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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774052/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-vedolizumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-current-data-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Mark G Ward, Miles P Sparrow, Xavier Roblin
The introduction of vedolizumab, a lymphocyte adhesion inhibitor, has expanded the relatively limited therapeutic armamentarium available for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Despite its effectiveness, both primary nonresponse and secondary loss of response to vedolizumab do occur, as is observed with the use of anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Further, in a proportion, onset of efficacy may be relatively slow. A large body of data support an exposure-response relationship with anti-TNF drug levels, which has led to therapeutic drug monitoring becoming incorporated into everyday clinical management...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772642/pilot-study-examining-the-influence-of-potassium-bicarbonate-supplementation-on-nitrogen-balance-and-whole-body-ammonia-and-urea-turnover-following-short-term-energy-restriction-in-older-men
#2
Lee M Margolis, Lisa Ceglia, Donato A Rivas, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Roger A Fielding
With aging there is a chronic low-grade metabolic-acidosis that may exacerbate negative protein balance during weight loss. The objective of this randomized pilot study was to assess the impact of 90 mmol∙day-1 potassium bicarbonate (KHCO₃) versus a placebo (PLA) on 24-h urinary net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen balance (NBAL), and whole-body ammonia and urea turnover following short-term diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen (KHCO₃; n = 8, PLA; n = 8) older (64 ± 4 years) overweight (BMI: 28.5 ± 2.1 kg∙day-1 ) men completed a 35-day controlled feeding study, with a 7-day weight-maintenance phase followed by a 28-day 30% energy-restriction phase...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766471/self-control-as-measured-by-delay-discounting-is-greater-among-successful-weight-losers-than-controls
#3
Warren K Bickel, Lara N Moody, Mikhail Koffarnus, J Graham Thomas, Rena Wing
Long-term weight loss maintenance is likely to require strong self-control in order to sustain changes in behavior patterns. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that those who have successfully maintained weight loss may have superior self-control compared to control participants. Self-control was assessed using a delay discounting task through a webbased assessment of members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR: N = 757; non-obese = 605; obese = 152) and control participants (Control N = 443; nonobese = 236; obese = 207) from Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#4
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754472/confirmation-of-drought-tolerance-of-ectopically-expressed-atabf3-gene-in-soybean
#5
Hye Jeong Kim, Hyun Suk Cho, Jung Hun Pak, Tackmin Kwon, Jai-Heon Lee, Doh-Hoon Kim, Dong Hee Lee, Chang-Gi Kim, Young-Soo Chung
Soybean transgenic plants with ectopically expressed AtABF3 were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and investigated the effects of AtABF3 expression on drought and salt tolerance. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation was carried based on the half-seed method (Paz et al. 2006). The integration of the transgene was confirmed from the genomic DNA of transformed soybean plants using PCR and the copy number of transgene was determined by Southern blotting using leaf samples from T2 seedlings...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753930/the-complexity-of-self-regulating-food-intake-in-weight-loss-maintenance-a-qualitative-study-among-short-and-long-term-weight-loss-maintainers
#6
Susanne Pedersen, Falko F Sniehotta, Kirby Sainsbury, Elizabeth H Evans, Marta M Marques, R James Stubbs, Berit L Heitmann, Liisa Lähteenmäki
RATIONALE: Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes in WLM...
May 6, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753283/relation-of-bmi-and-weight-suppression-to-eating-pathology-in-undergraduates
#7
C Blair Burnette, Courtney C Simpson, Suzanne E Mazzeo
Weight suppression (WS), the difference in one's highest and current adult weight excluding pregnancy, is associated with eating disorder (ED) symptom onset and maintenance. There is increasing evidence that WS is related to ED symptoms in non-clinical samples, but there are no known studies examining the interaction of WS and current body mass index (BMI) in this group. History of overweight is common in those with EDs, and higher weight status often delays identification and treatment. This study examined the interaction of WS and current BMI on body dissatisfaction and eating pathology in undergraduate men and women...
May 5, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741558/effect-of-a-high-egg-diet-on-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetes-and-egg-diabegg-study-randomized-weight-loss-and-follow-up-phase
#8
Nicholas R Fuller, Amanda Sainsbury, Ian D Caterson, Gareth Denyer, Mackenzie Fong, James Gerofi, Chloris Leung, Namson S Lau, Kathryn H Williams, Andrzej S Januszewski, Alicia J Jenkins, Tania P Markovic
Background: Some country guidelines recommend that people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) limit their consumption of eggs and cholesterol. Our previously published 3-mo weight-maintenance study showed that a high-egg (≥12 eggs/wk) diet compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) did not have adverse effects on cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with T2D. Objective: The current study follows the previously published 3-mo weight-maintenance study and assessed the effects of the high-egg compared with the low-egg diets as part of a 3-mo weight-loss period, followed by a 6-mo follow-up period for a total duration of 12 mo...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740667/benefits-and-safety-of-dietary-protein-for-bone-health-an-expert-consensus-paper-endorsed-by-the-european-society-for-clinical-and-economical-aspects-of-osteopororosis-osteoarthritis-and-musculoskeletal-diseases-and-by-the-international-osteoporosis-foundation
#9
REVIEW
R Rizzoli, E Biver, J-P Bonjour, V Coxam, D Goltzman, J A Kanis, J Lappe, L Rejnmark, S Sahni, C Weaver, H Weiler, J-Y Reginster
A summary of systematic reviews and meta-analyses addressing the benefits and risks of dietary protein intakes for bone health in adults suggests that dietary protein levels even above the current RDA may be beneficial in reducing bone loss and hip fracture risk, provided calcium intakes are adequate. Several systematic reviews and meta-analyses have addressed the benefits and risks of dietary protein intakes for bone health in adults. This narrative review of the literature summarizes and synthesizes recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses and highlights key messages...
May 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733003/timeline-of-changes-in-adaptive-physiological-responses-at-the-level-of-energy-expenditure-with-progressive-weight-loss
#10
Siren Nymo, Silvia R Coutinho, Linn-Christin H Torgersen, Ola J Bomo, Ingrid Haugvaldstad, Helen Truby, Bård Kulseng, Catia Martins
Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is associated with reduced resting and non-resting energy expenditure (EE), driven not only by changes in body composition but also potentially by adaptive thermogenesis (AT). When exactly this happens, during progressive WL, remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline of changes in RMR and exercise-induced EE (EIEE), stemming from changes in body composition v. the presence of AT, during WL with a very-low-energy diet (VLED). In all, thirty-one adults (eighteen men) with obesity (BMI: 37 (sem 4·5) kg/m2; age: 43 (sem 10) years) underwent 8 weeks of a VLED, followed by 4 weeks of weight maintenance...
May 7, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732639/weight-management-counselling-among-community-pharmacists-a-scoping-review
#11
REVIEW
Meagen Rosenthal, Lori M Ward, Jason Teng, Seena Haines
OBJECTIVES: To complete a scoping review of studies of community pharmacy-delivered weight and obesity management services from January 2010 to March 2017. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to obtain an overview of research related to the study objective. The PubMed, EBSCO and CINAHL databases were searched from January 2010 to March 2017 for articles examining obesity/weight management in community pharmacies. Included studies had to contain an obesity/weight management programme delivered primarily by community pharmacies...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730329/the-relationship-between-different-settings-of-medical-service-and-incident-frailty
#12
Francesco Bolzetta, Terrie Wetle, Richard Besdine, Marianna Noale, Alberto Cester, Gaetano Crepaldi, Stefania Maggi, Nicola Veronese
BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported a potential association between usual source of health care and disability, but no one has explored the association with frailty, a state of early and potential reversible disability. We therefore aimed to explore the association between older persons' self-reported usual source of health care at baseline and the onset of frailty. METHODS: Information regarding usual source of health care was captured through self-report and categorized as 1) private doctor's office, 2) public clinic, 3) Health Maintenance Organization (HMO), or 4) hospital clinic/emergency department (ED)...
May 3, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729189/ad-libitum-mediterranean-and-low-fat-diets-both-significantly-reduce-hepatic-steatosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Catherine Properzi, Therese A O'Sullivan, Jill L Sherriff, Helena L Ching, Garry P Jeffrey, Rachel F Buckley, Jonathan Tibballs, Gerry C MacQuillan, George Garas, Leon A Adams
Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF)...
May 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724709/usefulness-of-a-novel-mobile-diabetes-prevention-program-delivery-platform-with-human-coaching-65-week-observational-follow-up
#14
Andreas Michaelides, Jennifer Major, Edmund Pienkosz, Meghan Wood, Youngin Kim, Tatiana Toro-Ramos
BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that the prevalence of obesity and comorbidities including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes continue to increase worldwide. Results from a 24-week Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) fully mobile pilot intervention were previously published showing promising evidence of the usefulness of DPP-based eHealth interventions on weight loss. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study extends previous findings to evaluate weight loss results of core (up to week 16) and maintenance (postcore weeks) DPP interventions at 65 weeks from baseline...
May 3, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724670/a-multisite-2-year-follow-up-of-psychopathology-prevalence-predictors-and-correlates-among-adolescents-who-did-or-did-not-undergo-weight-loss-surgery
#15
Sanita L Hunsaker, Beth H Garland, Dana Rofey, Jennifer Reiter-Purtill, James Mitchell, Anita Courcoulas, Todd M Jenkins, Meg H Zeller
PURPOSE: We aimed to characterize prevalence, change, predictors, and correlates of psychopathology and associations with weight loss in adolescents with severe obesity 24 months after weight loss surgery (WLS) utilizing a controlled multisite sample design. METHODS: Adolescents undergoing WLS (n = 139) and nonsurgical comparisons with severe obesity (NSComp; n = 83) completed validated questionnaires assessing psychopathology and potential predictors and correlates at presurgery/baseline and 24 months postoperatively/follow-up...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722910/glycemic-management-in-the-bariatric-surgery-population-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
Meredith L Howard, Taylor D Steuber, Sarah A Nisly
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic often complicated by multiple comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is an increasingly common and effective weight loss strategy for obese patients that may result in resolution of metabolic related disease states, such as T2DM. Although bariatric surgery has many positive outcomes for patients, dietary and pathophysiologic changes can create difficult to control blood glucose, especially in the immediate perioperative setting. Depending on oral antidiabetic agent and insulin needs preoperatively, many patients require cessation of oral agents and reduction or cessation of insulin...
May 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721620/multiple-vertebral-fractures-sustained-5-months-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-case-report
#17
Susie C Higgins, George Papasavvas
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of a patient sustaining multiple simultaneous vertebral fractures 5 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Obesity is associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality and obesity rates globally continue to rise. Bariatric surgical procedures are successful in inducing sustained weight loss with many improved health outcomes. Potential complications include nutritional deficiencies and adverse effects on bone mineral metabolism with increased rates of fracture...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721342/hepatotoxicity-associated-with-use-of-the-weight-loss-supplement-garcinia-cambogia-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Jiten P Kothadia, Monica Kaminski, Hrishikesh Samant, Marco Olivera-Martinez
The use of herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss is becoming increasingly common as obesity is becoming major health problem in the United States. Despite the popularity of these natural supplements, there are no guidelines for their therapeutic doses and their safety is always a concern. Garcinia cambogia extract with its active ingredient "hydroxycitric acid" is a component of many weight loss regimens. It suppresses fatty acid biosynthesis and decreases appetite. However, its prolonged use in weight maintenance is unknown...
2018: Case Reports in Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702028/association-of-binge-eating-behavior-with-total-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-a-large-sample-of-participants-starting-a-weight-loss-or-maintenance-program
#19
Alessandro Leone, Laila Vignati, Alberto Battezzati, Ramona De Amicis, Veronica Ponissi, Valentina Beggio, Giorgio Bedogni, Angelo Vanzulli, Simona Bertoli
OBJECTIVE: It is not clear whether binge eating (BE) behavior is associated with body composition independently of body mass index (BMI). Our aim has been to evaluate the BMI-independent contribution of BE severity and BE status on the total amount of fat mass and abdominal fat distribution in a large sample of participants. METHOD: We performed a cross-sectional study among 8524 participants followed at a nutritional center. BMI and waist circumference (WC) were measured, body fat (BF) was estimated by skinfold measurement, and abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues were measured by ultrasonography...
April 27, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699928/female-sex-hormones-are-necessary-for-the-metabolic-effects-mediated-by-loss-of-interleukin-18-signaling
#20
Birgitte Lindegaard, Julie Abildgaard, Sarah E Heywood, Bente K Pedersen, Mark A Febbraio
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-18 plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and levels of this cytokine are influenced by gender, age, and sex hormones. The role of gender on IL-18 signaling, however, is unclear. We hypothesized that the presence of female sex hormone could preserve the metabolic phenotype of the IL-18R-/- animals. METHODS: We studied female mice with a global deletion of the α isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R-/- ) and littermates control...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
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