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Gynecologic malignancies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910068/endometrial-carcinoma-specific-targeted-pathways
#1
Nuria Eritja, Andree Yeramian, Bo-Juen Chen, David Llobet-Navas, Eugenia Ortega, Eva Colas, Miguel Abal, Xavier Dolcet, Jaume Reventos, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the western world with more than 280,000 cases per year worldwide. Prognosis for EC at early stages, when primary surgical resection is the most common initial treatment, is excellent. Five-year survival rate is around 70 %.Several molecular alterations have been described in the different types of EC. They occur in genes involved in important signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will review the most relevant altered pathways in EC, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, Tyrosine kinase, WNT/β-Catenin, cell cycle, and TGF-β signaling pathways...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910067/next-generation-sequencing
#2
Matthieu Le Gallo, Fred Lozy, Daphne W Bell
Endometrial cancers are the most frequently diagnosed gynecological malignancy and were expected to be the seventh leading cause of cancer death among American women in 2015. The majority of endometrial cancers are of serous or endometrioid histology. Most human tumors, including endometrial tumors, are driven by the acquisition of pathogenic mutations in cancer genes. Thus, the identification of somatic mutations within tumor genomes is an entry point toward cancer gene discovery. However, efforts to pinpoint somatic mutations in human cancers have, until recently, relied on high-throughput sequencing of single genes or gene families using Sanger sequencing...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910064/clinical-behavior-and-treatment-of-endometrial-cancer
#3
Divya Gupta
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy diagnosed in women in the developed nations. It affects a disproportionate number of reproductive-aged women. While the overall prognosis is good compared to other cancers affecting women, the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of endometrial cancer are heterogeneous. The risk factors associated with the type I and type II endometrial cancers and their pathogenesis will be discussed, as well as the evaluation and primary treatment of women with endometrial cancer...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909905/obesity-and-endometrial-cancer
#4
Eileen Shaw, Megan Farris, Jessica McNeil, Christine Friedenreich
Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. This chapter explores the current epidemiologic evidence on the association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk and mortality. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we found that obesity (defined as BMI > 30 and < 35 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in endometrial cancer risk, while severe obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 4...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900284/effect-of-pantethine-on-ovarian-tumor-progression-and-choline-metabolism
#5
Marie-France Penet, Balaji Krishnamachary, Flonne Wildes, Yelena Mironchik, Delia Mezzanzanica, Franca Podo, Max de Reggi, Bouchra Gharib, Zaver M Bhujwalla
Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy among women in developed countries. New therapeutic strategies evaluated with relevant preclinical models are urgently needed to improve survival rates. Here, we have assessed the effect of pantethine on tumor growth and metabolism using magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a model of ovarian cancer. To evaluate treatment strategies, it is important to use models that closely mimic tumor growth in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900108/high-dose-chemotherapy-with-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-for-choriocarcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Eiko Yamamoto, Kaoru Niimi, Kayo Fujikake, Tetsuya Nishida, Makoto Murata, Ayako Mitsuma, Yuichi Ando, Fumitaka Kikkawa
Choriocarcinoma is a malignant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and one of the curable types of gynecological cancer. However, 10% of choriocarcinoma patients have a poor prognosis, particularly when they have metastasis, apart from pulmonary metastasis, or do not go into remission by the second chemotherapeutic regimen. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old patient who had choriocarcinoma with metastases to the lungs, liver and kidneys. The 5th and 6th regimens with cisplatin for choriocarcinoma failed and the patient developed brain metastases...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899985/possible-role-of-thymidine-phosphorylase-in-gynecological-tumors-as-an-individualized-treatment-strategy
#7
Masako Shida, Masanori Yasuda, Mariko Fujita, Masaki Miyazawa, Hiroshi Kajiwara, Takeshi Hirasawa, Masae Ikeda, Naruaki Matsui, Toshinari Muramatsu, Mikio Mikami
Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is structurally similar to platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, and it activates 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrugs and also promotes angiogenesis. In the present study, the possibility of using TP expression as a biomarker for 5-FU prodrugs, and the significance of TP as an angiogenic factor, were investigated in patients with gynecological tumors. The subjects enrolled in the study were 188 patients with gynecological tumors who provided informed consent and underwent tumor resection at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Tokai University Hospital between February 2002 and January 2010...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899963/recent-perspectives-of-epithelial-ovarian-carcinoma
#8
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Epithelial ovarian tumours have been reported to mainly arise from the simple cuboidal surface epithelium of the ovary, and account for 75% of all ovarian tumours, and 90-95% of ovarian malignancies. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is responsible for the highest number of deaths in women due to gynecologic malignancy, with a low 5-year relative survival of only 44%. The possible reasons for these low survival rates are the high incidence of chemoresistance found with EOC and a lack of consideration of the high degree of heterogeneity of EOC in the current standard of care...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898751/-investigating-the-predictive-value-of-rmi-and-roma-indices-in-patients-with-ovarian-tumors-of-uncertain-dignity
#9
Géza Krascsenits, Boglárka Balázs, Anna Dudnyikova, Katalin Purcsi, Enikõ Orosz, Imre Pete
We were investigating the predictive value of RMI and ROMA indices in patients with ovarian tumors of uncertain dignity, in order to determine whether these methods are suitable for the early detection of ovarian malignancy. Our study included 162 patients treated at the Gynecological Department of the National Institute of Oncology (Budapest, Hungary). These patients were diagnosed with ovarian tumor of uncertain dignity, and were admitted to our Department with the purpose of gynecological surgery. Each of them had CA-125, HE4 blood tests and ultrasound scan in order to calculate RMI and ROMA indices and to study their effectiveness...
November 29, 2016: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897024/-peripheral-precocious-puberty
#10
J Zvonařová Skalická, R Pilka
OBJECTIVE: To summarize literature data on peripheral precocious puberty. DESIGN: A literature review. SETTING: Středomoravská nemocniční a.s., hospital Šternberk, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital, Medical Faculty, Palacky University, Olomouc. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched in PubMed using the key words stated below according to date and published since 1980.Peripheral precocious puberty occurs in girls with the frequency 1:400-1000...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897023/-current-knowledge-about-hpv-infection
#11
A Mladěnka, A Kubečková, J Sláma
OBJECTIVE: Overview of current data on HPV infection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General University Hospital in Prague. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disorders...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893679/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-increases-the-risk-of-a-second-primary-malignancy-in-patients-with-cervical-cancer-treated-by-surgery-alone
#12
Wen-Yen Chiou, Chien-An Chen, Moon-Sing Lee, Hon-Yi Lin, Chung-Yi Li, Yu-Chieh Su, Shiang-Jiun Tsai, Shih-Kai Hung
As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891341/clinicopathological-study-of-surface-epithelial-tumours-of-the-ovary-an-institutional-study
#13
Nalini Modepalli, Suguna Belur Venugopal
INTRODUCTION: It is an established fact that tumours of ovary inherit a spectrum of histogenetic background, the variety being more than any other organ. Surface epithelial stromal tumours of ovary being the most common type of ovarian tumours form a complicating and baffling subject in the history of oncology and hence, are an interesting topic for study. AIM: The aim of this study was to categorize the surface epithelial tumours of ovary into benign, borderline and malignant, to study their clinical and histopathological pattern and to compare their incidences with other studies...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890656/nanoparticle-delivery-of-sirna-against-twist-to-reduce-drug-resistance-and-tumor-growth-in-ovarian-cancer-models
#14
Cai M Roberts, Sophia Allaf Shahin, Wei Wen, James B Finlay, Juyao Dong, Ruining Wang, Thanh H Dellinger, Jeffrey I Zink, Fuyuhiko Tamanoi, Carlotta A Glackin
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy on account of its late stage at diagnosis and frequency of drug resistant recurrences. Novel therapies to overcome these barriers are urgently needed. TWIST is a developmental transcription factor reactivated in cancers and linked to angiogenesis, metastasis, cancer stem cell phenotype, and drug resistance, making it a promising therapeutic target. In this work, we demonstrate the efficacy of TWIST siRNA (siTWIST) and two nanoparticle delivery platforms to reverse chemoresistance in EOC models...
November 24, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890348/out-of-the-box-pelvic-surgery-including-iliopsoas-resection-for-recurrent-gynecological-malignancies-does-that-make-sense-a-single-institution-case-series
#15
G Vizzielli, V Chiantera, G Tinelli, A Fagotti, V Gallotta, A Di Giorgio, S Gueli Alletti, G Scambia
OBJECTIVE: To report morbidity and oncological outcomes in a consecutive series of lateral isolated recurrent gynecological cancer involving the pelvic side wall (PSW) including the iliopsoas muscle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive series between 6/2013 and 12/2015 of lateral isolated recurrent gynecological malignancies treated with a lateral endopelvic resection (LEPR). LEPR was defined as an en-bloc lateral resection of a pelvic tumor with sidewall muscle, and/or bone, and/or major nerve, and/or major vascular structure...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889016/is-it-necessary-to-perform-routine-appendectomy-for-mucinous-ovarian-neoplasms-a-retrospective-study-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Aoshuang Cheng, Minghao Li, Margaux J Kanis, Ying Xu, Qing Zhang, Baoxia Cui, Jie Jiang, YouZhong Zhang, Xingsheng Yang, Beihua Kong
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether routine appendectomy is necessary in all patients with mucinous borderline ovarian tumor (mBOT) or mucinous ovarian cancer (MOC) who undergo gynecologic surgery. METHODS: The database of Qilu Hospital was searched for women who underwent appendectomy in a primary surgery for an ovarian tumor between June 2005 and June 2015 and whose final diagnosis was mBOT, MOC or primary appendiceal tumor. A retrospective review was performed, as well as a meta-analysis of the literature to further validate the findings...
November 23, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882761/-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes-in%C3%A2-gynecological-malignancies
#17
L Janzová, L Minář, P Praksová, L Frola, P Ventruba
OBJECTIVE: The demonstration of life-threatening paraneoplastic syndrome with dominant neurological symptomatology in germinal ovarian malignancy. DESIGN: Literature review with case report. SETTING: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. METHODS: The review outlines the issue of paraneoplastic syndromes. It describes the etiopathogenesis, the range of clinical symptoms, the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, along with a relevant case study which focuses on the paraneoplastic neurological symptoms in malignant germinal ovarian tumor...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882238/large-uterine-pyomyoma-in-a-perimenopausal-female-a-case-report-and-review-of-50-reported-cases-in-the-literature
#18
Naoyuki Iwahashi, Yasushi Mabuchi, Michihisa Shiro, Shigetaka Yagi, Sawako Minami, Kazuhiko Ino
Pyomyoma is a rare complication, which withoug antibiotics or surgical intervention, may cause sepsis and mortality. The present study reported a case of large uterine pyomyoma in a perimenopausal female. A 53-year-old multigravida woman was referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan) due to progressive abdominal distension. The patient presented with anemia gravis, severe inflammatory reaction and cachexia. Computed tomography revealed a large unilocular mass, 50 cm in size, with an irregular surface and thickened wall, occupying the entire abdomen...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876589/usa-hospitalizations-for-malignant-pleural-effusions-data-from-the-2012-national-inpatient-sample
#19
Niloofar Taghizadeh, Marc Fortin, Alain Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are a common complication of advanced malignancy, but little is known regarding their prevalence and overall burden on a population level. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of MPE associated hospitalizations using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (HCUP-NIS 2012). Cases were included if MPE was coded as a primary or secondary diagnosis or if an unspecified pleural effusion was coded in addition to a diagnosis of cancer with either of these being the primary diagnosis...
November 19, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876339/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-c-diff-colitis-review-of-the-literature-and-a-perspective-in-gynecologic-oncology
#20
REVIEW
Kristin N Taylor, Michael T McHale, Cheryl C Saenz, Steven C Plaxe
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of nosocomial diarrhea with the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Colonization in a susceptible individual, with risk factors such as prior antibiotic use, advanced age, or medical comorbidities, may result in symptomatic infection. Although patients with a gynecologic malignancy may be at a higher risk of developing CDI due to an increased likelihood of having one or more risk factors, data do not consistently support the idea that chemotherapy or cancer itself are independently associated with CDI...
November 19, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
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