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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780673/investigating-the-genetic-relationship-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-cancer-using-gwas-summary-statistics
#1
Yen-Chen Anne Feng, Kelly Cho, Sara Lindstrom, Peter Kraft, Jean Cormack, Liming Liang, Jane A Driver
Growing evidence from both epidemiology and basic science suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. We examined the genetic relationship between AD and various cancer types using GWAS summary statistics from the IGAP and GAME-ON consortia. Sample size ranged from 9931 to 54,162; SNPs were imputed to the 1000 Genomes European panel. Our results based on cross-trait LD Score regression showed a significant positive genetic correlation between AD and five cancers combined (colon, breast, prostate, ovarian, lung; r g = 0...
August 5, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764976/more-than-just-noise-inter-individual-differences-in-fear-acquisition-extinction-and-return-of-fear-in-humans-biological-experiential-temperamental-factors-and-methodological-pitfalls
#2
REVIEW
Tina B Lonsdorf, Christian J Merz
Why do only some individuals develop pathological anxiety following adverse events? Fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear paradigms serve as experimental learning models for the development, treatment and relapse of anxiety. Individual differences in experimental performance were however mostly regarded as 'noise' by researchers interested in basic associative learning principles. Our work for the first time presents a comprehensive literature overview and methodological discussion on inter-individual differences in fear acquisition, extinction and return of fear...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764686/household-preferences-for-reducing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-four-european-high-income-countries-does-health-information-matter-a-mixed-methods-study-protocol
#3
Alina Herrmann, Helen Fischer, Dorothee Amelung, Dorian Litvine, Carlo Aall, Camilla Andersson, Marta Baltruszewicz, Carine Barbier, Sébastien Bruyère, Françoise Bénévise, Ghislain Dubois, Valérie R Louis, Maria Nilsson, Karen Richardsen Moberg, Bore Sköld, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change...
August 1, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762632/complexity-perspectives-on-clinical-decision-making-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#4
Ben A de Bock, Dick L Willems, Henry C Weinstein
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: How to clarify the implications of complexity thinking for decision making in the intensive care unit (ICU)? METHOD: Retrospective qualitative empirical research. Practitioners in an ICU were interviewed on how their decisions were made regarding a particular patient in a difficult, clinical situation. Transcriptions of these interviews were coded and retrieved in Maxqda, a software program. Assisted by complexity thinking, researchers focused on the decision-making process and the shift from analytic approaches to complex approaches...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753629/how-to-make-complexity-look-simple-conveying-ecosystems-restoration-complexity-for-socio-economic-research-and-public-engagement
#5
Julia Martin-Ortega, Klaus Glenk, Anja Byg
Ecosystems degradation represents one of the major global challenges at the present time, threating people's livelihoods and well-being worldwide. Ecosystem restoration therefore seems no longer an option, but an imperative. Restoration challenges are such that a dialogue has begun on the need to re-shape restoration as a science. A critical aspect of that reshaping process is the acceptance that restoration science and practice needs to be coupled with socio-economic research and public engagement. This inescapably means conveying complex ecosystem's information in a way that is accessible to the wider public...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739838/unravelling-migrants-health-paradoxes-a-transdisciplinary-research-agenda
#6
REVIEW
Maria Roura
The Social Determinants of Health literature has consistently found that a higher socioeconomic status is associated with better health outcomes even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. However, research findings in the field of Migrants' Health suggest that the socioeconomic/health gradient does not always behave as expected for migrants and their descendants. The mismatch of findings in these two long-standing parallel research traditions is exemplified by frequent reports of paradoxical findings in the scientific literature: the healthy migrant paradox, the ethnic density paradox and the diminishing returns paradox...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739540/the-women-in-steady-exercise-research-wiser-survivor-trial-the-innovative-transdisciplinary-design-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-exercise-and-weight-loss-interventions-among-breast-cancer-survivors-with-lymphedema
#7
Renate M Winkels, Kathleen M Sturgeon, Michael J Kallan, Lorraine T Dean, Zi Zhang, Margaret Evangelisti, Justin C Brown, David B Sarwer, Andrea B Troxel, Crystal Denlinger, Monica Laudermilk, Anna Fornash, Angela DeMichele, Lewis A Chodosh, Kathryn H Schmitz
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer survivors face dual challenges: long term sequelae of treatment, and risk of recurrent disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle complicate both challenges. The WISER Survivor trial assessed the effects of exercise and/or weight-loss on lymphedema, biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence, and quality of life. We report on the innovative transdisciplinary design of this trial and report attrition rates. METHODS: This one year trial randomized breast cancer survivors who had a BMI of ≥25kg/m(2), were sedentary and had breast-cancer-related-lymphedema to 1) exercise (weight training and aerobic exercise) 2) weight-loss 3) exercise and weight-loss 4) or control group...
July 21, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729843/is-a-transdisciplinary-theory-of-engagement-in-organized-settings-possible-a-concept-analysis-of-the-literature-on-employee-engagement-consumer-engagement-and-patient-engagement
#8
REVIEW
Guendalina Graffigna
Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human) in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers) is a promising lever for innovation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725209/a-national-early-intervention-system-as-a-strategy-to-promote-inclusion-and-academic-achievement-in-portugal
#9
Vitor Franco, Madalena Melo, Graça Santos, Ana Apolónio, Leonor Amaral
Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721807/developing-the-transdisciplinary-aging-research-agenda-new-developments-in-big-data
#10
Christian William Callaghan
In light of dramatic advances in big data analytics and the application of these advances in certain scientific fields, new potentialities exist for breakthroughs in aging research. Translating these new potentialities to research outcomes for aging populations, however, remains a challenge, as underlying technologies which have enabled exponential increases in 'big data' have not yet enabled a commensurate era of 'big knowledge,' or similarly exponential increases in biomedical breakthroughs. Debates also reveal differences in the literature, with some arguing big data analytics heralds a new era associated with the 'end of theory' or which makes the scientific method obsolete, where correlation supercedes causation, whereby science can advance without theory and hypotheses testing...
July 19, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720092/a-qualitative-study-of-clinic-and-community-member-perspectives-on-intervention-toolkits-unless-the-toolkit-is-used-it-won-t-help-solve-the-problem
#11
Melinda M Davis, Sonya Howk, Margaret Spurlock, Paul B McGinnis, Deborah J Cohen, Lyle J Fagnan
BACKGROUND: Intervention toolkits are common products of grant-funded research in public health and primary care settings. Toolkits are designed to address the knowledge translation gap by speeding implementation and dissemination of research into practice. However, few studies describe characteristics of effective intervention toolkits and their implementation. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore what clinic and community-based users want in intervention toolkits and to identify the factors that support application in practice...
July 18, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#12
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704943/constancy-and-change-key-issues-in-housing-and-health-research-1987-2017
#13
Roderick J Lawrence
The low impact of scientific research on the relations between housing and health during the last 30 years can be attributed to a number of reasons. First, statistical analyses have meant to improve understanding of the relations between what are interpreted and measured as causal factors. However, any single statistical approach fails to account for the dynamic non-linear relations between multiple factors and therefore cannot analyze systemic complexity. Second, there has been too little accumulation and validation of knowledge from scientific research owing to the dominance of cross-sectional studies, and the lack of coordinated research agendas using these approaches in order to confirm empirical findings...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701813/towards-a-new-generation-of-agricultural-system-data-models-and-knowledge-products-information-and-communication-technology
#14
Sander J C Janssen, Cheryl H Porter, Andrew D Moore, Ioannis N Athanasiadis, Ian Foster, James W Jones, John M Antle
Agricultural modeling has long suffered from fragmentation in model implementation. Many models are developed, there is much redundancy, models are often poorly coupled, model component re-use is rare, and it is frequently difficult to apply models to generate real solutions for the agricultural sector. To improve this situation, we argue that an open, self-sustained, and committed community is required to co-develop agricultural models and associated data and tools as a common resource. Such a community can benefit from recent developments in information and communications technology (ICT)...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695402/wanted-a-transdisciplinary-knowledge-domain-for-urban-health
#15
EDITORIAL
Roderick J Lawrence, Franz W Gatzweiler
The current disconnection between access to increasing amounts of data about urbanization, health, and other global changes and the conflicting meanings and values of that data has created uncertainty and reduced the ability of people to act upon available information which they do not necessarily understand. We see a disconnection between increasing data availability and data processing capability and capacity. In response to this disconnection, modeling has been attributed an important role in international and national research programs in order to predict the future based on past and recent trends...
August 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672128/exploring-pathways-linking-greenspace-to-health-theoretical-and-methodological-guidance
#16
REVIEW
Iana Markevych, Julia Schoierer, Terry Hartig, Alexandra Chudnovsky, Perry Hystad, Angel M Dzhambov, Sjerp de Vries, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Michael Brauer, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Gerd Lupp, Elizabeth A Richardson, Thomas Astell-Burt, Donka Dimitrova, Xiaoqi Feng, Maya Sadeh, Marie Standl, Joachim Heinrich, Elaine Fuertes
BACKGROUND: In a rapidly urbanizing world, many people have little contact with natural environments, which may affect health and well-being. Existing reviews generally conclude that residential greenspace is beneficial to health. However, the processes generating these benefits and how they can be best promoted remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: During an Expert Workshop held in September 2016, the evidence linking greenspace and health was reviewed from a transdisciplinary standpoint, with a particular focus on potential underlying biopsychosocial pathways and how these can be explored and organized to support policy-relevant population health research...
June 30, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670647/farming-and-the-geography-of-nutrient-production-for-human-use-a-transdisciplinary-analysis
#17
Mario Herrero, Philip K Thornton, Brendan Power, Jessica R Bogard, Roseline Remans, Steffen Fritz, James S Gerber, Gerald Nelson, Linda See, Katharina Waha, Reg A Watson, Paul C West, Leah H Samberg, Jeannette van de Steeg, Eloise Stephenson, Mark van Wijk, Petr Havlík
BACKGROUND: Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production...
April 2017: The Lancet. Planetary health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667064/disposition-and-clinical-implications-of-protein-bound-uremic-toxins
#18
REVIEW
Jitske Jansen, Joachim Jankowski, Prathibha R Gajjala, Jack F M Wetzels, Rosalinde Masereeuw
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), adequate renal clearance is compromised, resulting in the accumulation of a plethora of uremic solutes. These uremic retention solutes, also named uremic toxins, are a heterogeneous group of organic compounds with intrinsic biological activities, many of which are too large to be filtered and/or are protein bound. The renal excretion of protein-bound toxins depends largely on active tubular secretion, which shifts the binding and allows for active secretion of the free fraction...
July 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661299/legal-epidemiology-the-science-of-law
#19
Tara Ramanathan, Rachel Hulkower, Joseph Holbrook, Matthew Penn
The importance of legal epidemiology in public health law research has undoubtedly grown over the last five years. Scholars and practitioners together have developed guidance on best practices for the field, including: placing emphasis on transdisciplinary collaborations; creating valid, reliable, and repeatable research; and publishing timely products for use in decision-making and change. Despite the energy and expertise researchers have brought to this important work, they name significant challenges in marshalling the diverse skill sets, quality controls, and funding to implement legal epidemiology activities...
March 2017: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649009/the-need-for-monetary-information-within-corporate-water-accounting
#20
REVIEW
Roger L Burritt, Katherine L Christ
A conceptual discussion is provided about the need to add monetary data to water accounting initiatives and how best to achieve this if companies are to become aware of the water crisis and to take actions to improve water management. Analysis of current water accounting initiatives reveals the monetary business case for companies to improve water management is rarely considered, there being a focus on physical information about water use. Three possibilities emerge for mainstreaming the integration of monetization into water accounting: add-on to existing water accounting frameworks and tools, develop new tools which include physical and monetary information from the start, and develop environmental management accounting (EMA) into a water-specific application and set of tools...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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