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Angela L Perez, Monty Liong, Kevin Plotkin, Keith P Rickabaugh, Dennis J Paustenbach
This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
P Sneha, C George Priya Doss
The pace of anti-diabetic drug discovery is very slow in spite of increasing rate of prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes which remains a major public health concern. Though extensive research steps are taken in the past decade, yet craves for better of new treatment strategies to overcome the current scenario. One such general finding is the evolution of gliptins which discriminately inhibits DPP4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase-4) enzyme. Although the mechanism of action of gliptin is highly target oriented and accurate, still its long-term use stands unknown...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
Youssef Shiban, Julia Dieme, Simone Brandl, Rebecca Zack, Andreas Mühlberger, Stefan Wüst
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jin Tokunaga, Norito Takamura, Yasuyuki Kourogi, Misato Imada, Ayaka Kozasa, Kanako Komori, Chisa Ono, Akie Nishimura, Kenji Ogata, Nao Setoguchi, Toshikazu Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Kai, Keizo Sato, Kazuhiko Arimori
 We utilized the information and communication technology to develop the physical assessment (PA) learning materials in the virtual experience type. This learning material consists of two parts which include case learning and basic learning. We created example scenarios about various conditions that a pharmacist may experience in medical scenes such as in a hospital ward, community pharmacy, home, and drugstore. Illustrations of a virtual patient's avatar before and after taking the medicines were incorporated in the learning materials...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts...
2016: PloS One
Julien Baglio, Abdelhak Djouadi, Jérémie Quevillon
We summarize the prospects for Higgs boson physics at future proton-proton colliders with centre of mass (c.m.) energies up to 100 TeV. We first provide the production cross sections for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model from 13 TeV to 100 TeV, in the main production mechanisms and in subleading but important ones such as double Higgs production, triple production and associated production with two gauge bosons or with a single top quark. We then discuss the production of Higgs particles in beyond the Standard Model scenarios, starting with the one in the continuum of a pair of scalar, fermionic and vector dark matter particles in Higgs-portal models in various channels with virtual Higgs exchange...
November 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
Caroline J Falconer, Aitor Rovira, John A King, Paul Gilbert, Angus Antley, Pasco Fearon, Neil Ralph, Mel Slater, Chris R Brewin
BACKGROUND: Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be combatted by increasing levels of self-compassion. However, some patients are resistant to self-compassion. AIMS: To investigate whether the effects of self-identification with virtual bodies within immersive virtual reality could be exploited to increase self-compassion in patients with depression. METHOD: We developed an 8-minute scenario in which 15 patients practised delivering compassion in one virtual body and then experienced receiving it from themselves in another virtual body...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
Anders Rosendal Korshoej, Guilherme Bicalho Saturnino, Line Kirkegaard Rasmussen, Gorm von Oettingen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Axel Thielscher
OBJECTIVE: The present work proposes a new clinical approach to TTFields therapy of glioblastoma. The approach combines targeted surgical skull removal (craniectomy) with TTFields therapy to enhance the induced electrical field in the underlying tumor tissue. Using computer simulations, we explore the potential of the intervention to improve the clinical efficacy of TTFields therapy of brain cancer. METHODS: We used finite element analysis to calculate the electrical field distribution in realistic head models based on MRI data from two patients: One with left cortical/subcortical glioblastoma and one with deeply seated right thalamic anaplastic astrocytoma...
2016: PloS One
L A J Haydock, W E Pomroy, M A Stevenson, K E Lawrence
Infections of ruminants with Fasciola hepatica are considered to be of regional importance within New Zealand but there is very little recent information on its prevalence or severity other than anecdotal reports. Generally they are considered to be of secondary importance compared to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Utilizing data from Virtual Climate Stations (n=11491) distributed on a 5km grid around New Zealand a growing degree-day model was used to describe the risk of infection with liver fluke from 1972 to 2012 and then to apply the predictions to estimate the risk of fluke infections within New Zealand for the years 2040 and 2090...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Lorenzo Domenichini, Francesca La Torre, Valentina Branzi, Alessandro Nocentini
Reductions in speed and, more critically, in speed variability between vehicles are considered an important factor to reduce crash risk in work zones. This study was designed to evaluate in a virtual environment the drivers' behaviour in response to nine different configurations of a motorway crossover work zone. Specifically, the speed behaviour through a typical crossover layout, designed in accordance with the Italian Ministerial Decree 10 July 2002, was compared with that of eight alternative configurations which differ in some characteristics such as the sequence of speed limits, the median opening width and the lane width...
September 24, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Zohaib Amjad Khan, Nabeel Kamal, Asad Hameed, Amama Mahmood, Rida Zainab, Bushra Sadia, Shamyl Bin Mansoor, Osman Hasan
Virtual reality (VR) training simulators have started playing a vital role in enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practicing surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. We describe a new VR simulator for basic training in laparoscopy, i.e. SmartSIM, which has been developed using a generic open-source physics engine called the simulation open framework architecture (SOFA). This paper describes the systems perspective of SmartSIM including design details of both hardware and software components, while highlighting the critical design decisions...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
Bhakti Hansoti, Dylan S Kellogg, Sara J Aberle, Morgan C Broccoli, Jeffrey Feden, Arthur French, Charles M Little, Brooks Moore, Joseph Sabato, Tara Sheets, R Weinberg, Pat Elmes, Christopher Kang
: Study Objective This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Barbara Wiśniowska, Sebastian Polak
A Quantitative Systems Pharmacology approach was utilized to predict the cardiac consequences of drug-drug interaction (DDI) at the population level. The Simcyp in vitro-in vivo correlation and physiologically based pharmacokinetic platform was used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of terfenadine following co-administration of the drug. Electrophysiological effects were simulated using the Cardiac Safety Simulator. The modulation of ion channel activity was dependent on the inhibitory potential of drugs on the main cardiac ion channels and a simulated free heart tissue concentration...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Franck Le Navéaux, A Noelle Larson, Hubert Labelle, Xiaoyu Wang, Carl-Éric Aubin
BACKGROUND: Optimal implant densities and configurations for thoracic spine instrumentation to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remain unknown. The objective was to computationally assess the biomechanical effects of implant distribution on 3D curve correction and bone-implant forces. METHODS: 3D patient-specific biomechanical spine models based on a multibody dynamic approach were created for 9 Lenke 1 patients who underwent posterior instrumentation (main thoracic Cobb: 43°-70°)...
September 9, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Hsing-Fu Huang, Hwong-Wen Ma
To determine the actual status of individuals in a system and the trading interaction between polluters, this study uses an agent-based model to set up a virtual world that represents the Kaohsiung and Pingtung regions in Taiwan, which are under the country's air emissions cap and trade program. The model can simulate each controlled industry's dynamic behavioral condition with the bottom-up method and can investigate the impact of the program and determine the industry's emissions reduction and trading condition...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Kimberly-Anne Tan, Mathew D Sewell, Andrew J Clarke, Daniel Chan, Oliver M Stokes, Shahid N Khan, Michael Hutton
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Pacemakers are currently identified as a contraindication for the use of magnetic growth rods (MGRs). This arises from concern that magnetic fields generated by the MGR external remote controller (ERC) during lengthening procedures may induce pacemaker dysfunction. We investigated (1) whether MGR lengthening affects pacemaker function, and (2) if the magnetic field of a pacemaker affects MGR lengthening. METHODS: MGRs were tested in conjunction with an magnetic resonance imaging-compatible pacemaker, which was connected to a virtual patient under continuous cardiac monitoring...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Gilad Drozdov, Amir Rosenthal
In optoacoustic tomography, negatively focused transducers may be used for improving the tangential image resolution while preserving a high signal-to-noise ratio. Commonly, image reconstruction in such scenarios is facilitated by the use of the virtual-detector approach. Although the validity of this approach has been experimentally verified, it is based on an approximation whose effect on optoacoustic image reconstruction has not yet been studied. In this paper, we analyze the response of the negatively focused acoustic detectors in 2D in both time and frequency domain...
September 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Muhammad Ilyas, Kuk Cho, Seung-Ho Baeg, Sangdeok Park
Pedestrian navigation systems (PNS) using foot-mounted MEMS inertial sensors use zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) to reduce drift in navigation solutions and estimate inertial sensor errors. However, it is well known that ZUPTs cannot reduce all errors, especially as heading error is not observable. Hence, the position estimates tend to drift and even cyclic ZUPTs are applied in updated steps of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). This urges the use of other motion constraints for pedestrian gait and any other valuable heading reduction information that is available...
2016: Sensors
Florian Lauck, Matthias Rarey
In the search for new marketable drugs, new ideas are required constantly. Particularly with regard to challenging targets and previously patented chemical space, designing novel molecules is crucial. This demands efficient and innovative computational tools to generate libraries of promising molecules. Here we present an efficient method to generate such libraries by systematically enumerating all molecules in a specific chemical space. This space is defined by a fragment space and a set of user-defined physicochemical properties (e...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Yunqi Wang, Weiqi Liu, Xiangxiang Meng, Hanyi Fu, Daliang Zhang, Yusi Kang, Rui Feng, Zhonglun Wei, Xiuqing Zhu, Guohua Jiang
To resolve the contradiction between large field of view and high resolution in immersive virtual reality (VR) head-mounted displays (HMDs), an HMD monocular optical system with a large field of view and high resolution was designed. The system was fabricated by adopting aspheric technology with CNC grinding and a high-resolution LCD as the image source. With this monocular optical system, an HMD binocular optical system with a wide-range continuously adjustable interpupillary distance was achieved in the form of partially overlapping fields of view (FOV) combined with a screw adjustment mechanism...
September 1, 2016: Applied Optics
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