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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330198/pretreatment-and-enzymatic-process-modification-strategies-to-improve-efficiency-of-sugar-production-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#1
Siddhartha Pal, Shereena Joy, Kalpana D Trimukhe, Pramod S Kumbhar, Anjani J Varma, Sasisanker Padmanabhan
Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis play a critical role in the economic production of sugars and fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we evaluated diverse pilot-scale pretreatments and different post-pretreatment strategies for the production of fermentable sugars from sugarcane bagasse. For the pretreatment of bagasse at pilot-scale level, steam explosion without catalyst and combination of sulfuric and oxalic acids at low and high loadings were used. Subsequently, to enhance the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated bagasse, three different post-pretreatment process schemes were investigated...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330174/salicornia-evaluating-the-halophytic-extremophile-as-a-food-and-a-pharmaceutical-candidate
#2
REVIEW
Seema Patel
Food insecurity is a major issue in current scenario where a large section of mankind is at risk of insufficient diet. As food productivity has its limits, the prospecting of unutilized or underutilized flora as food candidates is collectively recognized as a sustainable option. In the past decade, a number of obscure plants have been identified to be rich in dietary components and deemed fit for integration into the food platter. This review discusses a candidate Salicornia, belonging to family Amaranthaceae...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330126/characterization-of-lignin-degrading-enzymes-ldes-from-a-dimorphic-novel-fungus-and-identification-of-products-of-enzymatic-breakdown-of-lignin
#3
Lipin Dev Mundur Sahadevan, Chandra Shekhar Misra, V Thankamani
Lignin is a major component of all plants, the degradation of which remains a major challenge to date owing to its recalcitrant nature. Several classes of fungi have been studied to carry out this process to some extent, but overall the process remains inefficient. We have isolated a novel alkalophilic dimorphic lignin-degrading Deuteromycete from soil, identified as "uncultured" and coded as MVI.2011. Supernatant from 12-h culture of MVI.2011 in optimized mineral medium containing lignin pH 9.0 was analysed for Lignin Peroxidase, Manganese Peroxidase and Laccase...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325708/use-of-glucose-as-reductant-to-recover-co-from-spent-lithium-ions-batteries
#4
Qi Meng, Yingjie Zhang, Peng Dong
A hydrometallurgical leaching process has been developed for recovery of Co and Li from cathode material (LiCoO2) collected from spent LIBs using a mix solution of glucose and phosphoric acid. The spent LiCoO2 before and after leaching process are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A leaching rate of about 98% Co and nearly 100% Li is presented with 1.5mol/L phosphoric acid and 0.02mol/L glucose at 80°C in about 2h. During leaching process, glucose was oxidized into monocarboxylic acid with reduction of Co(III) to Co(II)...
March 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324150/stress-stones-stress-recurrent-stones-a-self-propagating-cycle-difficulties-in-solving-this-dichotomy
#5
Montserrat Arzoz-Fabregas, Josep Roca-Antonio, Luis Ibarz-Servio, Dalielah Jappie-Mahomed, Allen Rodgers
Numerous studies have reported an association between stress and urolithiasis. Although urinary risk factors have been measured in several of these, compelling evidence of a causal relationship has not been established. A shortcoming is that alterations in single urinary parameters rather than ratios and quotients, which provide a more synergistic risk evaluation, have been measured. Recently, we speculated about a possible association between chronic stress and stone recurrence. This presents an intriguing dichotomy of whether stress causes stones or vice versa, or whether they are linked in a self-propagating stress-stones-stress-recurrence cycle...
March 21, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322893/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-evaluation-of-nephure%C3%A2
#6
Helena Cowley, Qin Yan, Lee Koetzner, Laurie Dolan, Erik Nordwald, Aaron B Cowley
Nephure™ is a proprietary oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC) enzyme being developed as a food ingredient. In this study, the safety of Nephure™ was evaluated in a bacterial mutagenicity assay and in a sub-chronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats. Nephure™ did not show any mutagenic properties in the mutagenicity assay. In the 13-week sub-chronic oral toxicity study in which 10 Sprague Dawley rats per sex were administered 0, 118, 235 and 475 mg/kg bw/day (8260, 16450 and 33,250 Units/kg bw/day, respectively) of Nephure™ by gavage, male and female rats did not show any test article-related clinical observations or effects on body weight, body weight gain, food consumption, food efficiency, ophthalmology, functional observational battery parameters or motor activity...
March 18, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316819/crystal-structure-of-bis-oxalato-%C3%AE%C2%BA-2-o-1-o-2-1-4-8-11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane-%C3%AE%C2%BA-4-n-chromium-iii-dichromate-octa-hydrate-from-synchrotron-x-ray-data
#7
Dohyun Moon, Jong-Ha Choi
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Cr(C2O4)(C10H24N4)]2[Cr2O7]·8H2O (C10H24N4 = 1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-decane, cyclam; C2O4 = oxalate, ox) contains one [Cr(ox)(cyclam)](+) cation, one half of a dichromate anion that lies about an inversion centre so that the bridging O atom is equally disordered over two positions, and four water mol-ecules. The terminal O atoms of the dichromate anion are also disordered over two positions with a refined occupancy ratio 0.586 (6):0.414 (6). The Cr(III) ion is coordinated by the four N atoms of the cyclam ligand and one bidentate oxalato ligand in a cis arrangement, resulting in a distorted octa-hedral geometry...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314883/stone-former-urine-proteome-demonstrates-a-cationic-shift-in-protein-distribution-compared-to-normal
#8
Ann M Kolbach-Mandel, Neil S Mandel, Brian R Hoffmann, Jack G Kleinman, Jeffrey A Wesson
Many urine proteins are found in calcium oxalate stones, yet decades of research have failed to define the role of urine proteins in stone formation. This urine proteomic study compares the relative amounts of abundant urine proteins between idiopathic calcium oxalate stone forming and non-stone forming (normal) cohorts to identify differences that might correlate with disease. Random mid-morning urine samples were collected following informed consent from 25 stone formers and 14 normal individuals. Proteins were isolated from urine using ultrafiltration...
March 17, 2017: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303631/surgical-outcomes-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-pcnl-in-3-402-patients-and-results-of-stone-analysis-in-1-559-patients-from-a-single-centre-in-pakistan
#9
S A H Rizvi, M Hussain, S H Askari, M Lal, M N Zafar
OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of a series of PCNL from a single centre over the last 18 years in terms of patients and stone characteristics, indications, stone clearance and complications and chemical analysis of stones in a subgroup. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of PCNL in 3,402 adult patients who underwent the procedure between 1997 and 2014 from a prospectively maintained database. Data analysis included patients' age, sex, laboratory investigations, imaging, punctured calyx, duration of operation, volume of irrigation fluid, radiation exposure time, blood transfusion, complications and stone free status at one-month follow-up...
March 16, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303048/studies-on-physico-chemical-and-cooking-characteristics-of-rice-bean-varieties-grown-in-ne-region-of-india
#10
Rejaul Hoque Bepary, D D Wadikar, Seuji Borah Neog, P E Patki
Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302239/hyperoxaluria-after-renal-transplantation
#11
Waqar Ahmed, Abad Ur Rehman, Sumit Acharya
Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by precipitation of insoluble oxalate crystals in the joints, kidneys, heart, eyes, skin, nerves, and bone marrow. The patients of primary oxaluria usually present with renal stone/nephrocalcinosis, and isolated kidney transplantation should not be done in these patients. We present a case report of 31-year lady with acute graft dysfunction due to oxaluria with no history of nephrolithiasis/nephrocalcinosis prior to renal transplantation...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301430/etiopathogenesis-of-nephrolithiasis-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-with-the-ileal-pouch-anal-anastomosis
#12
Zubin Arora, Saurabh Mukewar, Rocio Lopez, Debra Camino, Bo Shen, Phillip Hall
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that nephrolithiasis is a common complication in ulcerative colitis patients after ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). However, the pathogenesis of nephrolithiasis in IPAA patients has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare urine and serum metabolic compositions in IPAA patients with nephrolithiasis and controls with IPAA and no nephrolithiasis. METHODS: Using cross-sectional study design, serum and 24-hour urine metabolic compositions were compared between IPAA patients with nephrolithiasis (the study group) and those without (the control group)...
March 15, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287734/proton-transfer-in-mixed-clusters-of-methanesulfonic-acid-methylamine-and-oxalic-acid-implications-for-atmospheric-particle-formation
#13
Jing Xu, Barbara J Finlayson-Pitts, R Benny Gerber
Understanding the properties of atmospheric particles made of several components is a very challenging problem. In this paper, we perform quantum chemical calculations for small multicomponent clusters of atmospheric relevance that incorporate methanesulfonic acid (MSA), methylamine (MA), oxalic acid (OxA), and water (H2O). Potential correlations between theoretical predictions of proton transfer in the small clusters and findings of recent experiments on formation of particles of detectable sizes (>2 nm) from the same components are studied...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284032/technical-and-clinical-validation-of-the-greiner-fc-mix-glycaemia-tube
#14
Eline A E van der Hagen, Marion J Fokkert, Amanda M D Kleefman, Marc H M Thelen, Sjoerd A A van den Berg, Robbert J Slingerland
BACKGROUND: Measurement of adequate glucose concentrations is complicated by in vitro breakdown of glucose due to glycolysis. Unlike the commonly used NaF-EDTA and NaF-oxalate phlebotomy tubes, citrated NaF-EDTA tubes are reported to directly and thereby completely inhibit glycolysis. Recently, Greiner introduced the Vacuette® FC-Mix NaF-EDTA-citrate tube, currently the only NaF-citrate tube without volume-disturbing liquid additions available on the European market. Here we present its potential as alternative for the laborious and therefore unfeasible conditions for glucose sampling as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
March 11, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283247/environmentally-friendly-and-non-polluting-solvent-pretreatment-of-palm-samples-for-polyphenol-analysis-using-choline-chloride-deep-eutectic-solvents
#15
Najing Fu, Runqiu Lv, Zhixin Guo, Yiwei Guo, Xiaoyu You, Baokun Tang, Dandan Han, Hongyuan Yan, Kyung Ho Row
In this work, choline chloride (ChCl) deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated for the pretreatment of palm samples in the analysis of polyphenols, such as protocatechuic acid, catechins, epicatechin, and caffeic acid. During the enrichment step of the pretreatment, eight DESs comprising ChCl with ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gly), xylitol (Xyl), phenol (Ph), formic acid (FA), citric acid (CiA), oxalic acid (OA), or malonic acid (MA), were prepared and applied to the reflux extraction of polyphenols from palm samples...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282572/performance-of-nitrogen-doped-graphene-aerogel-particle-electrodes-for-electro-catalytic-oxidation-of-simulated-bisphenol-a-wastewaters
#16
Zhuang Chen, Yimei Zhang, Lincheng Zhou, Hao Zhu, Fei Wan, Yue Wang, Dandan Zhang
The treatment of effluent containing Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated experimentally using nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel (NGAs) as particle electrodes in a three-dimensional electrode reactor for the electrochemical treatment was studied. The effects of the cell voltage, pH, the ratio of NGAs mass to solution volume and repeated times on the removal efficiency were investigated. Compared with commercial carbon particle electrodes, the NGAs exhibited stronger activity to remove BPA simulated wastewater. For 15mgL(-1) of BPA solution, the degradation rate of BPA exceeded 90% after treatment for only 30min under the optimum conditions...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280689/rapid-biodegradation-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-using-effective-cronobacter-sakazakii-mm045-kt933253
#17
Zubairu Darma Umar, Nor Azwady Abd Aziz, Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli, Muskhazli Mustafa
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex and widely distributed environmental pollutants that can affect living ecosystems. This study was conducted to rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene representing low and high molecular weight of PAHs, respectively. Cronobacter sakazakii MM045 (KT933253) was identified from used engine oil of contaminated soil. PAHs biodegradation was carried out using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) assay. Biodegradation influencing factors including agitation, temperature, pH, inoculums volume and salinity were enhanced using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Central Composite Design (CCD)...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276685/revealing-disparate-chemistries-of-protactinium-and-uranium-synthesis-of-the-molecular-uranium-tetroxide-anion-uo4
#18
Wibe A de Jong, Phuong D Dau, Richard E Wilson, Joaquim Marçalo, Michael J Van Stipdonk, Theodore A Corcovilos, Giel Berden, Jonathan Martens, Jos Oomens, John K Gibson
The synthesis, reactivity, structures, and bonding in gas-phase binary and complex oxide anion molecules of protactinium and uranium have been studied by experiment and theory. The oxalate ions, An(V)O2(C2O4)(-), where An = Pa or U, are essentially actinyl ions, An(V)O2(+), coordinated by an oxalate dianion. Both react with water to yield the pentavalent hydroxides, An(V)O(OH)2(C2O4)(-). The chemistry of Pa and U becomes divergent for reactions that result in oxidation: whereas Pa(VI) is inaccessible, U(VI) is very stable...
March 9, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276502/calcium-isotope-fractionation-between-aqueous-compounds-relevant-to-low-temperature-geochemistry-biology-and-medicine
#19
Frédéric Moynier, Toshiyuki Fujii
Stable Ca isotopes are fractionated between bones, urine and blood of animals and between soils, roots and leaves of plants by >1000 ppm for the (44)Ca/(40)Ca ratio. These isotopic variations have important implications to understand Ca transport and fluxes in living organisms; however, the mechanisms of isotopic fractionation are unclear. Here we present ab initio calculations for the isotopic fractionation between various aqueous species of Ca and show that this fractionation can be up to 3000 ppm...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273963/benefits-of-alcohol-on-arsenic-toxicity-in-rats
#20
Purnima Singh, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Deepak Passi, Jaya Bharti
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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