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Weight Regain Prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777589/low-adhesive-ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-based-packaging-to-xenogeneic-islets-encapsulation-for-type-1-diabetes-treatment
#1
Kai-Chiang Yang, Goichi Yanai, Sin-Yu Yang, Priyadarshini Canning, Yoshio Satou, Masako Kawagoe, Shoichiro Sumi
Transplantation of encapsulated porcine islets is proposed to treat type 1 diabetes. However, envelopment of fibrous tissue and infiltration of immune cells impair islets function and eventually cause implant failure. It is known that hemodialysis using an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) membrane results in minor tissue responses. Therefore, we hypothesized that using a low adhesive EVOH membrane for encapsulation may prevent host cell accumulation and fibrous capsule formation. In this study, rat islets suspended in chitosan gel were encapsulated in bags made from highly porous EVOH membranes, and their in vitro insulin secretion function as well as in vivo performance were evaluated...
May 19, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748126/feeding-the-gut-after-revisional-bariatric-surgery-the-fate-of-126-enteral-access-tubes
#2
Andrew T Strong, Hana Fayazzadeh, Gautam Sharma, Kevin El-Hayek, Matthew Kroh, John Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: Revisional bariatric surgery (RBS) is associated with higher complication rates compared with primary bariatric surgery. Feeding tubes (FTs), including gastrostomy and jejunostomy tubes placed during RBS, may serve as a safety net to provide nutrition when oral intake is contraindicated or limited; however, FTs in this setting have not been well investigated. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine complications, use, and duration of FTs placed during RBS...
March 9, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726737/delayed-diagnosis-of-a-case-of-zenker-s-diverticulum-what-may-happen-when-a-family-physician-does-not-visit-his-family-physician
#3
Zekeriya Akturk, Ali Bilal Ulas, Atila Eroglu
INTRODUCTION: Zenker's diverticulum is a diverticulum of the mucosa of the pharynx, just above the cricopharyngeal muscle. It occurs commonly in elderly patients (over 70 years) and the typical symptoms include dysphagia, regurgitation, chronic cough, aspiration and weight loss. CASE: We are reporting dysphagia in a 49-years old man who was treated as having Helicobacter Pylori gastritis for three years. Being a family physician himself, the patient applied to specialists in gastroenterology, bypassing primary care...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596853/exenatide-has-a-pronounced-effect-on-energy-intake-but-not-energy-expenditure-in-non-diabetic-subjects-with-obesity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#4
Alessio Basolo, Joshua Burkholder, Kristy Osgood, Alexis Graham, Sarah Bundrick, Joseph Frankl, Paolo Piaggi, Marie S Thearle, Jonathan Krakoff
AIMS: Exenatide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mimetic which induces weight loss predominantly, it is presumed, via decreased food intake. However, circulating GLP-1 is also a determinant of energy expenditure. We sought to quantify the effect of exenatide on energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center, randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, we randomized 80 healthy, non-diabetic volunteers with obesity (46 women, age: 34...
March 26, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575782/accumulating-data-to-optimally-predict-obesity-treatment-adopt-core-measures-behavioral-domain
#5
Leslie A Lytle, Holly L Nicastro, Susan B Roberts, Mary Evans, John M Jakicic, Aaron D Laposky, Catherine M Loria
BACKGROUND: The ability to identify and measure behaviors that are related to weight loss and the prevention of weight regain is crucial to understanding the variability in response to obesity treatment and the development of tailored treatments. OBJECTIVES: The overarching goal of the Accumulating Data to Optimally Predict obesity Treatment (ADOPT) Core Measures Project is to provide obesity researchers with guidance on a set of constructs and measures that are related to weight control and that span and integrate obesity-related behavioral, biological, environmental, and psychosocial domains...
April 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559223/effects-of-physical-exercise-on-food-intake-and-body-weight-role-of-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-signaling
#6
Ni Zhang, Sheng Bi
Physical activity or exercise contributes to energy balance via affecting energy expenditure and food intake, but how exercise affects food intake and the neural mechanism of the feeding effect of exercise remain to be determined. Growing evidence indicates that physical exercise exerts a distinct action in the control of food intake and body weight. Studies of exercise in rodent models with voluntary access to running wheels reveal an inhibitory effect of voluntary exercise on food intake and body weight. Voluntary running activity decreases food intake and body weight, prevents obesity, and slows down body weight regain...
March 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524184/development-of-de-novo-diabetes-in-long-term-follow-up-after-bariatric-surgery
#7
Zubaidah Nor Hanipah, Suriya Punchai, Stacy A Brethauer, Philip R Schauer, Ali Aminian
INTRODUCTION: While bariatric surgery leads to significant prevention and improvement of type 2 diabetes, patients may rarely develop diabetes after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the characteristic of new-onset diabetes after bariatric surgery over a 17-year period at our institution. METHODS: Non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single academic center (1997-2013) and had a postoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6...
March 9, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505459/bariatric-outcomes-self-management-for-sustained-surgical-success-a-multicomponent-treatment-for-dysregulated-overeating-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#8
Laura M Anderson, Thomas P Chacko
Binge eating disorder, food addiction, and dysregulated overeating are common among people with severe obesity and prevalent among bariatric surgery populations. These problematic eating habits share commonalities with other addictions. Effective, holistic self-management is needed to promote long-term weight loss and psychosocial adjustment among patients who are severely obese who undergo surgery, especially those with clinically remarkable levels of binge eating, food addiction, or dysregulated overeating...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465583/-living-high-training-low-improved-weight-loss-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-level-in-a-4-week-weight-loss-program-in-adolescents-with-obesity-a-pilot-study
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Qin Yang, Guoyuan Huang, Qianqian Tian, Wei Liu, Xiangdong Sun, Na Li, Shunli Sun, Tang Zhou, Nana Wu, Yuqin Wei, Peijie Chen, Ru Wang
BACKGROUND: "Living High-Training Low" (LHTL) is effective for the improvement of athletic ability; however, little is known about the effect of LHTL on obese individuals. The present study determined whether LHTL would have favorable influence on body composition, rebalance the appetite hormones, and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Adolescents with obesity [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m] were randomly assigned to "Living Low-Training Low" (LLTL, n = 19) group that slept in a normobaric normoxia condition and the LHTL (n = 16) group slept in a normobaric hypoxia room (14...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343842/leptin-resistance-was-involved-in-susceptibility-to-overweight-in-the-striped-hamster-re-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#10
Ying Zhao, Li-Bing Chen, Si-Si Mao, Hong-Xia Min, Jing Cao
Food restriction (FR) is the most commonly used intervention to prevent the overweight. However, the lost weight is usually followed by "compensatory growth" when FR ends, resulting in overweight. The present study was aimed to examining the behavior patterns and hormones mechanisms underpinning the over-weight. Energy budget and body fat content, and several endocrine markers related to leptin signals were examined in the striped hamsters under 20% FR refed by either low-fat diet (LF group) or high-fat diet (HF group)...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243354/effectiveness-of-extended-contact-interventions-for-weight-management-delivered-via-text-messaging-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
J R Job, B S Fjeldsoe, E G Eakin, M M Reeves
BACKGROUND: Extended contact interventions provide support for continued weight management (weight loss/prevention of weight regain) following a weight loss intervention. Text messages offer a medium for delivery in a potentially cost-effective, broad-reach manner. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to examine (i) the effectiveness of extended contact, text message interventions for adults in supporting weight management, and (ii) which intervention characteristics are common to those that are effective...
April 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241540/lateral-hypothalamic-neurotensin-neurons-orchestrate-dual-weight-loss-behaviors-via-distinct-mechanisms
#12
Hillary L Woodworth, Bethany G Beekly, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Patricia Perez-Bonilla, Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The central mechanism by which neurotensin (Nts) potentiates weight loss has remained elusive. We leveraged chemogenetics to reveal that Nts-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) promote weight loss in mice by increasing volitional activity and restraining food intake. Intriguingly, these dual weight loss behaviors are mediated by distinct signaling pathways: Nts action via NtsR1 is essential for the anorectic effect of the LHA Nts circuit, but not for regulation of locomotor or drinking behavior...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207379/practical-recommendations-of-the-obesity-management-task-force-of-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-obesity-for-the-post-bariatric-surgery-medical-management
#13
Luca Busetto, Dror Dicker, Carmil Azran, Rachel L Batterham, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Martin Fried, Jøran Hjelmesæth, Johann Kinzl, Deborah R Leitner, Janine M Makaronidis, Karin Schindler, Hermann Toplak, Volkan Yumuk
Bariatric surgery is today the most effective long-term therapy for the management of patients with severe obesity, and its use is recommended by the relevant guidelines of the management of obesity in adults. Bariatric surgery is in general safe and effective, but it can cause new clinical problems and is associated with specific diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic needs. For clinicians, the acquisition of special knowledge and skills is required in order to deliver appropriate and effective care to the post-bariatric patient...
2017: Obesity Facts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204255/bariatric-surgery-and-long-term-nutritional-issues
#14
REVIEW
Roberta Lupoli, Erminia Lembo, Gennaro Saldalamacchia, Claudia Kesia Avola, Luigi Angrisani, Brunella Capaldo
Bariatric surgery is recognized as a highly effective therapy for obesity since it accomplishes sustained weight loss, reduction of obesity-related comorbidities and mortality, and improvement of quality of life. Overall, bariatric surgery is associated with a 42% reduction of the cardiovascular risk and 30% reduction of all-cause mortality. This review focuses on some nutritional consequences that can occur in bariatric patients that could potentially hinder the clinical benefits of this therapeutic option...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117105/efficacy-of-web-based-weight-loss-maintenance-programs-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-standard-features-versus-the-addition-of-enhanced-personalized-feedback-over-12-months
#15
Clare E Collins, Philip J Morgan, Melinda J Hutchesson, Christopher Oldmeadow, Daniel Barker, Robin Callister
Few randomized controlled trials (RCT) have evaluated the efficacy of web-based programs targeting maintenance of lost weight. The aims of this study were to evaluate two versions of a commercially available web-based weight loss maintenance (WLM) program and examine whether the provision of enhanced feedback was associated with better WLM. The study was an assessor-blinded RCT of change in body mass index (BMI) over 12 months WLM. Participants were 227 adults (44% male, 42.3 ± 10.1 years, BMI 30.4 ± 4.1 kg/m²) randomized to either a basic (Basic WLM) or enhanced program with additional support (Enhanced WLM)...
November 8, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104805/three-year-follow-up-of-participants-from-a-self-weighing-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Lua Wilkinson, Carly R Pacanowski, David Levitsky
Frequent self-weighing is associated with weight loss maintenance. Several years ago, we investigated frequent self-weighing's effect on weight loss and found the participants lost a significant amount of weight. Three years after this trial's end, participants were contacted for an update on their weight and self-weighing frequency. Weight change and self-weighing frequency since the end of the study were assessed. We hypothesized that participants who maintained frequent self-weighing behavior would have maintained their weight loss...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097359/customization-of-biliopancreatic-limb-length-to-modulate-and-sustain-antidiabetic-effect-of-gastric-bypass-surgery
#17
A Pal, D B Rhoads, A Tavakkoli
Although Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), many patients fail to achieve remission, or relapse. Increasing intestinal limb lengths of RYGB may improve outcomes, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unclear. We hypothesize biliopancreatic (BP) limb length modulates the antidiabetic effect of RYGB. Rats underwent RYGB with a 20-cm (RYGB-20cm) or 40-cm (RYGB-40cm) BP limb and were compared with control animals. After 2 and 4 wk, portal and systemic blood was sampled during intestinal glucose infusion...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064743/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-prevented-weight-regain-in-obese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-previously-treated-with-liraglutide-a-pilot-randomized-study
#18
Simona Ferjan, Andrej Janez, Mojca Jensterle
BACKGROUND: Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. METHODS: A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3...
December 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053636/neural-and-molecular-mechanisms-involved-in-controlling-the-quality-of-feeding-behavior-diet-selection-and-feeding-patterns
#19
REVIEW
Tsutomu Sasaki
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when)...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#20
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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