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Asthma, COPD, Wheezing

A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tadahiro Goto, Carlos A Camargo, Kohei Hasegawa
PURPOSE: Recent studies propose TH2-mediated inflammation in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS). However, little is known about whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) differs between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone. To address this knowledge gap, a nationally representative sample was analyzed to determine the difference in FeNO levels between patients with ACOS and those with COPD alone in the US population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 through 2012...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
P Ning, Y F Guo, T Y Sun, H S Zhang, D Chai, X M Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the distinct clinical phenotype of chronic airway diseases by hierarchical cluster analysis and two-step cluster analysis. METHODS: A population sample of adult patients in Donghuamen community, Dongcheng district and Qinghe community, Haidian district, Beijing from April 2012 to January 2015, who had wheeze within the last 12 months, underwent detailed investigation, including a clinical questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, total serum IgE levels, blood eosinophil level and a peak flow diary...
September 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Girish Sindhwani, Rakhee Sodhi, Manju Saini, Varuna Jethani, Sushant Khanduri, Baltej Singh
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) refers to a condition in which structural integrity of cartilaginous wall of trachea is lost. Excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) is characterized by excessive invagination of posterior wall of trachea. In both these conditions, airway lumen gets compromised, especially during expiration, which can lead to symptoms such as breathlessness, cough, and wheezing. Both these conditions can be present in obstructive lung diseases; TBM due to chronic airway inflammation and EDAC due to dynamic compressive forces during expiration...
July 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Annette Kainu, Paula Pallasaho, Anne Pietinalho
BACKGROUND: The age-dependent increase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence caused by smoking and other inhalational exposures in the general population is well-known worldwide. However, time trends are poorly known, due to lower number of high-quality studies especially following nationwide efforts on diminishing exposure levels. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of COPD symptoms and their major determinants in Finnish adults in 1996 and 2006. METHODS: Two identical postal surveys were conducted among two random population samples from Helsinki using identical methodologies in 1996 and 2006, with 6,062 (76%) and 2,449 (62%) participants, respectively...
2016: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
Michael J Abramson, Sonia Kaushik, Geza P Benke, Brigitte M Borg, Catherine L Smith, Shyamali C Dharmage, Bruce R Thompson
BACKGROUND: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Jennifer Bepko, Katherine Mansalis
An occupational illness is an event or exposure that occurs in the workplace that causes or contributes to a condition or worsens a preexisting condition. If an occupational disorder is suspected, a directed history should be taken with particular attention to establishing a temporal relationship of symptoms and exposure at work. Occupational asthma is the most prevalent occupational lung disorder in industrialized countries and presents with classic asthma symptoms (cough, difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing)...
June 15, 2016: American Family Physician
Breanna L Alman, Gabriele Pfister, Hua Hao, Jennifer Stowell, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Colorado experienced one of its worst wildfire seasons of the past decade. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of local PM2.5 levels, modeled using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, with emergency department visits and acute hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular outcomes during the 2012 Colorado wildfires. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between both continuous and categorical PM2...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
R Caswell-Smith, A Hosking, T Cripps, C Holweg, J Matthews, M Holliday, C Maillot, J Fingleton, M Weatherall, I Braithwaite, R Beasley
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of serum periostin as a type 2 biomarker in asthma is limited by lack of reference range values derived from a population without respiratory disease. OBJECTIVE: To derive age- and sex-related reference intervals for serum periostin from an adult population without asthma or COPD. METHODS: Serum periostin levels were measured in 480 individuals, comprising 60 female and 60 male adults in each of the 18- to 30-year, 31- to 45-year, 46- to 60-year and 61- to 75-year age groups...
October 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Arzu Didem Yalcin, Betul Celik, Ata Nevzat Yalcin
CONTEXT: The term "asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome" (ACOS) has been applied to the condition, in which a person has clinical features of both asthma and COPD. METHODS: The patients (N = 10) were presented to our clinic with low lung function, limited reversibility of airway obstruction, hyperinflation, abnormal body composition, dyspnea and episodic wheezing. Based on the clinical and laboratory findings, the patients were diagnosed with ACOS...
June 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Leah Jayes, Patricia L Haslam, Christina G Gratziou, Pippa Powell, John Britton, Constantine Vardavas, Carlos Jimenez-Ruiz, Jo Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco increases the risk of respiratory disease in adults and children, but communicating the magnitude of these effects in a scientific manner that is accessible and usable by the public and policymakers presents a challenge. We have therefore summarized scientific data on the impact of smoking on respiratory diseases to provide the content for a unique resource, SmokeHaz. METHODS: We conducted systematic reviews and meta-analyses of longitudinal studies (published to 2013) identified from electronic databases, gray literature, and experts...
July 2016: Chest
Marilyn Urrutia-Pereira, Jennifer Avila, Dirceu Solé
OBJECTIVE: To present the Programa Infantil de Prevenção de Asma (PIPA, Program for the Prevention of Childhood Asthma) and the characteristics of the patients followed in this program. METHODS: Implemented in the city of Uruguaiana, Brazil, PIPA has as its target population children and adolescents (< 18 years of age) with asthma or suspected asthma. Patients either enroll in PIPA spontaneously or are referred by pediatricians or primary care physicians. In this retrospective study, we use a standardized protocol to assess PIPA patients...
January 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Jin Ren, Bo Li, Dan Yu, Jing Liu, Zhongsen Ma
Haze weather is becoming one of the biggest problems in many big cities in China. It triggers both public anxiety and official concerns. Particulate matter (PM) plays the most important role in causing the adverse health effects. Chemical composition of PM2.5 includes primary particles and secondary particles. The toxicological mechanisms of PM2.5 to the human body include the oxidative stress, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Short or long-term exposure to PM (especially PM2.5) can cause a series of symptoms including respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing and dyspnea as well as other symptoms...
January 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Nadia Lewis-Burke, Ben Vlies, Olivia Wooding, Lisa Davies, Paul P Walker
Over the last 20 years smoking has become the most common method of heroin use and increasing numbers of heroin smokers are presenting to local medical services, before the age of 40 years, with severe airway disease. To determine COPD prevalence we recruited 129 subjects from two local community drug services, of whom 107 were heroin smokers. We collected demographic, medical and treatment data, smoking history (including cannabis and opiates) and details of symptoms including MRC dyspnoea. Subjects completed the COPD Assessment Tool and spirometry...
June 2016: COPD
Wan-Chun Huang, Ying-Huang Tsai, Yu-Feng Wei, Ping-Hung Kuo, Chi-Wei Tao, Shih-Lung Cheng, Chao-Hsien Lee, Yao-Kuang Wu, Ning-Hung Chen, Wu-Huei Hsu, Jeng-Yuan Hsu, Chin-Chou Wang, Ming-Shian Lin
BACKGROUND: COPD is an important public health challenge with significant heterogeneity of clinical presentation and disease progression. Clinicians have been trying to find phenotypes that may be linked to distinct prognoses and different therapeutic choices. Not all patients with COPD present with wheezing, a possible clinical phenotype that can help differentiate patient subgroups. METHODS: The Taiwan Obstructive Lung Disease study was a retrospective, multicenter research study to investigate the treatment patterns of COPD after the implementation of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2011 guidelines...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
R Graham Barr, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Sonia M Davis, Tom K Aldrich, Franklyn Gonzalez, Ashley G Henderson, Robert C Kaplan, Lisa LaVange, Kiang Liu, Jose S Loredo, Eliana S Mendes, Ai Ni, Andrew Ries, Matthias Salathe, Lewis J Smith
RATIONALE: Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States...
February 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Nara Tagiyeva, Graham Devereux, Shona Fielding, Stephen Turner, Graham Douglas
RATIONALE: Cohort studies suggest that airflow obstruction is established early in life, manifests as childhood asthma and wheezy bronchitis, and continues into early adulthood. Although an association between childhood asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in later life has been demonstrated, it is unclear if childhood wheezy bronchitis is associated with COPD. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood wheezy bronchitis increases the risk of COPD in the seventh decade...
January 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Lorne A Becker, Jeffrey Hom, Miguel Villasis-Keever, Johannes C van der Wouden
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute bronchitis is made on clinical grounds and a variety of clinical definitions have been used. There are no clearly effective treatments for the cough of acute bronchitis. Beta2-agonists are often prescribed, perhaps because clinicians suspect many patients also have reversible airflow restriction (as seen in asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) contributing to the symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether beta2-agonists improve acute bronchitis symptoms in people with no underlying pulmonary disease (such as asthma, COPD or pulmonary fibrosis)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hirosumi Suzuki, Kazufumi Yoshida, Shinji Teramoto
We report a case of acute respiratory failure in a 77-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who showed marked eosinophilia (61.5% of the peripheral total white blood cells [WBCs]; 13,200/mm(3)). The patient was an ex-smoker, but he had started smoking again one month previously, His forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was low and dyspnea symptom was observed. Although rhonchi were detected, wheezing chest sounds were not detected. Chest X-radiography and computed tomography of the lung revealed diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and emphysematous changes...
2015: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Mia Nielsen, Camilla Boslev Bårnes, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, the so-called asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) has received much attention, not least because elderly individuals may present characteristics suggesting a diagnosis of both asthma and COPD. At present, ACOS is described clinically as persistent airflow limitation combined with features of both asthma and COPD. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to review the currently available literature focusing on symptoms and clinical characteristics of patients regarded as having ACOS...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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