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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795614/shifting-borders-crossing-boundaries-the-case-of-combined-central-and-peripheral-demyelination
#1
Orhan Aktas
The case report by Puthenparampil et al. suggests that heterogeneity of demyelinating diseases may be more complex than expected. The authors describe a female patient starting with isolated but relapsing myelitis (in the absence of oligoclonal bands or anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies) and later experiencing the simultaneous occurrence of inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and of a tumefactive hippocampal brain lesion responsive to immunotherapy. As testing for antibodies against established and novel auto-antigens including neurofascin-155 was negative, this case may be regarded as an example for the unfolding spectrum of combined central and peripheral demyelination (CCPD) syndromes with so far unknown immunological target(s)...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781996/opinion-hazards-faced-by-macromolecules-when-confined-to-thin-aqueous-films
#2
REVIEW
Robert M Glaeser, Bong-Gyoon Han
Samples prepared for single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) necessarily have a very high surface-to-volume ratio during the short period of time between thinning and vitrification. During this time, there is an obvious risk that macromolecules of interest may adsorb to the air-water interface with a preferred orientation, or that they may even become partially or fully unfolded at the interface. In addition, adsorption of macromolecules to an air-water interface may occur even before thinning. This paper addresses the question whether currently used methods of sample preparation might be improved if one could avoid such interfacial interactions...
2017: Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774748/investigation-on-different-chemical-stability-of-mitochondrial-hsp60-and-its-precursor
#3
Caterina Ricci, Rita Carrotta, Giacoma Cinzia Rappa, Maria Rosalia Mangione, Fabio Librizzi, Pier Luigi San Biagio, Heinz Amenitsch, Maria Grazia Ortore, Silvia Vilasi
In the large class of molecules that maintain protein homeostasis, called molecular chaperones, chaperonins constitute a subclass that specifically assist the correct folding of newly synthesized proteins. Among them, Hsp60 is composed of a double heptameric ring structure with a large central cavity where the unfolded protein binds via hydrophobic interactions and is supported, in this function, by the co-chaperonin Hsp10. Hsp60 is typically located in the mitochondria, but in some pathological situations, such as cancers and chronic inflammatory diseases, Hsp60 accumulates in the cytoplasm...
July 26, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771092/advancing-nursing-scholarship-the-mozambique-model
#4
Judith C Bruce, Joan Dippenaar, Shelley Schmollgruber, David D Mphuthi, Agnes Huiskamp
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of Human Resources for Health for the development and functioning of health systems worldwide, many countries continue to be plagued by poor health systems and a lack of adequate health care. Health systems failures may be attributed to both quantitative and qualitative nursing shortages including the lack of advanced skills to lead health initiatives, to conduct research and to educate other nurses. The response by development partners is usually framed around the production of skilled nurses through the processes of up-skilling and scaling-up...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770577/sec-saxs-and-hdx-ms-a-powerful-combination-the-case-of-the-calcium-binding-domain-of-a-bacterial-toxin
#5
REVIEW
Darragh P O'Brien, Sébastien Brier, Daniel Ladant, Dominique Durand, Alexandre Chenal, Patrice Vachette
Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is a relatively simple experimental technique that provides information on the global conformation of macromolecules in solution, be they fully structured, partially, or extensively unfolded. Size Exclusion chromatography in line with a SAXS measuring cell considerably improves the mono-dispersity and ideality of solutions, the two main requirements of a "good" SAXS sample. Hydrogen/Deuterium eXchange monitored by Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) offers a wealth of information regarding the solvent accessibility at the local (peptide) level...
August 2, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759210/effective-conformational-sampling-in-explicit-solvent-with-gaussian-biased-accelerated-molecular-dynamics
#6
Qiang Shao, Weiliang Zhu
In this Article, a user-friendly Gaussian biased accelerated molecular dynamics (GbAMD) method is presented that uses a sum of Gaussians of potential energies as the biased force to accelerate the conformational sampling. The easy parameter setting of GbAMD is demonstrated in a variety of simulation tests for the conformational transitions of proteins with various complexity including the folding of Trpcage, GB1p, and HP35 peptides as well as the functional conformational changes of nCaM and HIV-1 PR proteins...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756158/bioluminescent-and-biochemical-properties-of-cys-free-ca-2-regulated-photoproteins-obelin-and-aequorin
#7
Elena V Eremeeva, Eugene S Vysotski
Bioluminescence of a variety of marine coelenterates is determined by Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins. A strong interest in these proteins is for their wide analytical potential as intracellular calcium indicators and labels for in vitro binding assays. The presently known hydromedusan Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins contain three (aequorin and clytin) or five (obelin and mitrocomin) cysteine residues with one of them strictly conserved. We have constructed Cys-free aequorin and obelin by substitution of all cysteines to serine residues...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755304/participation-of-dengue-virus-ns4b-protein-in-the-modulation-of-immune-effectors-dependent-on-er-stress-in-insect-cells
#8
Karla J Sepúlveda-Salinas, José Ramos-Castañeda
Organisms' reactions to adverse events result in the generation of immune effectors, which, in the case of insects, may be produced from the direct activation of pathways such as Toll, Jak-STAT, Imd, or RNAi or may be derived from the crosstalk of different intracellular pathways. One such pathway, the unfolded protein response (UPR), has the primary objective of restoring homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, the UPR participates in signaling crosstalk with the immune pathways, generating protection against pathogenic organisms...
July 28, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751468/overcoming-operational-challenges-to-ebola-case-investigation-in-sierra-leone
#9
Samuel T Boland, Erin Polich, Allison Connolly, Adam Hoar, Tom Sesay, Ahn-Minh A Tran
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that hit West Africa in 2013 was the worst outbreak of EVD in recorded history. While much has been published regarding the international and national-level EVD responses, there is a dearth of literature on district-level coordination and operational structures, successes, and failures. This article seeks to understand how the EVD response unfolded at the district level, namely the challenges to operationalizing EVD surveillance over the course of the outbreak in Port Loko and Kambia districts of Sierra Leone...
July 27, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728288/-descemet-s-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-for-treatment-of-patients-with-corneal-endothelial-decompensation
#10
T Huang, C Ouyang, J Zhan, L Jiang
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for treatment of patients with corneal endothelial decompensation in China. Methods: Interventional case series. Ten patients (10 eyes) with the diagnosis of corneal endothelial decompensation received DMEK during July 2016 and September 2016 in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. Descemet's membrane of the donor tissue was carefully stripped from the underlying stroma manually and cut with a 7.75- or 8.0-mm-diameter donor punch...
July 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726911/feeding-a-sustainable-chemical-industry-do-we-have-the-bioproducts-cart-before-the-feedstocks-horse
#11
Bruce E Dale
A sustainable chemical industry cannot exist at scale without both sustainable feedstocks and feedstock supply chains to provide the raw materials. However, most current research focus is on producing the sustainable chemicals and materials. Little attention is given to how and by whom sustainable feedstocks will be supplied. In effect, we have put the bioproducts cart before the sustainable feedstocks horse. For example, bulky, unstable, non-commodity feedstocks such as crop residues probably cannot supply a large-scale sustainable industry...
July 20, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723714/vent-incisions-to-facilitate-peripheral-unfolding-of-the-dmek-graft
#12
Christopher Liu, Alfonso Vasquez-Perez, Jordan Vassileff Chervenkoff, Venkata Avadhanam
PURPOSE: To present the results of 15 cases in which a modified technique of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with vent incisions was used to assist unfolding of tight peripheral inward folds. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 15 consecutive eyes that underwent a modified vent incision technique for DMEK. Six oblique, small-size (1 mm) vent incisions parallel to the limbus and 3.5 mm from the center were performed after descemetorhexis...
July 17, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716186/formation-of-protein-surfactant-adsorption-layer-as-studied-by-dilational-surface-rheology
#13
REVIEW
Boris A Noskov, Michael M Krycki
The review discusses the mechanism of formation of protein/surfactant adsorption layers at the liquid - gas interface. The complexes of globular proteins usually preserve their compact structure a low surfactant concentrations. Therefore a simple kinetic model of the adsorption of charged compact nanoparticles is discussed first and compared with experimental data. The increase of surfactant concentrations results in various conformational transitions in the surface layer. One can obtain information on the changes of the adsorption layer structure using the dilational surface rheology...
July 6, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714778/how-clients-change-emotion-with-emotion-a-programme-of-research-on-emotional-processing
#14
Antonio Pascual-Leone
This paper reviews a body of research that has examined Pascual-Leone and Greenberg's sequential model of emotional processing or used its accompanying measure (the Classification of Affective Meaning States). Research from 24 studies using a plurality of methods examined process-outcome relationships from micro to macro levels of observation and builds support for emotional transformation as a possible causal mechanism of change in psychotherapy. A pooled sample of 310 clinical and 130 sub-clinical cases have been studied, reflecting the process of 7 different treatment approaches in addressing over 5 different presenting clinical problems (including depression, anxiety, relational trauma, and personality disorders)...
July 17, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708401/cryopreservation-of-proteins-using-ionic-liquids-a-case-study-of-cytochrome-c
#15
Takahiro Takekiyo, Yuka Ishikawa, Yukihiro Yoshimura
Aqueous ionic liquid (IL) solutions form a glassy state at 77 K over a wide concentration of ILs. They have potential as novel cryopreservation/refolding solvents for proteins. However, even if proteins in glass-forming concentrations of ILs are preserved at 77 K, the recovery of activity and the structure of the proteins after cryopreservation are still unclear. To achieve high recovery of protein activity and structure by removal of ILs after cryopreservation at 77 K, we studied the recovery of activity and structural stability after cryopreservation of bovine heart cytochrome c in aqueous solutions with ILs, including ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim][SCN]) over wide IL concentrations using UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701700/hdnetdb-a-molecular-interaction-database-for-network-oriented-investigations-into-huntington-s-disease
#16
Ravi Kiran Reddy Kalathur, José Pedro Pinto, Biswanath Sahoo, Gautam Chaurasia, Matthias E Futschik
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene. Although HD is monogenic, its molecular manifestation appears highly complex and involves multiple cellular processes. The recent application of high throughput platforms such as microarrays and mass-spectrometry has indicated multiple pathogenic routes. The massive data generated by these techniques together with the complexity of the pathogenesis, however, pose considerable challenges to researchers...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692355/teaching-clinical-reasoning-to-medical-students
#17
Lisa Amey, Kenneth J Donald, Andrew Teodorczuk
Clinical reasoning is often not explicitly addressed in the early medical school curriculum. As a result, students observe the process while on clinical placements with little or no understanding of the complex processes underlying it. Clinical reasoning has significant implications for patient safety. Medical errors as a consequence of faulty reasoning contribute to patient morbidity and mortality. Educating medical students at an early stage about the processes of clinical reasoning and strategies to avoid associated errors can have positive impacts upon patient safety...
July 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642368/the-influence-of-disulfide-bonds-on-the-mechanical-stability-of-proteins-is-context-dependent
#18
Aitor Manteca, Álvaro Alonso-Caballero, Marie Fertin, Simon Poly, David De Sancho, Raul Perez-Jimenez
Disulfide bonds play a crucial role in proteins, modulating their stability and constraining their conformational dynamics. A particularly important case is that of proteins that need to withstand forces arising from their normal biological function and that are often disulfide bonded. However, the influence of disulfides on the overall mechanical stability of proteins is poorly understood. Here, we used single-molecule force spectroscopy (smFS) to study the role of disulfide bonds in different mechanical proteins in terms of their unfolding forces...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637916/model-based-analysis-of-an-outbreak-of-bubonic-plague-in-cairo-in-1801
#19
Xavier Didelot, Lilith K Whittles, Ian Hall
Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637678/regulation-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-by-non-coding-rna
#20
Mari McMahon, Afshin Samali, Eric Chevet
Cells are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses in both physiological and pathological conditions. To adapt to those conditions, cells have evolved various mechanisms to cope with the disturbances in protein demand, largely through the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), but also through the Integrated Stress Response (ISR). Both responses initiate downstream signaling to transcription factors that, in turn, trigger adaptive programs and/or in the case of prolonged stress, cell death mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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