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Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918088/evaluation-of-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-subjects-with-and-without-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#1
Clodagh M Ryan, Anne Battisti-Charbonney, Olivia Sobczyk, David J Mikulis, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
BACKGROUND: Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and altered cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) are associated with increased stroke risk. Nevertheless, the incidence of abnormal CVR in patients with OSA is uncertain due to the high variability in the way CVR is measured both within and between studies. We hypothesized that a standardized CVR with a consistent vasoactive stimulus and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measure would be reduced in patients with severe OSA compared with healthy controls...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916839/study-of-tissue-level-hypoxic-response-in-microfluidic-environment
#2
Adnan Morshed, Prashanta Dutta
Availability of essential species like oxygen is critical in shaping the dynamics of tumor growth. When the intracellular oxygen level falls below normal, it initiates major cascades in cellular dynamics leading to tumor cell survival. In a cellular block with cells growing away from the blood vessel, the scenario can be aggravated for the cells further inside the block. In this study, the dynamics of intracellular species inside a colony of tumor cells are investigated by varying the cell block thickness and cell types in a microfluidic cell culture device...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916603/phase-2a-clinical-trial-of-mitochondrial-protection-elamipretide-during-stent-revascularization-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-renal-artery-stenosis
#3
Ahmed Saad, Sandra M S Herrmann, Alfonso Eirin, Christopher M Ferguson, James F Glockner, Haraldur Bjarnason, Michael A McKusick, Sanjay Misra, Lilach O Lerman, Stephen C Textor
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis reduces renal blood flow (RBF) and amplifies stenotic kidney hypoxia. Revascularization with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) and stenting often fails to recover renal function, possibly because of ischemia/reperfusion injury developing after PTRA. Elamipretide is a mitochondrial-targeted peptide that binds to cardiolipin and stabilizes mitochondrial function. We tested the hypothesis that elamipretide plus PTRA would improve renal function, oxygenation, and RBF in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis undergoing PTRA...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913609/modulation-of-the-emotional-response-to-viewing-strabismic-children-in-mothers-measured-by-fmri
#4
J Berberat, M Montali, P Gruber, A Pircher, M Hlavica, F Wang, H P Killer, L Remonda
PURPOSE: Strabismus influences not only the individual with nonparallel eyes but also the observer. It has previously been demonstrated by fMRI that adults viewing images of strabismic adults have a negative reaction to the images as demonstrated by limbic activation, especially activation of the left amygdala. The aim of this study was to see if mothers would have a similar reaction to viewing strabismic children and whether or not that reaction would be different in mothers of strabismic children...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913163/general-and-selective-brain-connectivity-alterations-in-essential-tremor-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#5
Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Martina Hoskovcová, Olga Ulmanová, Dušan Urgošík, Josef Vymazal, Evžen Růžička
Although essential tremor is the most common movement disorder, there is little knowledge about the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. Therefore, we explored brain connectivity based on slow spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in patients with essential tremor (ET). A cohort of 19 ET patients and 23 healthy individuals were scanned in resting condition using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). General connectivity was assessed by eigenvector centrality (EC) mapping...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912749/functional-connectivity-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-epilepsy-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures
#6
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
The corpus callosum (CC) plays an important role in generalization of seizure activity. We used resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the regional and interregional functional connectivity of CC in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative and secondarily generalized seizures. We measured the multi-regional coherences of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals via rs-fMRI, cortical thickness via high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, and white matter (WM) integrity via diffusion-tensor imaging in 16 epilepsy patients as well as in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911973/novel-oxolane-derivative-dmtd-mitigates-high-glucose-induced-erythrocytes-apoptosis-by-regulating-oxidative-stress
#7
Swamy Jagadish, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Somanathapura K NaveenKumar, Kothanahally S Sharath Kumar, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Basappa, Kesturu S Girish, Kanchugarakoppal S Rangappa
Chronic hyperglycemia is one of the characteristic conditions associated with Diabetes Mellitus (DM), which often exerts deleterious effects on erythrocyte morphology and hemodynamic properties leading to anemia and diabetes-associated vascular complications. High glucose-induced over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can alter the blood cell metabolism and biochemical functions subsequently causing eryptosis (red blood cell death), yet another complication of concern in DM. Therefore, blocking high glucose-induced oxidative damage and subsequent eryptosis is of high importance in the better management of DM and associated vascular complications...
September 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905414/high-spatio-temporal-resolution-in-functional-mri-with-3d-echo-planar-imaging-using-cylindrical-excitation-and-a-caipirinha-undersampling-pattern
#8
Wietske van der Zwaag, Olivier Reynaud, Mayur Narsude, Daniel Gallichan, José P Marques
PURPOSE: The combination of 3D echo planar imaging (3D-EPI) with a 2D-CAIPIRINHA undersampling scheme provides high flexibility in the optimization for spatial or temporal resolution. This flexibility can be increased further with the addition of a cylindrical excitation pulse, which exclusively excites the brain regions of interest. Here, 3D-EPI was combined with a 2D radiofrequency pulse to reduce the brain area from which signal is generated, and hence, allowing either reduction of the field of view or reduction of parallel imaging noise amplification...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895696/b-type-natriuretic-peptide-usefulness-in-the-management-of-critically-ill-neonates
#9
Gisela L Salas, Mariela Jozefkowicz, Gustavo S Goldsmit, Gabriela Disa, Alejandra Rodiño, Susana Rodríguez, Diana Fariña
INTRODUCTION: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is responsible for changes in the heart organogenesis and is associated with transition to extrauterine life. In the first week of life, BNP levels are high and return to normal with the physiological loss in weight. High BNP levels are associated with different conditions. OBJETIVE: To establish the relationship between BNP levels and criticality and the short-term clinical course among patients hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893245/age-dependent-redox-status-in-the-brain-stem-of-no-deficient-hypertensive-rats
#10
Miroslava Majzúnová, Zuzana Pakanová, Peter Kvasnička, Peter Bališ, Soňa Čačányiová, Ima Dovinová
BACKGROUND: The brain stem contains important nuclei that control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which is strongly influenced by nitric oxide. Its biological activity is also largely determined by oxygen free radicals. Despite many experimental studies, the role of AT1R-NAD(P)H oxidase-superoxide pathway in NO-deficiency is not yet sufficiently clarified. We determined changes in free radical signaling and antioxidant and detoxification response in the brain stem of young and adult Wistar rats during chronic administration of exogenous NO inhibitors...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891818/machine-learning-support-to-individual-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-multimodal-mri-and-cognitive-assessments
#11
Matteo De Marco, Leandro Beltrachini, Alberto Biancardi, Alejandro F Frangi, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether the cognitive profile of a patient indicates mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or performance levels within normality is often a clinical challenge. The use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and machine learning may represent valid aids in clinical settings for the identification of MCI patients. METHODS: Machine-learning models were computed to test the classificatory accuracy of cognitive, volumetric [structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI)] and blood oxygen level dependent-connectivity (extracted from RS-fMRI) features, in single-modality and mixed classifiers...
September 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890416/bayesian-population-receptive-field-modelling
#12
REVIEW
Peter Zeidman, Edward Harry Silson, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf, Chris Ian Baker, Will Penny
We introduce a probabilistic (Bayesian) framework and associated software toolbox for mapping population receptive fields (pRFs) based on fMRI data. This generic approach is intended to work with stimuli of any dimension and is demonstrated and validated in the context of 2D retinotopic mapping. The framework enables the experimenter to specify generative (encoding) models of fMRI timeseries, in which experimental stimuli enter a pRF model of neural activity, which in turns drives a nonlinear model of neurovascular coupling and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) response...
September 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887088/impact-of-the-heart-rate-on-the-shape-of-the-cardiac-response-function
#13
Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Stefanie Köhler, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Gerd Wagner
There is limited understanding about how heart rate (HR) influences the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. While the mechanism by which respiration induces fluctuation in the BOLD signal is relatively well understood, the mechanisms regarding the HR remains unclear. The application of canonical cardiac response function (CRF), or subject-specific CRF, is an effective method for creating nuisance regressors, which can be used to remove cardiac-induced fluctuations in the BOLD signal. However, the relationship between physiological parameters and the characteristics of the CRF has not been systematically investigated...
September 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886474/functional-connectivity-of-the-hippocampus-to-the-thalamocortical-circuitry-in-an-animal-model-of-absence-seizures
#14
Seyed Reza Mousavi, Justin A Arcaro, L Stan Leung, Jeffrey R Tenney, Seyed M Mirsattari
OBJECTIVE: Using the gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) rat model of absence seizures, this study investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus, thalamus and cerebral cortex before and during absence seizures. METHODS: Functional connectivity between the hippocampus, thalamus and sensory and motor cortecies, were examined by the temporal correlations of the resting state blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Functional connectivity between these regions was calculated at baseline, 5min after saline injection, and at 5, 20 and 52min after GBL injection...
August 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885752/dual-echo-asl-contributes-to-decrypting-the-link-between-functional-connectivity-and-cerebral-blow-flow
#15
Silvia F Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Stefania Montemezzi, Gloria Menegaz, Francesca B Pizzini
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI with a dual-echo readout module (DE-ASL) enables noninvasive simultaneous acquisition of cerebral blood flow (CBF)-weighted images and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Up to date, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) studies based on CBF fluctuations have been very limited, while the BOLD is still the method most frequently used. The purposes of this technical report were (i) to assess the potentiality of the DE-ASL sequence for the quantification of resting-state FC and brain organization, with respect to the conventional BOLD (cvBOLD) and (ii) to investigate the relationship between a series of complex network measures and the CBF information...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885740/preferential-encoding-of-movement-amplitude-and-speed-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-and-cerebellum
#16
Alit Stark-Inbar, Eran Dayan
Voluntary movements require control of multiple kinematic parameters, a task carried out by a distributed brain architecture. However, it remains unclear whether regions along the motor system encode single, or rather a mixture of, kinematic parameters during action execution. Here, rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to differentiate brain activity along the motor system during the encoding of movement amplitude, duration, and speed. We present cumulative evidence supporting preferential encoding of kinematic parameters along the motor system, based on blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal recorded in a well-controlled single-joint wrist-flexion task...
September 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884708/dual-echo-asl-based-assessment-of-motor-networks-a-feasibility-study
#17
Silvia Francesca Storti, Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Francesca B Pizzini, Gloria Menegaz
OBJECTIVE: Dual-echo arterial spin labeling (DE-ASL) techniques have been recently proposed for the simultaneous acquisition of ASL and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The assessment of this technique in detecting functional connectivity at rest or during motor and motor imagery tasks is still unexplored both per-se and in comparison with conventional methods. The purpose is to quantify the sensitivity of the DE-ASL sequence with respect to the conventional fMRI sequence (cvBOLD) in detecting brain activations, and to assess and compare the relevance of node features in decoding the network structure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883405/modeling-a-linkage-between-blood-transcriptional-expression-and-activity-in-brain-regions-to-infer-the-phenotype-of-schizophrenia-patients
#18
El Chérif Ibrahim, Vincent Guillemot, Magali Comte, Arthur Tenenhaus, Xavier Yves Zendjidjian, Aida Cancel, Raoul Belzeaux, Florence Sauvanaud, Olivier Blin, Vincent Frouin, Eric Fakra
Hundreds of genetic loci participate to schizophrenia liability. It is also known that impaired cerebral connectivity is directly related to the cognitive and affective disturbances in schizophrenia. How genetic susceptibility and brain neural networks interact to specify a pathological phenotype in schizophrenia remains elusive. Imaging genetics, highlighting brain variations, has proven effective to establish links between vulnerability loci and associated clinical traits. As previous imaging genetics works in schizophrenia have essentially focused on structural DNA variants, these findings could be blurred by epigenetic mechanisms taking place during gene expression...
September 7, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882875/class-iii-pi3k-positively-regulates-platelet-activation-and-thrombosis-via-pi-3-p-directed-function-of-nadph-oxidase
#19
Yangyang Liu, Mengjiao Hu, Dongjiao Luo, Ming Yue, Shuai Wang, Xiaoyan Chen, Yangfan Zhou, Yi Wang, Yanchun Cai, Xiaolan Hu, Yuehai Ke, Zhongzhou Yang, Hu Hu
OBJECTIVE: Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase, also known as vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34), is a highly conserved enzyme regulating important cellular functions such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) assembly, membrane trafficking, and autophagy. Although VPS34 is expressed in platelets, its involvement in platelet activation remains unclear. Herein, we investigated the role of VPS34 in platelet activation and thrombus formation using VPS34 knockout mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Platelet-specific VPS34-deficient mice were generated and characterized...
September 7, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882632/spatial-specificity-of-the-functional-mri-blood-oxygenation-response-relative-to-neuronal-activity
#20
Denis Chaimow, Essa Yacoub, Kâmil Uğurbil, Amir Shmuel
Previous attempts at characterizing the spatial specificity of the blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) response by estimating its point-spread function (PSF) have conventionally relied on spatial representations of visual stimuli in area V1. Consequently, their estimates were confounded by the width and scatter of receptive fields of V1 neurons. Here, we circumvent these limits by instead using the inherent cortical spatial organization of ocular dominance columns (ODCs) to determine the PSF for both Gradient Echo (GE) and Spin Echo (SE) BOLD imaging at 7 T...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
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