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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180946/new-developments-and-directions-in-the-clinical-application-of-the-echinocandins
#1
REVIEW
C C Chang, M A Slavin, S C-A Chen
The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166677/what-factors-are-related-to-recurrent-preterm-birth-among-underweight-women
#2
Anna I Girsen, Jonathan A Mayo, Matthew B Wallenstein, Jeffrey B Gould, Suzan L Carmichael, David K Stevenson, Deirdre J Lyell, Gary M Shaw
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify factors associated with recurrent preterm birth among underweight women. METHODS: Maternally-linked hospital and birth certificate records of deliveries in California between 2007-2010 were used. Consecutive singleton pregnancies of women with underweight body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) in the first pregnancy were analyzed. Pregnancies were categorized based on outcome of the first and second birth as: term-term; term-preterm; preterm-term and preterm-preterm...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033542/panic-attack-history-and-smoking-topography
#3
Samantha G Farris, Lily A Brown, Renee D Goodwin, Michael J Zvolensky
BACKGROUND: Little is known about panic attacks and puffing topography, a behavioral index of the value of smoking reinforcement. This study examined smoking style during the course of smoking of a single cigarette among adult daily smokers with and without a history of panic attacks. METHOD: Participants (n=124, Mage=43.9, SD=9.7; 44.4% female) were non-treatment seeking daily smokers. Lifetime panic attack history was assessed via diagnostic assessment; 28.2% (n=35) of the sample had a panic attack history...
February 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032895/analysis-of-components-of-variance-determining-probability-of-setup-errors-in-cbct-guided-stereotactic-radiotherapy-of-lung-tumors
#4
Johan P Cuijpers, Max Dahele, Marianne Jonker, Bianca Kraan, Suresh Senan, Ben Slotman, Wilko Far Verbakel
PURPOSE: Online tumor matching for SABR lung setup requires margins for inaccuracies due to intra-fraction variability of breathing-averaged tumor position (BATP) and CBCT image guidance. We studied intra-fraction variability during SABR delivery using VMAT, corrected these for measurement inaccuracies, and quantified the CBCT image-guidance uncertainties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 193 fractions in 38 patients positioned without immobilization devices, CBCT scans were acquired before and after 2 arcs of a RapidArc treatment...
December 29, 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029632/smartban-with-periodic-monitoring-traffic-a-performance-study-on-low-delay-and-high-energy-efficiency
#5
Lihua Ruan, M Pubuduni Imali Dias, Elaine Wong
The Smart Body Area Network (SmartBAN) is a recently proposed system for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Compared to conventional WBANs, it is designed to support lower system complexity and ultra-low power consumption. In a SmartBAN, the sensors' access is scheduled upon receiving a beacon on the data channel at the beginning of each working cycle, termed inter-beacon interval (IBI). As network performance including delay and energy consumption is highly dependent on the length of IBI, we present, in this paper, an Optimal IBI frame for SmartBAN...
December 20, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029609/seeking-control-in-the-midst-of-uncertainty-women-s-experiences-of-choosing-mode-of-birth-after-caesarean
#6
Sarah Munro, Patricia Janssen, Kitty Corbett, Elizabeth Wilcox, Nick Bansback, Jude Kornelsen
PROBLEM: Clinical practice guidelines indicate that over 80% of women with a previous caesarean should be offered a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC), however only one third of eligible women choose to plan a VBAC. To support informed choices for birth after caesarean, it is necessary to understand the factors that influence women's decision-making. AIM: The goal of this study was to explore attitudes towards and experiences with decision-making for mode of delivery after caesarean from the perspectives of Canadian women...
October 28, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903080/inter-pregnancy-interval-and-adverse-outcomes-evidence-for-an-additional-risk-in-health-disparate-populations
#7
Shyama Appareddy, Jason Pryor, Beth Bailey
OBJECTIVE: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI), <18 months between pregnancies, is a potential cause of adverse delivery and birth outcomes, and may be a particular issue among those with other risks. Our goal was to examine IPI and delivery/infant complications in Tennessee. METHODS: Birth certificate/vital records data included 101,912 women with a previous delivery. IPI groups (<6, 6-12, 12-18, 18-60 months) were compared on outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the deliveries had IPI <18 months, 9% were <6 months, rates 11% and 27% higher than nationally...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874979/risk-factors-for-recurrence-of-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#8
Cathrine Ebbing, Svein Rasmussen, Rolv Skjaerven, Lorentz M Irgens
INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) tend to recur from one pregnancy to the next. The aims of the study were to assess the recurrence risk according to type of HDP defined by gestational age at birth and to examine whether recurrence is associated with the following additional risk factors for HDP: maternal age, smoking, inter-delivery interval, diabetes, body mass index, and fetal growth restriction, and to assess temporal trends in these associations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All women with two singleton births in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway 1967-2012 (n = 742 980) were included in this population-based cohort study...
February 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819254/full-beam-performances-of-a-pet-detector-with-synchrotron-therapeutic-proton-beams
#9
M A Piliero, F Pennazio, M G Bisogni, N Camarlinghi, P G Cerello, A Del Guerra, V Ferrero, E Fiorina, G Giraudo, M Morrocchi, C Peroni, G Pirrone, G Sportelli, R Wheadon
Treatment quality assessment is a crucial feature for both present and next-generation ion therapy facilities. Several approaches are being explored, based on prompt radiation emission or on PET signals by [Formula: see text]-decaying isotopes generated by beam interactions with the body. In-beam PET monitoring at synchrotron-based ion therapy facilities has already been performed, either based on inter-spill data only, to avoid the influence of the prompt radiation, or including both in-spill and inter-spill data...
December 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799176/i-v-paracetamol-as-an-adjunct-to-patient-controlled-epidural-analgesia-with-levobupivacaine-and-fentanyl-in-labour-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
K Gupta, S Mitra, S Kazal, R Saroa, V Ahuja, P Goel
BACKGROUND: Use of i.v. paracetamol for postoperative pain is well documented, but it is unclear if it can reduce the consumption of opioids during patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) in labouring parturients. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in a tertiary care hospital, (80)parturients were randomly assigned to two groups of 40 each, to receive either 1000 mg (100 ml) i.v. paracetamol or 100 ml normal saline as placebo, 30 min before the procedure...
November 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780708/risk-factors-for-complete-uterine-rupture
#11
Iqbal Al-Zirqi, Anne Kjersti Daltveit, Lisa Forsén, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Siri Vangen
BACKGROUND: Complete uterine rupture is a rare peripartum complication associated with a catastrophic outcome. Because of its rarity, knowledge about its risk factors is not very accurate. Most previous studies were small and over a limited time interval. Moreover, international diagnostic coding was used in most studies. These codes are not able to differentiate between the catastrophic complete type and less catastrophic partial type. Complete uterine rupture is expected to increase as the rate of cesarean delivery increases...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613914/the-influence-of-a-mouthpiece-based-topography-measurement-device-on-electronic-cigarette-user-s-plasma-nicotine-concentration-heart-rate-and-subjective-effects-under-directed-and-ad-libitum-use-conditions
#12
Tory R Spindle, Marzena M Hiler, Alison B Breland, Nareg V Karaoghlanian, Alan L Shihadeh, Thomas Eissenberg
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors ("puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. METHODS: Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were assessed in 29 experienced e-cigarette users using their preferred e-cigarette battery and liquid (≥12mg/mL nicotine) in two sessions differing only by the presence of a mouthpiece-based device...
July 11, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601018/modifiable-risk-factors-for-gestational-diabetes-recurrence
#13
Naama Schwartz, Manfred S Green, Enav Yefet, Zohar Nachum
The literature on risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus recurrence is inconsistent and sometimes contradictory. The importance of inter-pregnancy interval and parity, remains unclear. We aimed to explore controversial risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus recurrence, especially the modifiable ones, and to develop a prediction model in a cohort of women with gestational diabetes mellitus. A retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional cohort study was performed. The study included 788 women with gestational diabetes mellitus that delivered between 1991-2012 and had consecutive deliveries at a university affiliated hospital in Israel...
December 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589883/factors-associated-with-short-interpregnancy-interval-in-women-who-plan-postpartum-larc-a-retrospective-study
#14
Clare Harney, Annie Dude, Sadia Haider
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancies conceived after a short interpregnancy interval (IPI), within 18 months of delivery, and unintended pregnancies are both associated with health risks. We studied risk factors for conception after a short IPI among postpartum women who plan long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of a cohort of women who delivered at University of Illinois Hospital from 2005 to 2010 and were discharged with a plan for interval LARC was performed...
August 30, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452268/evaluation-of-uterine-ultrasound-imaging-in-cervical-radiotherapy-a-comparison-of-autoscan-and-conventional-probe
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Mariwan Baker, David T Cooper, Claus F Behrens
OBJECTIVE: In cervical radiotherapy, it is essential that the uterine position is correctly determined prior to treatment delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate an autoscan ultrasound (A-US) probe, a motorized transducer creating three-dimensional (3D) images by sweeping, by comparing it with a conventional ultrasound (C-US) probe, where manual scanning is required to acquire 3D images. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers were scanned by seven operators, using the Clarity(®) system (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden)...
October 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416620/current-status-of-frameless-anchored-iud-for-immediate-intracesarean-insertion
#16
Dirk Wildemeersch, Norman D Goldstuck, Thomas Hasskamp
Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery...
January 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404120/immediate-versus-deferred-delivery-of-the-preterm-baby-with-suspected-fetal-compromise-for-improving-outcomes
#17
REVIEW
Sarah J Stock, Leanne Bricker, Jane E Norman, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Immediate delivery of the preterm fetus with suspected compromise may decrease the risk of damage due to intrauterine hypoxia. However, it may also increase the risks of prematurity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immediate versus deferred delivery of preterm babies with suspected fetal compromise on neonatal, maternal and long-term outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363589/a-longitudinal-follow-up-of-levator-ani-muscle-avulsion-does-a-second-delivery-affect-it
#18
Symphorosa S C Chan, Rachel Y K Cheung, L L Lee, K W Choy, Tony K H Chung
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the morphological outcome of levator ani muscle (LAM) avulsion 3-5 years after the first delivery and the effect of a second delivery on it. The impact of LAM avulsion on the pelvic floor disorders of women was also studied. METHODS: 666 women who had been assessed for LAM avulsion 8 weeks after first delivery were invited for a follow-up. They were evaluated by Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI), POP-Q examination and 3D translabial ultrasound...
July 1, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27270217/inter-pregnancy-weight-change-and-risks-of-severe-birth-asphyxia-related-outcomes-in-singleton-infants-born-at-term-a-nationwide-swedish-cohort-study
#19
Martina Persson, Stefan Johansson, Sven Cnattingius
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term...
June 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238714/third-trimester-placental-volume-and-biometry-measurement-a-method-development-study
#20
L E Higgins, L Simcox, C P Sibley, A E P Heazell, E D Johnstone
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that third trimester placental biometry and volume can be measured by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound in utero, determining which method of measurement was most strongly correlated with true placental size ex vivo. METHODS: Singleton pregnancies underwent placental ultrasound within seven days of delivery (n = 87, 29(+3)-41(+5) weeks). Length and width (linear and curvilinear) and depth were estimated...
June 2016: Placenta
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