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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902872/happens-in-the-best-of-subfamilies-establishment-and-repeated-replacements-of-co-obligate-secondary-endosymbionts-within-lachninae-aphids
#1
Alejandro Manzano-Marín, Gitta Szabo, Jean-Christophe Simon, Matthias Horn, Amparo Latorre
Virtually all aphids maintain an obligate mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria from the Buchnera genus, which produce essential nutrients for their aphid hosts. Most aphids from the Lachninae subfamily have been consistently found to house additional endosymbionts, mainly Serratia symbiotica. This apparent dependence on secondary endosymbionts was proposed to have been triggered by the loss of the riboflavin biosynthetic capability by Buchnera in the Lachninae last common ancestor. However, an integral large-scale analysis of secondary endosymbionts in the Lachninae is still missing, hampering the interpretation of the evolutionary and genomic analyses of these endosymbionts...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882523/simulation-in-undergraduate-psychiatry-exploring-the-depth-of-learner-engagement
#2
REVIEW
Petal S Abdool, Latika Nirula, Sarah Bonato, Tarek K Rajji, Ivan L Silver
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based methodologies are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education to expand students' exposure to complex clinical scenarios. Engagement of students in these simulation-based methodologies is a key determinant of their success in learning. Thus, the authors conducted a systematic review to (1) identify simulation methods in use within the undergraduate psychiatry curriculum and (2) assess learner engagement using these methods. METHODS: Following a PRISMA methodology, the authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsychINFO databases from 1977 to 2015...
November 23, 2016: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870880/how-simple-hypothetical-choice-experiments-can-be-utilized-to-learn-humans-navigational-escape-decisions-in-emergencies
#3
Milad Haghani, Majid Sarvi, Zahra Shahhoseini, Maik Boltes
How humans resolve non-trivial tradeoffs in their navigational choices between the social interactions (e.g., the presence and movements of others) and the physical factors (e.g., spatial distances, route visibility) when escaping from threats in crowded confined spaces? The answer to this question has major implications for the planning of evacuations and the safety of mass gatherings as well as the design of built environments. Due to the challenges of collecting behavioral data from naturally-occurring evacuation settings, laboratory-based virtual-evacuation experiments have been practiced in a number of studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865610/assessment-of-bioequivalence-of-weak-base-formulations-under-various-dosing-conditions-using-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-simulations-in-virtual-populations-case-examples-ketoconazole-and-posaconazole
#4
Rodrigo Cristofoletti, Nikunjkumar Patel, Jennifer B Dressman
Postabsorptive factors which can affect systemic drug exposure are assumed to be dependent on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and thus independent of formulation. In contrast, preabsorptive factors, for example, hypochlorhydria, might affect systemic exposure in both an API and a formulation-dependent way. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral absorption of 2 poorly soluble, weakly basic APIs, ketoconazole (KETO) and posaconazole (POSA), would be equally sensitive to changes in dissolution rate under the following dosing conditions-coadministration with water, with food, with carbonated drinks, and in drug-induced hypochlorhydria...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863143/using-model-based-learn-and-confirm-to-reveal-the-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-relationship-of-pembrolizumab-in-the-keynote-001-trial
#5
J Elassaiss-Schaap, S Rossenu, A Lindauer, S P Kang, R de Greef, J R Sachs, D P de Alwis
Evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties played an important role in the early clinical development of pembrolizumab. Because analysis of data from a traditional 3 + 3 dose-escalation design revealed several critical uncertainties, a model-based approach was implemented to better understand these properties. Based on anticipated scenarios for potency and PK nonlinearity, a follow-up study was designed and thoroughly evaluated. Execution of 14,000 virtual trials led to the selection and implementation of a robust design that extended the low-dose range by 200-fold...
November 8, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816568/scenarios-for-the-future-of-mental-health-care-a-social-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Domenico Giacco, Michaela Amering, Victoria Bird, Thomas Craig, Giuseppe Ducci, Jürgen Gallinat, Steven George Gillard, Tim Greacen, Phil Hadridge, Sonia Johnson, Nikolina Jovanovic, Richard Laugharne, Craig Morgan, Matthijs Muijen, Georg Schomerus, Martin Zinkler, Simon Wessely, Stefan Priebe
Social values and concepts have played a central role in the history of mental health care. They have driven major reforms and guided the development of various treatment models. Although social values and concepts have been important for mental health care in the past, this Personal View addresses what their role might be in the future. We (DG, PH, and SP) did a survey of professional stakeholders and then used a scenario planning technique in an international expert workshop to address this question. The workshop developed four distinct but not mutually exclusive scenarios in which the social aspect is central: mental health care will be patient controlled; it will target people's social context to improve their mental health; it will become virtual; and access to care will be regulated on the basis of social disadvantage...
November 2, 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798056/computational-modelling-for-congenital-heart-disease-how-far-are-we-from-clinical-translation
#7
REVIEW
Giovanni Biglino, Claudio Capelli, Jan Bruse, Giorgia M Bosi, Andrew M Taylor, Silvia Schievano
Computational models of congenital heart disease (CHD) have become increasingly sophisticated over the last 20 years. They can provide an insight into complex flow phenomena, allow for testing devices into patient-specific anatomies (pre-CHD or post-CHD repair) and generate predictive data. This has been applied to different CHD scenarios, including patients with single ventricle, tetralogy of Fallot, aortic coarctation and transposition of the great arteries. Patient-specific simulations have been shown to be informative for preprocedural planning in complex cases, allowing for virtual stent deployment...
October 25, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783147/crowded-environments-reduce-spatial-memory-in-older-but-not-younger-adults
#8
Niamh A Merriman, Jan Ondřej, Alicia Rybicki, Eugenie Roudaia, Carol O'Sullivan, Fiona N Newell
Previous studies have reported an age-related decline in spatial abilities. However, little is known about whether the presence of other, task-irrelevant stimuli during learning further affects spatial cognition in older adults. Here we embedded virtual environments with moving crowds of virtual human pedestrians (Experiment 1) or objects (Experiment 2) whilst participants learned a route and landmarks embedded along that route. In subsequent test trials we presented clips from the learned route and measured spatial memory using three different tasks: a route direction task (i...
October 25, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769007/health-risk-assessment-of-exposures-to-a-high-molecular-weight-plasticizer-present-in-automobile-interiors
#9
Angela L Perez, Monty Liong, Kevin Plotkin, Keith P Rickabaugh, Dennis J Paustenbach
This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744054/gliptins-in-managing-diabetes-reviewing-computational-strategy
#10
P Sneha, C George Priya Doss
The pace of anti-diabetic drug discovery is very slow in spite of increasing rate of prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes which remains a major public health concern. Though extensive research steps are taken in the past decade, yet craves for better of new treatment strategies to overcome the current scenario. One such general finding is the evolution of gliptins which discriminately inhibits DPP4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase-4) enzyme. Although the mechanism of action of gliptin is highly target oriented and accurate, still its long-term use stands unknown...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742258/trier-social-stress-test-in-vivo-and-in-virtual-reality-dissociation-of-response-domains
#11
Youssef Shiban, Julia Diemer, Simone Brandl, Rebecca Zack, Andreas Mühlberger, Stefan Wüst
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is considered a reliable paradigm for inducing psychosocial stress. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been applied to ensure a greater degree of efficiency and standardization in the TSST. Studies using the TSST in VR (VR-TSST) have reported significant stress reactions, with subjective and peripheral physiological reactions comparable to those in response to the in vivo TSST and with lower cortisol reactions. The current study examined whether an additional virtual competitive factor triggers larger stress responses than a standard VR-TSST...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725393/development-of-the-virtual-physical-assessment-learning-material-that-allows-the-learners-to-check-drug-efficacy-and-early-detection-of-adverse-effects-through-virtual-experience
#12
Jin Tokunaga, Norito Takamura, Yasuyuki Kourogi, Misato Imada, Ayaka Kozasa, Kanako Komori, Chisa Ono, Akie Nishimura, Kenji Ogata, Nao Setoguchi, Toshikazu Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Kai, Keizo Sato, Kazuhiko Arimori
 We utilized the information and communication technology to develop the physical assessment (PA) learning materials in the virtual experience type. This learning material consists of two parts which include case learning and basic learning. We created example scenarios about various conditions that a pharmacist may experience in medical scenes such as in a hospital ward, community pharmacy, home, and drugstore. Illustrations of a virtual patient's avatar before and after taking the medicines were incorporated in the learning materials...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723826/virtual-morality-transitioning-from-moral-judgment-to-moral-action
#13
Kathryn B Francis, Charles Howard, Ian S Howard, Michaela Gummerum, Giorgio Ganis, Grace Anderson, Sylvia Terbeck
The nature of moral action versus moral judgment has been extensively debated in numerous disciplines. We introduce Virtual Reality (VR) moral paradigms examining the action individuals take in a high emotionally arousing, direct action-focused, moral scenario. In two studies involving qualitatively different populations, we found a greater endorsement of utilitarian responses-killing one in order to save many others-when action was required in moral virtual dilemmas compared to their judgment counterparts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710919/prospects-for-higgs-physics-at-energies-up-to-100-tev
#14
Julien Baglio, Abdelhak Djouadi, Jérémie Quevillon
We summarize the prospects for Higgs boson physics at future proton-proton colliders with centre of mass (c.m.) energies up to 100 TeV. We first provide the production cross sections for the Higgs boson of the Standard Model from 13 TeV to 100 TeV, in the main production mechanisms and in subleading but important ones such as double Higgs production, triple production and associated production with two gauge bosons or with a single top quark. We then discuss the production of Higgs particles in beyond the Standard Model scenarios, starting with the one in the continuum of a pair of scalar, fermionic and vector dark matter particles in Higgs-portal models in various channels with virtual Higgs exchange...
November 2016: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703757/embodying-self-compassion-within-virtual-reality-and-its-effects-on-patients-with-depression
#15
Caroline J Falconer, Aitor Rovira, John A King, Paul Gilbert, Angus Antley, Pasco Fearon, Neil Ralph, Mel Slater, Chris R Brewin
BACKGROUND: Self-criticism is a ubiquitous feature of psychopathology and can be combatted by increasing levels of self-compassion. However, some patients are resistant to self-compassion. AIMS: To investigate whether the effects of self-identification with virtual bodies within immersive virtual reality could be exploited to increase self-compassion in patients with depression. METHOD: We developed an 8-minute scenario in which 15 patients practised delivering compassion in one virtual body and then experienced receiving it from themselves in another virtual body...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695068/enhancing-predicted-efficacy-of-tumor-treating-fields-therapy-of-glioblastoma-using-targeted-surgical-craniectomy-a-computer-modeling-study
#16
Anders Rosendal Korshoej, Guilherme Bicalho Saturnino, Line Kirkegaard Rasmussen, Gorm von Oettingen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Axel Thielscher
OBJECTIVE: The present work proposes a new clinical approach to TTFields therapy of glioblastoma. The approach combines targeted surgical skull removal (craniectomy) with TTFields therapy to enhance the induced electrical field in the underlying tumor tissue. Using computer simulations, we explore the potential of the intervention to improve the clinical efficacy of TTFields therapy of brain cancer. METHODS: We used finite element analysis to calculate the electrical field distribution in realistic head models based on MRI data from two patients: One with left cortical/subcortical glioblastoma and one with deeply seated right thalamic anaplastic astrocytoma...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692330/a-growing-degree-day-model-for-determination-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-risk-in-new-zealand-with-future-predictions-using-climate-change-models
#17
L A J Haydock, W E Pomroy, M A Stevenson, K E Lawrence
Infections of ruminants with Fasciola hepatica are considered to be of regional importance within New Zealand but there is very little recent information on its prevalence or severity other than anecdotal reports. Generally they are considered to be of secondary importance compared to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Utilizing data from Virtual Climate Stations (n=11491) distributed on a 5km grid around New Zealand a growing degree-day model was used to describe the risk of infection with liver fluke from 1972 to 2012 and then to apply the predictions to estimate the risk of fluke infections within New Zealand for the years 2040 and 2090...
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676242/speed-behaviour-in-work-zone-crossovers-a-driving-simulator-study
#18
Lorenzo Domenichini, Francesca La Torre, Valentina Branzi, Alessandro Nocentini
Reductions in speed and, more critically, in speed variability between vehicles are considered an important factor to reduce crash risk in work zones. This study was designed to evaluate in a virtual environment the drivers' behaviour in response to nine different configurations of a motorway crossover work zone. Specifically, the speed behaviour through a typical crossover layout, designed in accordance with the Italian Ministerial Decree 10 July 2002, was compared with that of eight alternative configurations which differ in some characteristics such as the sequence of speed limits, the median opening width and the lane width...
September 24, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671920/smartsim-a-virtual-reality-simulator-for-laparoscopy-training-using-a-generic-physics-engine
#19
Zohaib Amjad Khan, Nabeel Kamal, Asad Hameed, Amama Mahmood, Rida Zainab, Bushra Sadia, Shamyl Bin Mansoor, Osman Hasan
Virtual reality (VR) training simulators have started playing a vital role in enhancing surgical skills, such as hand-eye coordination in laparoscopy, and practicing surgical scenarios that cannot be easily created using physical models. We describe a new VR simulator for basic training in laparoscopy, i.e. SmartSIM, which has been developed using a generic open-source physics engine called the simulation open framework architecture (SOFA). This paper describes the systems perspective of SmartSIM including design details of both hardware and software components, while highlighting the critical design decisions...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640891/preparing-emergency-physicians-for-acute-disaster-response-a-review-of-current-training-opportunities-in-the-us
#20
Bhakti Hansoti, Dylan S Kellogg, Sara J Aberle, Morgan C Broccoli, Jeffrey Feden, Arthur French, Charles M Little, Brooks Moore, Joseph Sabato, Tara Sheets, R Weinberg, Pat Elmes, Christopher Kang
: Study Objective This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations...
December 2016: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
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