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Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905383/-the-role-of-atp-dependent-potassium-channels-and-nitric-oxide-system-in-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-preconditioning
#1
O G Deryagin, S A Gavrilova, S V Buravkov, V V Andrianov, G G Yafarova, Kh L Gainutdinov, V B Koshelev
AIM: To study a role of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K+ATP) in the neuroprotective effect of ischemic (IP) and pharmacological (PP) preconditioning and evaluate the dynamics of blood nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in cerebral ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A model of ischemic stroke induced by the electrocoagulation of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) branch was used in male rats (n=86). Glibenclamide, a selective inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and diazoxide, a potassium channel activator, were used...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905100/the-severity-of-anaemia-depletes-cerebrovascular-dilatory-reserve-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#2
Przemyslaw D Kosinski, Paula L Croal, Jackie Leung, Suzan Williams, Isaac Odame, Gregory M T Hare, Manohar Shroff, Andrea Kassner
Overt ischaemic stroke is one of the most devastating complications in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The compensatory response to anaemia in SCD includes an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) by accessing cerebrovascular dilatory reserve. Exhaustion of dilatory reserve secondary to anaemic stress may lead to cerebral ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with SCD and to correlate these with haematological markers of anaemia...
December 1, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900802/therapeutic-potential-of-carfilzomib-an-irreversible-proteasome-inhibitor-against-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#3
Abdulrazaq Alanazi, Saleh G Algfeley, Khaled A Al-Hosaini, Hesham M Korashy, Faisal Imam, Mahmoud N Nagi
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is often associated with hepatotoxicity. Carfilzomib (CFZ) shows multiple pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory potential. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of CFZ against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administration of APAP (350 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Mice were given CFZ (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 1.5 h after APAP administration. Animals were sacrificed on 6 h and blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897393/cancer-anorexia-hypothalamic-activity-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-appetite-regulating-peptides-in-lung-cancer
#4
Alessio Molfino, Alessandro Iannace, Maria Chiara Colaiacomo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandra Emiliani, Gianfranco Gualdi, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus, whose inflammation-induced functional derangements contribute to the onset of anorexia in cancer. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined the patterns of hypothalamic activation after oral intake in anorexic (A), non-anorexic (NA) cancer patients, and in controls (C). METHODS: Lung cancer patients were considered. Hypothalamic activation was recorded in A and NA patients and in C by fMRI, before (T0), immediately after (T1) the administration of an oral nutritional supplement, and after 15 min (T2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894892/longitudinal-functional-brain-imaging-study-in-early-course-schizophrenia-before-and-after-cognitive-enhancement-therapy
#5
Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack, Konasale M Prasad, Chiara S Haller, Raymond Y Cho
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893563/resistance-training-improves-muscle-function-and-cardiometabolic-risks-but-not-quality-of-life-in-older-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Ping-Lun Hsieh, Chin-Hsiao Tseng, Yufeng Jane Tseng, Wei-Shiung Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In older people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the effects of aging and T2DM may compromise the function of skeletal muscle, deteriorate metabolic status, and jeopardize physical performance, aerobic capacity, and quality of life (QoL). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on muscle function, physical performance, cardiometabolic risks, and QoL in older people with T2DM. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial that employed block randomization, assessor blinding, and the intention-to-treat principle...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893186/the-relative-influence-of-hematocrit-and-red-blood-cell-velocity-on-oxygen-transport-from-capillaries-to-tissue
#7
Adrien Lücker, Timothy W Secomb, Bruno Weber, Patrick Jenny
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen transport to parenchymal cells occurs mainly at the microvascular level, and depends on convective red blood cell (RBC) flux, which is proportional in an individual capillary to the product of capillary hematocrit and red blood cell velocity. This study investigates the relative influence of these two factors on tissue oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ). METHODS: A simple analytical model is used to quantify the respective influences of hematocrit, RBC velocity and flow on tissue oxygenation around capillaries...
November 28, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881393/food-portion-size-and-energy-density-evoke-different-patterns-of-brain-activation-in-children
#8
Laural K English, S Nicole Fearnbach, Stephen J Wilson, Jennifer O Fisher, Jennifer S Savage, Barbara J Rolls, Kathleen L Keller
BACKGROUND: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). OBJECTIVE: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low)...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876655/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-attenuates-the-bold-signal-response-to-noxious-sensory-input-in-specific-brain-regions-insights-into-a-possible-mechanism-for-analgesia
#9
Christopher P Pawela, Jeffery M Kramer, Quinn H Hogan
Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875902/nuisance-regression-of-high-frequency-fmri-data-de-noising-can-be-noisy
#10
Jingyuan E Chen, Gary Glover, Hesamoddin Jahanian
Recently, emerging studies have demonstrated the existence of brain resting state (RS) spontaneous activity at frequencies higher than the conventional 0.1 Hz. A few groups utilizing accelerated acquisitions have reported persisting signals beyond 1 Hz, which seems too high to be accommodated by the sluggish hemodynamic process underpinning blood-oxygen-level dependent contrasts (the upper limit of the canonical model is ~ 0.3 Hz). It is thus questionable whether the observed high-frequency (HF) functional connectivity (FC) originates from alternative mechanisms (e...
November 22, 2016: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859863/the-influence-of-very-small-doses-of-alpha-radiation-on-the-stability-of-erythrocytes
#11
Magdalena Kaczmarska, Dominika Żydek, Justyna Wilkłacz-Potoczny, Maria Fornal, Tomasz Grodzicki, Elżbieta Kochowska, Krzysztof Kozak, Łukasz Gocal, Władysław Pohorecki, Krzysztof Matlak, Józef Korecki, Květoslava Burda
Our aim was to study the influence of low doses (0.2-4 μGy) of α radiation on the stability of human erythrocytes isolated from healthy and diabetic erythrocytes. Absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the level of red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis, along with Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is a highly specific method suited to monitoring various hemoglobin forms. States of hemoglobin are sensitive to a homeostatic imbalance in red blood cells. Changes in the membrane skeleton organization of irradiated erythrocytes isolated from healthy donors were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
November 16, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859558/7-tesla-22-channel-wrap-around-coil-array-for-cervical-spinal-cord-and-brainstem-imaging
#12
Bei Zhang, Alan C Seifert, Joo-Won Kim, Joseph Borrello, Junqian Xu
PURPOSE: Increased signal-to-noise ratio and blood oxygenation level-dependent sensitivity at 7 Tesla (T) have the potential to enable high-resolution imaging of the human cervical spinal cord and brainstem. We propose a new two-panel radiofrequency coil design for these regions to fully exploit the advantages of ultra-high field. METHODS: A two-panel array, containing four transmit/receive and 18 receive-only elements fully encircling the head and neck, was constructed following simulations demonstrating the B1+ and specific absorption rate (SAR) benefits of two-panel over one-panel arrays...
November 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857679/bold-imaging-in-awake-wild-type-and-mu-opioid-receptor-knock-out-mice-reveals-on-target-activation-maps-in-response-to-oxycodone
#13
Kelsey Moore, Dan Madularu, Sade Iriah, Jason R Yee, Praveen Kulkarni, Emmanuel Darcq, Brigitte L Kieffer, Craig F Ferris
Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (μ) opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO) in response to oxycodone (OXY). Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851995/key-clinical-benefits-of-neuroimaging-at-7t
#14
Siegfried Trattnig, Elisabeth Springer, Wolfgang Bogner, Gilbert Hangel, Bernhard Strasser, Barbara Dymerska, Pedro Lima Cardoso, Simon Daniel Robinson
The growing interest in ultra-high field MRI, with more than 35.000 MR examinations already performed at 7T, is related to improved clinical results with regard to morphological as well as functional and metabolic capabilities. Since the signal-to-noise ratio increases with the field strength of the MR scanner, the most evident application at 7T is to gain higher spatial resolution in the brain compared to 3T. Of specific clinical interest for neuro applications is the cerebral cortex at 7T, for the detection of changes in cortical structure, like the visualization of cortical microinfarcts and cortical plaques in Multiple Sclerosis...
November 13, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845359/characterizing-the-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-fluctuations-in-musculoskeletal-tumours-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Li-Sha Duan, Meng-Jun Wang, Feng Sun, Zhen-Jiang Zhao, Mei Xing, Yu-Feng Zang, Steven Louis, Sheng-Jie Cui, Jian-Ling Cui, Han Zhang
This study characterized the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations in benign and malignant musculoskeletal tumours via power spectrum analyses in pre-established low-frequency bands. BOLD MRI and T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) were collected for 52 patients with musculoskeletal tumours. Three ROIs were drawn on the T1WI image in the tumours' central regions, peripheral regions and neighbouring tissue. The power spectrum of the BOLD within each ROI was calculated and divided into the following four frequency bands: 0...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845253/exploration-of-human-visual-cortex-using-high-spatial-resolution-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Kang Cheng
In this review focusing primarily on the work conducted in my group at RIKEN Brain Science Institute, I will first briefly summarize what we have achieved in mapping columnar organizations in human primary visual cortex using blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), including ocular dominance columns, temporal frequency dependent domains, and orientation selective columns. I will then touch upon a couple of recent successful attempts in the field in mapping functional architectures in human extrastriate cortices, including human middle temporal complex and secondary and tertiary visual areas (V2 and V3), and discuss what we have learned regarding the spatial specificity of BOLD fMRI...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837190/hyperoxia-results-in-increased-aerobic-metabolism-following-acute-brain-injury
#17
Arnab Ghosh, David Highton, Christina Kolyva, Ilias Tachtsidis, Clare E Elwell, Martin Smith
Acute brain injury is associated with depressed aerobic metabolism. Below a critical mitochondrial pO2 cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, fails to sustain oxidative phosphorylation. After acute brain injury, this ischaemic threshold might be shifted into apparently normal levels of tissue oxygenation. We investigated the oxygen dependency of aerobic metabolism in 16 acutely brain-injured patients using a 120-min normobaric hyperoxia challenge in the acute phase (24-72 h) post-injury and multimodal neuromonitoring, including transcranial Doppler ultrasound-measured cerebral blood flow velocity, cerebral microdialysis-derived lactate-pyruvate ratio (LPR), brain tissue pO2 (pbrO2), and tissue oxygenation index and cytochrome c oxidase oxidation state (oxCCO) measured using broadband spectroscopy...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833913/glycemic-control-with-ipragliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-ameliorated-endothelial-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mouse
#18
Hotimah Masdan Salim, Daiju Fukuda, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of this study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829662/high-glucose-upregulates-bace1-mediated-a%C3%AE-production-through-ros-dependent-hif-1%C3%AE-and-lxr%C3%AE-abca1-regulated-lipid-raft-reorganization-in-sk-n-mc-cells
#19
Hyun Jik Lee, Jung Min Ryu, Young Hyun Jung, Sei-Jung Lee, Jeong Yeon Kim, Sang Hun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Je Kyung Seong, Ho Jae Han
There is an accumulation of evidence indicating that the risk of Alzheimer's disease is associated with diabetes mellitus, an indicator of high glucose concentrations in blood plasma. This study investigated the effect of high glucose on BACE1 expression and amyloidogenesis in vivo, and we present details of the mechanism associated with those effects. Our results, using ZLC and ZDF rat models, showed that ZDF rats have high levels of amyloid-beta (Aβ), phosphorylated tau, BACE1, and APP-C99. In vitro result with mouse hippocampal neuron and SK-N-MC, high glucose stimulated Aβ secretion and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829071/finite-element-model-of-oxygen-transport-for-the-design-of-geometrically-complex-microfluidic-devices-used-in-biological-studies
#20
Richard J Sové, Graham M Fraser, Daniel Goldman, Christopher G Ellis
Red blood cells play a crucial role in the local regulation of oxygen supply in the microcirculation through the oxygen dependent release of ATP. Since red blood cells serve as an oxygen sensor for the circulatory system, the dynamics of ATP release determine the effectiveness of red blood cells to relate the oxygen levels to the vessels. Previous work has focused on the feasibility of developing a microfluidic system to measure the dynamics of ATP release. The objective was to determine if a steep oxygen gradient could be developed in the channel to cause a rapid decrease in hemoglobin oxygen saturation in order to measure the corresponding levels of ATP released from the red blood cells...
2016: PloS One
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