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Christin Janouch, Uwe Drescher, Konstantin Wechsler, Mathias Haeger, Otmar Bock, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Laboratory-based research revealed that gait involves higher cognitive processes, leading to performance impairments when executed with a concurrent loading task. Deficits are especially pronounced in older adults. Theoretical approaches like the multiple resource model highlight the role of task similarity and associated attention distribution problems. It has been shown that in cases where these distribution problems are perceived relevant to participant's risk of falls, older adults prioritize gait and posture over the concurrent loading task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laszlo Kiraly
Three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing methods greatly support advances in individualized medicine and surgery. In pediatric and congenital cardiac surgery, personalized imaging and 3D modelling presents with a range of advantages, e.g., better understanding of complex anatomy, interactivity and hands-on approach, possibility for preoperative surgical planning and virtual surgery, ability to assess expected results, and improved communication within the multidisciplinary team and with patients. 3D virtual and printed models often add important new anatomical findings and prompt alternative operative scenarios...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
Riccardo Villa, Emmanuele Tidoni, Giuseppina Porciello, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
The control of one's own movements and of their impact on the external world generates a feeling of control referred to as Sense of Agency (SoA). SoA is experienced when actions match predictions and is reduced by unpredicted events. The present study investigated the contribution of monitoring two fundamental components of action-movement execution and goal achievement-that have been most often explored separately in previous research. We have devised a new paradigm in which participants performed goal-directed actions while viewing an avatar's hand in a mixed-reality scenario...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Wenfeng Liu, Hong Yang, Yu Liu, Matti Kummu, Arjen Y Hoekstra, Junguo Liu, Rainer Schulin
Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We simulated baseline conditions for the year 2000 and explored the impacts of an agricultural intensification scenario, in which low-input countries increase N and irrigation inputs to a greater extent than high-input countries...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R Ewan Fordyce, Felix G Marx
Baleen whales (Mysticeti) are the largest animals on Earth, thanks to their ability to filter huge volumes of small prey from seawater. Mysticetes appeared during the Late Eocene, but evidence of their early evolution remains both sparse and controversial [1, 2], with several models competing to explain the origin of baleen-based bulk feeding [3-6]. Here, we describe a virtually complete skull of Llanocetus denticrenatus, the second-oldest (ca. 34 Ma) mysticete known. The new material represents the same individual as the type and only specimen, a fragmentary mandible...
May 4, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Markus Nilsson, Elisabet Englund, Filip Szczepankiewicz, Danielle van Westen, Pia C Sundgren
Imaging is an indispensable tool for brain tumour diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up. Definite diagnosis, however, often demands histopathological analysis of microscopic features of tissue samples, which have to be obtained by invasive means. A non-invasive alternative may be to probe corresponding microscopic tissue characteristics by MRI, or so called 'microstructure imaging'. The promise of microstructure imaging is one of 'virtual biopsy' with the goal to offset the need for invasive procedures in favour of imaging that can guide pre-surgical planning and can be repeated longitudinally to monitor and predict treatment response...
May 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Serafeim Perdikis, Luca Tonin, Sareh Saeedi, Christoph Schneider, José Del R Millán
This work aims at corroborating the importance and efficacy of mutual learning in motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) by leveraging the insights obtained through our participation in the BCI race of the Cybathlon event. We hypothesized that, contrary to the popular trend of focusing mostly on the machine learning aspects of MI BCI training, a comprehensive mutual learning methodology that reinstates the three learning pillars (at the machine, subject, and application level) as equally significant could lead to a BCI-user symbiotic system able to succeed in real-world scenarios such as the Cybathlon event...
May 2018: PLoS Biology
Sen Zhang, Xiaoyu Luo, Zongxi Cai
We study the collapsible behaviour of a vessel conveying viscous flows subject to external pressure, a scenario that could occur in many physiological applications. The vessel is modelled as a three-dimensional cylindrical tube of nonlinear hyperelastic material. To solve the fully coupled fluid-structure interaction, we have developed a novel approach based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method and the frontal solver. The method of rotating spines is used to enable an automatic mesh adaptation...
May 9, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Meng-Kun Li, Yong-Kuo Liu, Min-Jun Peng, Chun-Li Xie, Li-Qun Yang
In nuclear decommissioning, virtual simulation technology is a useful tool to achieve an effective work process by using virtual environments to represent the physical and logical scheme of a real decommissioning work. This technology is cost-saving and time-saving, with the capability to develop various decommissioning scenarios and reduce the risk of retrofitting. The method utilizes radiation map in virtual simulation as the bases for the assessment of exposure to virtual human. In this paper, we propose a fast simulation method using a known radiation source...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
David W K Man
Non-pharmacological means are being developed to enhance cognitive abilities in drug abusers. This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) as an intervention tool for enhancing cognitive and vocational outcomes in 90 young ketamine users (KU) randomly assigned to a treatment group (virtual reality group, VRG; tutor-administered group, TAG) or wait-listed control group (CG). Two training programmes with similar content but different delivery modes (VR-based and manual-based) were applied using a virtual boutique as a training scenario...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Aleix Beneyto, Josep Vehi
This paper presents a support fuzzy adaptive system for a hybrid proportional derivative controller that will refine its parameters during postprandial periods to enhance performance. Even though glucose controllers have improved over the last decade, tuning them and keeping them tuned are still major challenges. Changes in a patient's lifestyle, stress, exercise, or other activities may modify their blood glucose system, making it necessary to retune or change the insulin dosing algorithm. This paper presents a strategy to adjust the parameters of a proportional derivative controller using the so-called safety auxiliary feedback element loop for type 1 diabetic patients...
May 3, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Pieternella C Luttikhuizen, Freek H M van den Heuvel, Céline Rebours, Harry J Witte, Judith D L van Bleijswijk, Klaas Timmermans
Kelp aquaculture is globally developing steadily as human food source, along with other applications. One of the newer crop species is Saccharina latissima , a northern hemisphere kelp inhabiting temperate to arctic rocky shores. To protect and document its natural genetic variation at the onset of this novel aquaculture, as well as increase knowledge on its taxonomy and phylogeography, we collected new genetic data, both nuclear and mitochondrial, and combined it with previous knowledge to estimate genetic connectivity and infer colonization history...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Nicolas Chazot, Donna Lisa De-Silva, Keith R Willmott, André V L Freitas, Gerardo Lamas, James Mallet, Carlos E Giraldo, Sandra Uribe, Marianne Elias
The Neotropical region is the most biodiverse on Earth, in a large part due to the highly diverse tropical Andean biota. The Andes are a potentially important driver of diversification within the mountains and for neighboring regions. We compared the role of the Andes in diversification among three subtribes of Ithomiini butterflies endemic to the Neotropics, Dircennina, Oleriina, and Godyridina. The diversification patterns of Godyridina have been studied previously. Here, we generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for the largest ithomiine subtribe, Dircennina, and we reanalyze a published phylogeny of Oleriina to test different biogeographic scenarios involving the Andes within an identical framework...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Taeksang Lee, Sergey Y Turin, Arun K Gosain, Adrian Buganza Tepole
Excessive mechanical stress leads to wound healing complications following reconstructive surgery. However, this knowledge is not easily applicable in clinical scenarios due to the difficulty in measuring stress contours during complex tissue rearrangement procedures. Computational tools have been proposed as an alternative to address this need, but obtaining patient specific geometries with an affordable and flexible setup has remained a challenge. Here we present a methodology to determine the stress contours from a reconstructive procedure on a patient-specific finite element model based on multi-view stereo (MVS)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Rongping Lin, Shan Luo, Jingwei Zhou, Sheng Wang, Bin Chen, Xiaoning Zhang, Anliang Cai, Wen-De Zhong, Moshe Zukerman
Network virtualization provides means for efficient management of network resources by embedding multiple virtual networks (VNs) to share efficiently the same substrate network. Such virtual network embedding (VNE) gives rise to a challenging problem of how to optimize resource allocation to VNs and to guarantee their performance requirements. In this paper, we provide VNE algorithms for efficient management of flexi-grid optical networks. We provide an exact algorithm aiming to minimize the total embedding cost in terms of spectrum cost and computation cost for a single VN request...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Natalie Salmanowitz
Implicit racial biases are one of the most vexing problems facing current society. These split-second judgments are not only widely prevalent, but also are notoriously difficult to overcome. Perhaps most concerning, implicit racial biases can have consequential impacts on decisions in the courtroom, where scholars have been unable to provide a viable mitigation strategy. This article examines the influence of a short virtual reality paradigm on implicit racial biases and evaluations of legal scenarios. After embodying a black avatar in the virtual world, participants produced significantly lower implicit racial bias scores than those who experienced a sham version of the virtual reality paradigm...
May 2018: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
Michael Pereira, Ferran Argelaguet, José Del R Millán, Anatole Lécuyer
Competition changes the environment for athletes. The difficulty of training for such stressful events can lead to the well-known effect of "choking" under pressure, which prevents athletes from performing at their best level. To study the effect of competition on the human brain, we recorded pilot electroencephalography (EEG) data while novice shooters were immersed in a realistic virtual environment representing a shooting range. We found a differential between-subject effect of competition on mu (8-12 Hz) oscillatory activity during aiming; compared to training, the more the subject was able to desynchronize his mu rhythm during competition, the better was his shooting performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Maria Donna Allinson, Patricia Black
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ethical reasoning is a key skill that must be developed during the undergraduate pharmacy course to prepare students for ethical decision-making in future practice as pharmacy professionals. In this initial study, we sought and documented the views of pharmacy students at a United Kingdom (UK) university on the use of Values Exchange™ (Vx), an online ethical decision-support tool. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Students deliberated on up to three ethical case scenarios every academic year using the tool...
February 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Bruno Fernandes, Arsénio Santos, Lina Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular syphilis can manifest as aortic aneurysms, aortic regurgitation and coronary ostial stenosis. Tertiary syphilis was the most commom reported cause of thoracic aortic aneurysm in the pre-antibiotic era, contributing to 5- 10% of cardiovascular deaths. However, in the 21st century, it has virtually disappered from the devoloping nations. Tertiay syphilis may develop in about one third of cases of untreated syphilis. In the pre-penicilin era, it was calculated that cardiovascular syphilis was responsible for 10-15% of clinical syphilis...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Alberto Mangano, Federico Gheza, Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti
The number of robotic surgical procedures has been increasing worldwide. It is important to maximize the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgical training and safely reduce the time needed for trainees to reach proficiency. The use of preliminary lab training in robotic skills is a good strategy for the rapid acquisition of further, standardized robotic skills. Such training can be done either by using a simulator or by exercises in a dry or wet lab. While the use of an actual robotic surgical system for training may be problematic (high cost, lack of availability), virtual reality (VR) simulators can overcome many of these obstacles...
April 23, 2018: Surgical Technology International
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