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Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156835/indonesian-herbal-medicine-prevents-hypertension-induced-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-by-diminishing-nadph-oxidase-dependent-oxidative-stress
#1
Erna Sulistyowati, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuan-Bin Cheng, Fang-Rong Chang, Ying-Fu Chen, Jwu-Lai Yeh
Indonesian herbal medicine Centella asiatica, Justicia gendarussa and Imperata cylindrica decoction (CJID) are known to be efficacious for hypertension. Oxidative stress plays an important role in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH). This study evaluated whether CJID inhibit cardiac remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through mechanism of oxidative stress-related cardiac-NADPH oxidase (NOXs) pathway: NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4. Forty-weeks-old SHRs and normotensive-WKY rats, were both randomly divided into 2 groups: CJID and control...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154684/brain-functional-connectivity-in-headache-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-mri-investigations
#2
Catherine D Chong, Todd J Schwedt, Anders Hougaard
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is used to interrogate the functional connectivity and network organization amongst brain regions. Functional connectivity is determined by measuring the extent of synchronization in the spontaneous fluctuations of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal. Here, we review current rs-fMRI studies in headache disorders including migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, and medication overuse headache. We discuss (1) brain network alterations that are shared amongst the different headache disorders and (2) network abnormalities distinct to each headache disorder...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154463/establishing-upper-limits-on-neuronal-activity-evoked-ph-changes-with-apt-cest-mri-at-7-t
#3
Vitaliy Khlebnikov, Jeroen C W Siero, Alex A Bhogal, Peter R Luijten, Dennis W J Klomp, Hans Hoogduin
PURPOSE: To detect neuronal activity-evoked pH changes by amide proton transfer-chemical exchange saturation transfer (APT-CEST) MRI at 7 T. METHODS: Three healthy subjects participated in the study. A low-power 3-dimensional APT-CEST sequence was optimized through the Bloch-McConnell equations. pH sensitivity of the sequence was estimated both in phantoms and in vivo. The feasibility of pH-functional MRI was tested in Bloch-McConnell-simulated data using the optimized sequence...
November 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#4
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151411/-protective-effect-of-thalidomide-on-ali-induced-by-paraquat-poisoning-in-rats-and-its-mechanism
#5
Tao Liu, Yuan Xie, Mengtong Xu, Fenshuang Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of thalidomide on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by paraquat (PQ) poisoning in rats and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Sixty SPF Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups with 10 rats in each group. The rat model of PQ poisoning was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of PQ solution 20 mg/kg (PQ model group), and the rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of gradient thalidomide (50, 100, 200 mg/kg treatment groups) 30 minutes later continuously for 3 days...
November 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148180/dna-methylation-in-the-central-and-efferent-limbs-of-the-chemo-reflex-requires-carotid-body-neural-activity
#6
Jayasri Nanduri, Ying-Jie Peng, Ning Wang, Shakil A Khan, Gregg L Semenza, Nanduri R Prabhakar
Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia (LT-IH; 30 days), simulating blood O2 profiles during sleep apnea, has been shown to repress anti-oxidant enzyme (AOE) gene expression by DNA methylation in the carotid body (CB) reflex pathway, resulting in persistent elevation of plasma catecholamine levels and blood pressure. The present study examined the mechanisms by which LT-IH induces DNA methylation. Adult rats exposed to LT-IH showed elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the CB, nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and adrenal medulla (AM), which represent the central and efferent limbs of the CB reflex, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146995/gaba-concentrations-in-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-predict-human-semantic-processing
#7
JeYoung Jung, Stephen R Williams, Faezeh Sanaei Nezhad, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
There is now considerable convergent evidence from multiple methodologies and clinical studies that the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is a semantic representational hub. However, the neurochemical nature of the ATL in the semantic processing remains unclear. The current study investigated the neurochemical mechanism underlying semantic processing in the ATL. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure task-related blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes during sematic processing and resting-state GABA concentrations in the ATL...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141841/in-utero-brain-development-in-fetuses-with-congenital-heart-disease-another-piece-of-the-jigsaw-provided-by-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
EDITORIAL
Mike Seed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130510/heterogenous-migraine-aura-symptoms-correlate-with-visual-cortex-fmri-responses
#9
Nanna Arngrim, Anders Hougaard, Khazar Ahmadi, Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Henrik Winther Schytz, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Jes Olesen, Michael B Hoffmann, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: Migraine aura is sparsely studied due to the highly challenging task of capturing patients during aura. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is likely the underlying phenomenon of aura. The possible correlation between the multifaceted phenomenology of aura symptoms and the effects of CSD on the brain has not been ascertained. METHODS: Five migraine patients were studied during various forms of aura symptoms induced by hypoxia, sham or physical exercise and photostimulation...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128522/biological-evidence-for-attention-bias-to-food-emotional-dysregulation-disinhibition-and-deficient-somatosensory-awareness-in-obesity-with-binge-eating-disorder
#10
Roni Aviram-Friedman, Nerys Astbury, Christopher N Ochner, Isobel Contento, Allan Geliebter
OBJECTIVES: To refine the biobehavioral markers of binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: We conducted fMRI brain scans using images of high energy processed food (HEPF), low energy unprocessed food (LEUF), or non-foods (NF) in 42 adults (obese with BED [obese -BED; n=13] and obese with no BED [obese non-BED; n=29]) selected via ads. Two blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) signal contrast maps were examined: food versus nonfood, and HEPF versus LEUF. In addition, score differences on the disinhibition scale were correlated with BOLD signals...
November 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123531/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-derived-circulating-cells-release-il-18-and-il-33-under-ultrafine-particulate-matter-exposure-in-a-caspase-1-8-independent-manner
#11
Gianluigi De Falco, Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Ada Popolo, Michela Pecoraro, Mario Commodo, Patrizia Minutolo, Mariano Sirignano, Andrea D'Anna, Rita P Aquino, Aldo Pinto, Antonio Molino, Rosalinda Sorrentino
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered the fourth-leading causes of death worldwide; COPD is caused by inhalation of noxious indoor and outdoor particles, especially cigarette smoke that represents the first risk factor for this respiratory disorder. To mimic the effects of particulate matter on COPD, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and treated them with combustion-generated ultrafine particles (UFPs) obtained from two different fuel mixtures, namely, pure ethylene and a mixture of ethylene and dimethylfuran (the latter mimicking the combustion of biofuels)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122668/estimation-of-physiological-sources-of-nonlinearity-in-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast-signals
#12
Daehun Kang, Yul-Wan Sung, Satoshi Shioiri
Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast appears through a variation in the transverse relaxation rate of magnetic resonance signals induced by neurovascular coupling and is known to have nonlinear characteristics along echo time (TE) due to the intra-vasculature. However, the physiological causes of this nonlinearity are unclear. We attempted to estimate the physiological information related to the nonlinearity of BOLD signals by using a two-compartment model. For this purpose, we used a multi-echo gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence and developed a computational method to estimate the physiological information from the TE-dependent BOLD signals...
November 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121642/limbic-system-damage-in-ms-mri-assessment-and-correlations-with-clinical-testing
#13
Jie Wen, Dmitriy A Yablonskiy, Amber Salter, Anne H Cross
Volume loss in some limbic region structures has been observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, in vivo evaluation of existing tissue cellular microstructure integrity has received less attention. The goal of studies reported here was to quantitatively assess loss of limbic system volumes and tissue integrity, and to evaluate associations of these measures with cognitive and physical dysfunction in MS patients. Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 80 MS patients, including 32 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 32 secondary progressive (SPMS) and 16 primary progressive (PPMS), participated in this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120073/astrocytic-and-neuronal-oxidative-metabolism-are-coupled-to-the-rate-of-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-the-tree-shrew-visual-cortex
#14
Sarah Sonnay, Jordan Poirot, Nathalie Just, Anne-Catherine Clerc, Rolf Gruetter, Gregor Rainer, João M N Duarte
Astrocytes play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely by clearing synaptic glutamate and converting it into glutamine that is transferred back to neurons. The rate of this glutamate-glutamine cycle (VNT ) has been proposed to couple to that of glucose utilization and of neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic neurotransmission is also coupled to the TCA cycle rate in astrocytes. For that we investigated energy metabolism by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the primary visual cortex of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) under light isoflurane anesthesia at rest and during continuous visual stimulation...
November 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117709/detecting-perfusion-pattern-based-on-the-background-low-frequency-fluctuation-in-resting-state-functional-mri-data-and-its-influence-on-resting-state-networks-an-iterative-post-processing-approach
#15
Tianyi Qian, Davide Zanchi, Cristelle Rodriguez, Marine Ackermann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: RS-fMRI is based on the assumption that the vascular response and the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response are homogenous across the entire brain. However, this a priori hypothesis is not consistent with the well-known variability of cerebral vascular territories. In order to explore whether the RS networks are influenced by varied vascular speed in different vascular territories, we assessed the time-shift maps that give an estimate of the local timing of the vascular response and check whether local differences in this timing have an impact on the estimates of RS networks...
November 8, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113406/altered-dmn-functional-connectivity-and-regional-homogeneity-in-partial-epilepsy-patients-a-seventy-cases-study
#16
Chong-Yu Hu, Xiaoping Gao, Lili Long, Xiaoyan Long, Chaorong Liu, Yayu Chen, Yuanyuan Xie, Chujuan Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhe-Yu Hu
Purpose: Clinically diagnosed partial epilepsy is hard to be functionally diagnosed by regular electroencephalograph (EEG) and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By collecting transient brain regional signals, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) function MRI (BOLD-fMRI) can provide brain function change information with high accuracy. By using resting state BOLD-fMRI technique, we aim to investigate the changes of brain function in partial epilepsy patients. Methods: BOLD-fMRI scanning was performed in 70 partial epilepsy and 70 healthy people...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111410/the-z-spectrum-from-human-blood-at-7t
#17
Simon M Shah, Olivier E Mougin, Andrew J Carradus, Nicolas Geades, Richard Dury, William Morley, Penny A Gowland
Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) has been used to assess healthy and pathological tissue in both animals and humans. However, the CEST signal from blood has not been fully assessed. This paper presents the CEST and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signals detected in human blood measured via z-spectrum analysis. We assessed the effects of blood oxygenation levels, haematocrit, cell structure and pH upon the z-spectrum in ex vivo human blood for different saturation powers at 7T. The data were analysed using Lorentzian difference (LD) model fitting and AREX (to compensate for changes in T1), which have been successfully used to study CEST effects in vivo...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107772/gastric-bypass-surgery-induced-widespread-neural-plasticity-of-the-obese-human-brain
#18
Michael Rullmann, Sven Preusser, Sindy Poppitz, Stefanie Heba, Jana Hoyer, Tatjana Schütz, Arne Dietrich, Karsten Müller, Burkhard Pleger
Bariatric surgery has become the gold standard for the treatment of morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m(2)), but only few studies investigated its plastic influences on the obese brain. In this longitudinal study, we combined structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (MRI) in 27 patients (BMI 47.8 ± 5.5 kg/m(2)) undergoing gastric-bypass surgery and 14 non-obese matched controls (BMI 24.7 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)). Over the first year after surgery, patients presented widespread changes in white matter density (WMD) as well as gray matter density (GMD) in the cerebral cortex of all lobes, subcortical structures, the brainstem as well as the cerebellum, but no changes in white matter water diffusivity throughout the brain...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107517/entrainment-of-arteriole-vasomotor-fluctuations-by-neural-activity-is-a-basis-of-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-resting-state-connectivity
#19
Celine Mateo, Per M Knutsen, Philbert S Tsai, Andy Y Shih, David Kleinfeld
Resting-state signals in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) imaging are used to parcellate brain regions and define "functional connections" between regions. Yet a physiological link between fluctuations in blood oxygenation with those in neuronal signaling pathways is missing. We present evidence from studies on mouse cortex that modulation of vasomotion, i.e., intrinsic ultra-slow (0.1 Hz) fluctuations in arteriole diameter, provides this link. First, ultra-slow fluctuations in neuronal signaling, which occur as an envelope over γ-band activity, entrains vasomotion...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106775/oxygen-delivery-from-the-cerebral-microvasculature-to-tissue-is-governed-by-a-single-time-constant-of-approximately-6-seconds
#20
S J Payne, C Lucas
The cerebral microvasculature plays a key role in the coupling between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Although experimental imaging techniques now allow for finely detailed measurements of flow and oxygenation, within humans measurements remain confined to a voxel level scale, of order 1 mm. Mathematical models are thus key in interpreting such data. However, these can be highly complicated, due to the large number of vessels and the non-linearities in the governing equations. We thus propose here a new model of the cerebral microvasculature and show how its behaviour can be simplified based on order of magnitude arguments...
November 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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