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Weight Regain Prevention

Reena Sudan, Ranjan Sudan, Elizabeth Lyden, Jon S Thompson
BACKGROUND: Food cravings and consumption of craved foods after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are poorly understood. Food cravings after bariatric surgery may explain why some patients fail to change eating behaviors after RYGB, and understanding these cravings may provide better information for nutritional counseling to either enhance weight loss or prevent weight regain. OBJECTIVES: To study cravings in RYGB patients and compare them with cholecystectomy (CC) control patients...
September 9, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Mark Ng Tang Fui, Luke A Prendergast, Philippe Dupuis, Manjri Raval, Boyd J Strauss, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass. METHODS: We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls)...
October 7, 2016: BMC Medicine
Christopher D Morrison, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Heike Münzberg, Jianping Ye, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which bariatric surgeries so effectively and lastingly reduce body weight and normalize metabolic dysfunction are not well understood. Fibroblast growth fator-21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of metabolism and is currently considered for treatment of obesity. Although elevated by acute food deprivation, it is downregulated after weight loss induced by chronic calorie restriction but not after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the role of FGF21-signaling in the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Jessy Lauer, Stéphane Vigier, Frédéric Delage, Alain Meudec, Jean-Michel Pollet, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Annie Rouard
OBJECTIVE: Aquatic shoulder exercises are widely implemented into rehabilitation programs to provide early muscle strengthening and improved joint mobility. However, since the drag - the force exerted by the water on the moving segments - is very hard to measure, an in-depth knowledge of internal joint load is lacking, which ultimately prevents healthcare professionals from understanding all clinical implications. For the first time, shoulder joint moment, work, and power were calculated through a novel, validated numerical approach coupling fluid flow simulations and inverse dynamics...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Li Zuo, Feng He, Grant M Tinsley, Benjamin K Pannell, Emery Ward, Paul J Arciero
AIM: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. METHODS: The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Nicholas H Varvel, Jonas J Neher, Andrea Bosch, Wenyi Wang, Richard M Ransohoff, Richard J Miller, Raymond Dingledine
The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not infiltrate the healthy CNS, monocytes can enter the brain in response to injury and contribute to the immune response. We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ronan Thibault, Claude Pichard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic, bariatric surgery is the only therapy associated with a sustainable weight loss and to midterm prevention of obesity-related complications. However, nutritional and behavioral multidisciplinary medical preparation, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, is strongly advised to avoid postoperative surgical, nutritional, or psychiatric complications. RECENT FINDINGS: Due to a long history of restrictive diets and large body weight fluctuations, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and trace elements deficiencies are mandatory...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Daniela Kahlert, Annelie Unyi-Reicherz, Gareth Stratton, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Mikael Fogelholm, Anne Raben, Wolfgang Schlicht
BACKGROUND: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Scott B Shawen, Theodora Dworak, Robert B Anderson
Ankle sprains are the most common musculoskeletal injury occurring during athletics. Proper initial treatment with supportive pain control, limited immobilization, early return to weight bearing and range of motion, and directed physical therapy are essential for preventing recurrent injury. Reconstruction of the lateral ligaments is indicated for patients with continued instability and dysfunction despite physical therapy. Return to athletic activity should be reserved for athletes who have regained strength, proprioception, and range of motion of the injured ankle...
October 2016: Clinics in Sports Medicine
João A B Pedroso, Marina A Silveira, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Renata Frazão, Jose Donato
Weight regain frequently follows interventions that reduce body weight, leading to a failure in long-term obesity treatment. Inhibitory proteins of the leptin signaling pathway, such as the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), have been studied in conditions that predispose animals to obesity. However, whether SOCS3 modulates postrestriction hyperphagia and weight regain remains unknown. Mice lacking SOCS3 protein specifically in leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing cells (LepR SOCS3 knockout [KO]) were generated and studied in fasting and refeeding conditions...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Ryan Melo, Luís M Pedro, Luís Silvestre, José P Freire, Cláudia Pereira, Ruy Fernandes E Fernandes, J Fernandes E Fernandes
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is an uncommon condition that usually presents with intestinal angina, sitophobia and unintentional weight loss. Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) has very rarely been described in the settings of CMI. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe a case of a 73year old man that developed an AAC as a complication of CMI. The patient underwent a simultaneous cholecystectomy and open aortic revascularization which was successful...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Seong K Kim, Akhalesh K Shakya, Dennis J O'Callaghan
UNLABELLED: Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is a major pathogen affecting equines worldwide. The virus causes respiratory disease, abortion, and, in some cases, neurological disease. EHV-1 strain KyA is attenuated in the mouse and equine, whereas wild-type strain RacL11 induces severe inflammation of the lung, causing infected mice to succumb at 4 to 6 days postinfection. Our previous results showed that KyA immunization protected CBA mice from pathogenic RacL11 challenge at 2 and 4 weeks postimmunization and that KyA infection elicited protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Maryanne Murphy
Obesity is commonly encountered in veterinary patients. Although there are various published dietary approaches to achieving weight loss, successful long-term prevention of weight regain has proven elusive. Adding environmental and behavioral treatment strategies to a weight loss plan may help the veterinary team, the pet, and the pet owner maximize the effectiveness of the program. Because the owner directly affects the environment and behavior of the pet undergoing a weight loss plan, treatment strategies with an emphasis on owner involvement is the focus of this review...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Alexander James German
Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Zoltan Pataky, Loïc Locatelli, Minoa Jung, Alain Golay
Obesity is a chronic disease with a need for long-term follow-up. Bariatric surgery is very beneficial for patients who are not able to lose weight by lifestyle modifications alone. However, some patients present a weight regain after surgery. Predictive factors for the evolution of weight loss after bariatric surgery are not available today. For that reason, all preventive and therapeutic facilities should be used in order to reduce the risk of relapse after surgery. A recently introduced multidisciplinary therapeutic program for preparation of patients before bariatric surgery could be very valuable for a sustainable change of their lifestyle in order to minimize the risk of weight regain in the years after surgery...
March 23, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Thibaut Raguin, Jean Carvalho, Sophie Riehm, Catherine Takeda, Agnès Dupret-Bories
BACKGROUND: Deglutition disorders are frequent in patients treated for cancer of the oropharynx, and are responsible for severe aspiration and, in some cases, may require the use of enteral nutrition by gastrostomy or tracheotomy. METHODS: We present the case of a patient with a medical history of infiltrating laryngeal carcinoma treated by partial laryngectomy and radiochemotherapy, presenting severe aspiration causing significant weight loss. The patient received a new intralaryngeal prosthesis to prevent aspiration with the objective of regaining safe oral nutrition and closure of the tracheotomy...
October 2016: Head & Neck
V K Kapoor
UNLABELLED: Pancreato-duodenectomy (PD) is the procedure of choice for management of resectable periampullary and pancreatic cancers and some patients with chronic pancreatitis. PD is one of the most major GI/ HPB surgical procedures performed involving resection of multiple organs and reconstruction with multiple anastomoses. While mortality of PD has been brought down to less than 5% morbidity still remains high.Patients undergoing PD are usually elderly with comorbidities - general complications of a major operation e...
February 2016: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Eva M Conceição, Paulo P P Machado, Ana Rita Vaz, Ana Pinto-Bastos, Sofia Ramalho, Cátia Silva, Filipa Arrojado
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of successful weight loss for bariatric surgery patients, some patients experience considerable weight regain over the long term. Given the strong association between post-surgery health behaviors and outcomes, aftercare intervention to address key behaviors appears to be a reasonable relapse-prevention strategy. As the burden of obesity rates increases in healthcare centers, an internet-based program appears to be a reasonable strategy for supporting bariatric surgery patients in the long term...
2016: Trials
Erin D Giles, Amy J Steig, Matthew R Jackman, Janine A Higgins, Ginger C Johnson, Rachel C Lindstrom, Paul S MacLean
Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Manbinder S Sidhu, Amanda Daley, Kate Jolly
BACKGROUND: Many overweight people find it difficult to maintain weight loss after attending a weight reduction programme. Self-weighing and telephone support are known to be useful methods for self-monitoring for weight loss. We examined the effectiveness of an SMS-text messaging based weight maintenance programme to encourage regular self-weighing in adults who had completed a 12 week commercial weight loss programme. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial of 380 obese or overweight men and women...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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