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Erik Andersson, Timon McPhearson
We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Grégoire Meylan, Adelene Lai, John Hensley, Michael Stauffacher, Pius Krütli
Solid waste management (SWM) is a significant challenge for the Seychelles. Waste generation, fueled by economic development and tourism, increases steadily, while landfilling continues to be the main disposal path, thus exacerbating the island nation's specific weaknesses. Due to the small scale of the Seychelles economy, there is little capital available to stimulate innovations in SWM and generate the knowledge for setting priorities and guiding SWM action. Students from ETH Zurich and UniSey conducted a transdisciplinary case study (tdCS) to fill this knowledge gap and gain insights into the obstacles and opportunities related to sustainable SWM...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn
Traditionally, research activities aimed at diminishing health inequalities and preventing crime have been conducted in isolation, with relatively little cross-fertilization. We argue that moving forward, transdisciplinary collaborations that employ a life-course perspective constitute a productive approach to minimizing both health disparities and early delinquent involvement. Specifically, we propose a multidimensional framework that integrates findings on health disparities and crime across the early life-course and emphasizes the role of racial and socioeconomic disparities in health...
May 17, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Elise Rosati, Morgan Madec, Jean-Baptiste Kammerer, Luc Hébrard, Christophe Lallement, Jacques Haiech
We recently demonstrated the possibility to model and to simulate biological functions using hardware description languages (HDLs) and associated simulators traditionally used for microelectronics. Nevertheless, those languages are not suitable to model and simulate space-dependent systems described by partial differential equations. However, in more and more applications space- and time-dependent models are unavoidable. For this purpose, we investigated a new modeling approach to simulate molecular diffusion on a mesoscopic scale still based on HDL...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Kristian Peters, Anja Worrich, Alexander Weinhold, Oliver Alka, Gerd Balcke, Claudia Birkemeyer, Helge Bruelheide, Onno W Calf, Sophie Dietz, Kai Dührkop, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Uwe Heinig, Marlen Kücklich, Mirka Macel, Caroline Müller, Yvonne Poeschl, Georg Pohnert, Christian Ristok, Victor Manuel Rodríguez, Christoph Ruttkies, Meredith Schuman, Rabea Schweiger, Nir Shahaf, Christoph Steinbeck, Maria Tortosa, Hendrik Treutler, Nico Ueberschaar, Pablo Velasco, Brigitte M Weiß, Anja Widdig, Steffen Neumann, Nicole M van Dam
The relatively new research discipline of Eco-Metabolomics is the application of metabolomics techniques to ecology with the aim to characterise biochemical interactions of organisms across different spatial and temporal scales. Metabolomics is an untargeted biochemical approach to measure many thousands of metabolites in different species, including plants and animals. Changes in metabolite concentrations can provide mechanistic evidence for biochemical processes that are relevant at ecological scales. These include physiological, phenotypic and morphological responses of plants and communities to environmental changes and also interactions with other organisms...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maureen Perry-Jenkins, Rachel J Herman, Hillary Paul Halpern, Katie Newkirk
The aim of this paper is to examine the meaning of translational research in the work and family field. Specifically, we review findings from a longitudinal study of low-wage workers across the transition to parenthood and examine how this basic discovery research informs the next step in translational research, that of clinical practice. The authors describe three specific sets of findings that hold direct and immediate implications for interventions and policy that could support working families. The paper closes with a discussion of how both translational and transdisciplinary research have the potential to inform evidence-based practice, social policy, and effective social action to decrease physical and mental health disparities among low-income, working families...
October 2017: Family Relations
Rabia S Atayee, Kashelle Lockman, Cara Brock, Daniel T Abazia, Tracy L Brooks, Jayne Pawasauskas, Kyle P Edmonds, Christopher M Herndon
INTRODUCTION: As the role of the pharmacist on the transdisciplinary palliative care team grows, the need for adequate instruction on palliative care and clinical reasoning skills in schools of pharmacy grows accordingly. METHODS: This study evaluates second- and third-year pharmacy students from 6 accredited schools of pharmacy that participated in surveys before and after the delivery of a didactic palliative care elective. The survey collected student demographics, perceptions of the importance of and student skill level in palliative care topics...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Amedeo D'Angiulli
According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Stefaan Six, Steven Laureys, Jan Poelaert, Johan Bilsen, Peter Theuns, Reginald Deschepper
BACKGROUND: In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods...
April 18, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Nastaran Zahir
Nastaran Zahir is Associate Director of the Physical Sciences - Oncology Network in the Division of Cancer Biology at the National Cancer Institute. Dr. Zahir coordinates cross-cutting efforts to integrate physical sciences perspectives with cancer research by fostering transdisciplinary research collaborations, supporting education and outreach programs, and promoting resources for data sharing and biospecimen standards.
April 2018: Trends in Cancer
Mandy M Archibald, Michael Lawless, Gillian Harvey, Alison L Kitson
INTRODUCTION: Transdisciplinary teams are increasingly regarded as integral to conducting effective research. Similarly, knowledge translation is often seen as a solution to improving the relevance and benefits of health research. Yet, whether, how, for whom and under which circumstances transdisciplinary research influences knowledge translation is undertheorised, which limits its potential impact. The proposed research aims to identify the contexts and mechanisms by which transdisciplinary research contributes to developing shared understandings and behaviours of knowledge translation between team members...
April 7, 2018: BMJ Open
Ida Nadia S Djenontin, Alison M Meadow
This review paper addresses the challenging question of "how to" design and implement co-production of knowledge in climate science and other environmental and agricultural sciences. Based on a grounded theory review of nine (9) published case studies of transdisciplinary and collaborative research projects, the paper offers a set of common themes regarding specific components and processes for the design, implementation, and achievement of co-production of knowledge work, which represent the "Modus Operandi" of knowledge co-production...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Management
Samantha R Paige, David R Black, Marifran Mattson, Daniel C Coster, Michael Stellefson
Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational)...
April 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Anne-Marie Hamelin, Gilles Paradis
Background: Better alignment between academia and public health practice and policies are critical to improve public health actions. Training of future researchers to address complex issues and to conduct transdisciplinary and collaborative research will help improve this alignment. In this paper, we describe the role of internship placements and mentorship for trainees' skills development in population health intervention research and the benefits of embedding research trainees within public health organizations...
2018: Public Health Reviews
George A Mensah, Susan M Czajkowski
The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems...
March 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Danielle Peers
In this article, I explore the concept of axiology in the context of adapted physical activity research and analyze its connection to the more commonly discussed paradigmatic assumptions of epistemology and ontology. Following methodological scholars, I argue for an acknowledgment of the pivotal role that axiology already plays in adapted physical activity research and for the potential interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary opportunities that could be enabled by engaging with axiology in more explicit ways...
March 25, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
Cherie Hugo, Marcia Dwonczyk, Jan Skinner, Liz Isenring
OBJECTIVE: Mealtimes directly impact the quality of life of residents in aged care. The objective of The Lantern Project is to improve the dining experience of aged care residents to reduce malnutrition risk through improving dietary intake, meal. METHODS: A transdisciplinary team of aged care professionals and resident advocates was formed as a collaboration collectively known as The Lantern Project. RESULTS: This paper outlines the journey and timeline of The Lantern Project collaboration since its inception and the interplay between the monthly stakeholder meetings and inter-related research projects demonstrating improved outcomes...
March 23, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Margaret Padek, Peg Allen, Paul C Erwin, Melissa Franco, Ross A Hammond, Benjamin Heuberger, Matt Kasman, Doug A Luke, Stephanie Mazzucca, Sarah Moreland-Russell, Ross C Brownson
BACKGROUND: Much of the cancer burden in the USA is preventable, through application of existing knowledge. State-level funders and public health practitioners are in ideal positions to affect programs and policies related to cancer control. Mis-implementation refers to ending effective programs and policies prematurely or continuing ineffective ones. Greater attention to mis-implementation should lead to use of effective interventions and more efficient expenditure of resources, which in the long term, will lead to more positive cancer outcomes...
March 23, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Sara E McEwen, Colleen Dunphy, Jorge N Rios, Aileen M Davis, Jennifer Jones, Rosemary Martino, Ian Poon, Jolie Ringash
BACKGROUND: The rehabilitation planning consult (RPC) is a novel, transdisciplinary rehabilitation intervention for survivors of head and neck cancer. The study aimed to: (1) estimate recruitment and withdrawal rates, and adverse events; and (2) estimate the effect on rehabilitation indicators in survivors of head and neck cancer. METHODS: A single group pre-post study with follow-up was conducted with survivors of head and neck cancer who had completed treatment within 18 months...
March 22, 2018: Head & Neck
Mathieu Goyette, Jorge Flores-Aranda, Karine Bertrand, Frédérick Pronovost, Valérie Aubut, Roberto Ortiz, Marianne Saint-Jacques
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) have distinctive substance use (SU), which is more often linked to a sexual context than it is for their heterosexual peers. Screening of MSM's SU, its sexual contexts and the associated risks, is of clinical and public health concern. This paper aims to describe the preliminary development of a screening tool for health-risk sexual behaviours related to SU and to make recommendations for its potential use. METHODS: Community-based participatory research and transdisciplinary approaches guided the development process...
April 2018: Sexual Health
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