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unfolding cases

Sven Ohl, Martin Rolfs
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory to VSTM. In 4 experiments, we show that saccades, planned and executed after the disappearance of a memory array, markedly bias visual memory performance. First, items that had appeared at the saccade target were more readily remembered than items that had appeared elsewhere, even though the saccade was irrelevant to the memory task (Experiment 1)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Kimberly Barsamian Kahn, Joel S Steele, Jean M McMahon, Greg Stewart
Although studies often find racial disparities in policing outcomes, less is known about how suspect race biases police interactions as they unfold. This study examines what is differentially occurring during police-suspect interactions for White, Black, and Latino suspects across time. It is hypothesized that racial bias may be more evident earlier in interactions, when less information about the situation is available. One hundred thirty-nine (62 White, 42 Black, and 35 Latino) use-of-force case files and associated written narratives from a medium to large size urban police department in the United States were analyzed...
October 20, 2016: Law and Human Behavior
Pierre-Olivier Barale, Paolo Mora, Marie-Hélène Errera, Raphaëlle Ores, Michel Pâques, José-Alain Sahel
PURPOSE: We discuss a modified surgical procedure for the treatment of macular folds complicating retinal reattachment surgery. METHODS: To facilitate the completion of the macular redetachment and the subsequent unrolling of the fold, we propose the subretinal injection, in addition to the conventional balanced salt solution, of filtered air as an original approach. In the presence of a subretinal air bubble, the action of gravity on the perfluorocarbon liquid in the vitreous cavity combined with an active globe manipulation proved to be very effective for flattening the central retina...
October 18, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Sadaf Fatima
This review helps to understand protein misfolding events, which results in protein aggregation, and hence to related neurodegenerative diseases. Many chaperones and folding factors are found inside the cell system for the proper folding of protein. If protein gets misfolded, it may accumulate in cells and can lead to several fatal diseases. In some cases, misfolded proteins aggregated in form of loop-sheet polymer and amyloid fibril when they escape the degradation process and leads to neurodegenerative disorders...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gil Farkash, Jean-Nicolas Dumez, Lucio Frydman
Enhancing the specificity of the spins' excitation can improve the capabilities of magnetic resonance. Exciting voxels with tailored 3D shapes reduces partial volume effects and enhances contrast, particularly in cases where cubic voxels or other simple geometries do not provide an optimal localization. Spatial excitation profiles of arbitrary shapes can be implemented using so-called multidimensional RF pulses, which are often limited in practice to 2D implementations owing to their sensitivity to field inhomogeneities...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Marek Ingr, Eva Kutálková, Josef Hrnčiřík, Reinhard Lange
High pressure methods have become a useful tool for studying protein structure and stability. Using them, various physico-chemical processes including protein unfolding, aggregation, oligomer dissociation or enzyme-activity decrease were studied on many different proteins. Oligomeric protein dissociation is a process that can perfectly utilize the potential of high-pressure techniques, as the high pressure shifts the equilibria to higher concentrations making them better observable by spectroscopic methods...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Per Rogne, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Proteins are often functionally dependent on conformational changes that allow them to sample structural states that are sparsely populated in the absence of a substrate or binding partner. The distribution of such structural microstates is governed by their relative stability, and the kinetics of their interconversion is governed by the magnitude of associated activation barriers. Here, we have explored the interplay among structure, stability, and function of a selected enzyme, adenylate kinase (Adk), by monitoring changes in its enzymatic activity in response to additions of urea...
October 4, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Vedha Sanghi, Aanchal Kapoor
Hypernatremia is a frequent cause of intensive care unit admission. The patient presented in this article had hypernatremia refractory to D5W (dextrose 5% water) therapy, which led to a complex investigation. Workup revealed central diabetes insipidus most likely secondary to flare up of neurosarcoidosis. The challenge in terms of diagnosis was a presentation with low urine output in the setting of hypernatremia resistant to treatment with desmopressin. This case unfolded the role of hypothyroidism causing secondary renal dysfunction and hence needed continued treatment with thyroxine in addition to treatment for hypernatremia...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Ting Qian, T Florian Jaeger, Richard N Aslin
Forming an accurate representation of a task environment often takes place incrementally as the information relevant to learning the representation only unfolds over time. This incremental nature of learning poses an important problem: it is usually unclear whether a sequence of stimuli consists of only a single pattern, or multiple patterns that are spliced together. In the former case, the learner can directly use each observed stimulus to continuously revise its representation of the task environment. In the latter case, however, the learner must first parse the sequence of stimuli into different bundles, so as to not conflate the multiple patterns...
September 15, 2016: Cognition
Isoude A Kuijper, Huan Yang, Bob van de Water, Joost B Beltman
INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a significant threat to human health and a major problem in drug development. It is hard to predict due to its idiosyncratic nature and which does not show up in animal trials. Hepatic adaptive stress response pathway activation is generally observed in drug-induced liver injury. Dynamical pathway modeling has the potential to foresee adverse effects of drugs before they go in trial. Ordinary differential equation modeling can offer mechanistic insight, and allows us to study the dynamical behavior of stress pathways involved in DILI...
September 9, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Cristóbal Cuadrado
Healthcare represents a key area in the public agenda. In the case of Chile, this central part of citizen demands has emerged with an increasing criticism of the health system, its actors and institutions, while a major democratic and legitimacy crisis in Chilean society unfolds. The starting point of this analysis is the link between the critical and widespread societal dissatisfaction with the legitimacy crisis in the health sector. There is an interdependence and parallelism between these two different aspects of the crisis...
2016: Medwave
Badeia Jawhari, Dave Ludwick, Louanne Keenan, David Zakus, Robert Hayward
BACKGROUND: The intent of this review is to discover the types of inquiry and range of objectives and outcomes addressed in studies of the impacts of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementations in limited resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A state-of-the-art review characterized relevant publications from bibliographic databases and grey literature repositories through systematic searching, concept-mapping, relevance and quality filter optimization, methods and outcomes categorization and key article analysis...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Arden Perkins, Derek Parsonage, Kimberly J Nelson, O Maduka Ogba, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Leslie B Poole, P Andrew Karplus
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous cysteine-based peroxidases that guard cells against oxidative damage, are virulence factors for pathogens, and are involved in eukaryotic redox regulatory pathways. We have analyzed catalytically active crystals to capture atomic resolution snapshots of a PrxQ subfamily enzyme (from Xanthomonas campestris) proceeding through thiolate, sulfenate, and sulfinate species. These analyses provide structures of unprecedented accuracy for seeding theoretical studies, and reveal conformational intermediates giving insight into the reaction pathway...
October 4, 2016: Structure
Shyamalagauri Jadhav, Sarah Russo, Stéphanie Cottier, Roger Schneiter, Ashley Cowart, Miriam L Greenberg
Bipolar disorder (BD), which is characterized by depression and mania, affects 1-2% of the world population. Current treatments are effective in only 40-60% of cases and cause severe side effects. Valproate (VPA) is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of BD, but the therapeutic mechanism of action of this drug is not understood. This knowledge gap has hampered the development of effective treatments. To identify candidate pathways affected by VPA, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis in yeast cells grown in the presence or absence of the drug...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alessandro Borgia, Wenwei Zheng, Karin Buholzer, Madeleine B Borgia, Anja Schüler, Hagen Hofmann, Andrea Soranno, Daniel Nettels, Klaus Gast, Alexander Grishaev, Robert B Best, Benjamin Schuler
There has been a long-standing controversy regarding the effect of chemical denaturants on the dimensions of unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins: A wide range of experimental techniques suggest that polypeptide chains expand with increasing denaturant concentration, but several studies using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) have reported no such increase of the radius of gyration (Rg). This inconsistency challenges our current understanding of the mechanism of chemical denaturants, which are widely employed to investigate protein folding and stability...
September 14, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Madduma Hewage Susara Ruwan Kumara, Mei Jing Piao, Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Jeong Eon Park, Kristina Shilnikova, Jin Oh Jo, Young Sun Mok, Jennifer H Shin, Yeonsoo Park, Seong Bong Kim, Suk Jae Yoo, Jin Won Hyun
Colorectal cancer is a common type of tumor among both men and women worldwide. Conventional remedies such as chemotherapies pose the risk of side‑effects, and in many cases cancer cells develop chemoresistance to these treatments. Non‑thermal gas plasma (NTGP) was recently identified as a potential tool for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential use of NTGP to control SNUC5 human colon carcinoma cells. We hypothesized that NTGP would generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells, resulting in induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Evangelos I Kanonidis, Marcia M Roy, Ruth F Deighton, Thierry Le Bihan
Although correlation network studies from co-expression analysis are increasingly popular, they are rarely applied to proteomics datasets. Protein co-expression analysis provides a complementary view of underlying trends, which can be overlooked by conventional data analysis. The core of the present study is based on Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis applied to a glioblastoma multiforme proteomic dataset. Using this method, we have identified three main modules which are associated with three different membrane associated groups; mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum, and a vesicle fraction...
2016: PloS One
Mikayel Aznauryan, Leonildo Delgado, Andrea Soranno, Daniel Nettels, Jie-Rong Huang, Alexander M Labhardt, Stephan Grzesiek, Benjamin Schuler
The properties of unfolded proteins are essential both for the mechanisms of protein folding and for the function of the large group of intrinsically disordered proteins. However, the detailed structural and dynamical characterization of these highly dynamic and conformationally heterogeneous ensembles has remained challenging. Here we combine and compare three of the leading techniques for the investigation of unfolded proteins, NMR spectroscopy (NMR), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), with the goal of quantitatively testing their consistency and complementarity and for obtaining a comprehensive view of the unfolded-state ensemble...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marcus Ang, Jodhbir S Mehta, Stephen D Newman, Sang Beom Han, Jean Chai, Donald Tan
PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel technique of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) donor insertion using the EndoGlide pull-through device. DESIGN: Prospective, interventional cases series METHODS: We performed DMEK using the EndoGlide technique with a protoype donor carrier device (Descemet Mat or D-Mat) in 30 patients by a single surgeon (including learning curve). Clinical data, donor and recipient characteristics were tracked from our prospective Singapore Corneal Transplant Registry...
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Pilar Cossio, Gerhard Hummer, Attila Szabo
Ductile materials can absorb spikes in mechanical force, whereas brittle ones fail catastrophically. Here we develop a theory to quantify the kinetic ductility of single molecules from force spectroscopy experiments, relating force-spike resistance to the differential responses of the intact protein and the unfolding transition state to an applied mechanical force. We introduce a class of unistable one-dimensional potential surfaces that encompass previous models as special cases and continuously cover the entire range from ductile to brittle...
August 23, 2016: Biophysical Journal
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