) conduct crucial signals in human metabolism. Correlations between human plasma BA alterations and insulin secretion defects and type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression have been insufficiently studied. This study was performed to explore the trajectories of human plasma BA alterations and their association with the insulin secretion dynamics during a two-step hyperglycemic clamp. METHODS: Eleven healthy (NGT) and 33 drug-naïve T2D subjects (T2Ds) were enrolled to undertake a two-step hyperglycemic clamp...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664167/clinical-outcomes-of-current-medical-approaches-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Le Van Thanh, Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb Ghazy, Ahmed M A Altibi, Lu Minh Dat, Tran Ngoc Xuan Thy, Nguyen Lam Vuong, Mostafa Reda Mostafa, Sarah Ibrahim Ahmed, Sahar Samy Elabd, Samreen Fathima, Tran Le Huy Vu, Ali S Omrani, Ziad A Memish, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by MERS coronavirus. Because of lack of vaccination, various studies investigated the therapeutic efficacy of antiviral drugs and supportive remedies. A systematic literature search from 10 databases was conducted and screened for relevant articles. Studies reporting information about the treatment of MERS coronavirus infection were extracted and analyzed. Despite receiving treatment with ribavirin plus IFN, the case fatality rate was as high as 71% in the IFN-treatment group and exactly the same in patients who received supportive treatment only...
April 17, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663959/quality-assurance-of-rifampicin-containing-fixed-drug-combinations-in-south-africa-dosing-implications
#19
R Court, M T Chirehwa, L Wiesner, B Wright, W Smythe, N Kramer, H McIlleron
SETTING: Rifampicin (RMP) drives treatment response in drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Low RMP concentrations increase the risk of poor outcomes, and drug quality needs to be excluded as a contributor to low RMP exposure. OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: We performed an open-label, three-way cross-over study of three licensed RMP-containing formulations widely used in South Africa to evaluate the bioavailability of RMP in a two-drug fixed-dose combination tablet (2FDC) and a four-drug FDC (4FDC) against a single-drug reference...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663896/molecular-interaction-and-computational-analytical-studies-of-pinocembrin-for-its-antiangiogenic-potential-targeting-vegfr-2-a-persuader-of-metastasis
#20
Neha Sharma, Mala Sharma, Eram Shakeel, Qazi M Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Kamal, Usman Sayeed, Mohammad K A Khan, Mohammad H Siddiqui, Jamal M Arif, Salman Akhtar
BACKGROUND: Designing a novel antagonist against VEGFR-2 is being applied currently to inhibit cancer growth and metastasis. Because of the unexpected side effects incurred by the contemporary anticancer medications, the focus has been laid towards identifying natural compounds that might carry the potential to inhibit tumor progression. VEGR-2 remains an important target for anticancer drug development as it is the master regulator of vascular growth. OBJECTIVE: The study focuses on virtual screening of compounds from plants of Asteraceae family that bears antiangiogenic potential and thus, inhibiting VEGFR-2 using a computational approach...
April 16, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
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