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Gynecologic malignancies

Wui-Jin Koh, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Sarah Bean, Kristin Bradley, Susana M Campos, Kathleen R Cho, Hye Sook Chon, Christina Chu, David Cohn, Marta Ann Crispens, Shari Damast, Oliver Dorigo, Patricia J Eifel, Christine M Fisher, Peter Frederick, David K Gaffney, Suzanne George, Ernest Han, Susan Higgins, Warner K Huh, John R Lurain, Andrea Mariani, David Mutch, Christa Nagel, Larissa Nekhlyudov, Amanda Nickles Fader, Steven W Remmenga, R Kevin Reynolds, Todd Tillmanns, Stefanie Ueda, Emily Wyse, Catheryn M Yashar, Nicole R McMillian, Jillian L Scavone
Endometrial carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor that forms in the inner lining, or endometrium, of the uterus. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Approximately two-thirds of endometrial carcinoma cases are diagnosed with disease confined to the uterus. The complete NCCN Guidelines for Uterine Neoplasms provide recommendations for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma. This manuscript discusses guiding principles for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of early-stage endometrial carcinoma as well as evidence for these recommendations...
February 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Mitsutake Yano, Yuji Ikeda, Tomomi Kato, Mika Sakaki, Sho Sato, Akira Yabuno, Eito Kozawa, Masanori Yasuda
The present study presents a case of peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) following radiation therapy for cervical cancer. A 34-year-old Japanese woman, without asbestos exposure, was referred to the Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center due to a cervical mass, and was diagnosed with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The serum levels of tumor markers, including SCC antigen and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were 229.0 ng/ml and 54.4 U/ml, respectively...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Hiroyuki Kajikawa, Takuya Sobajima, Chinatsu Koiwai, Satoshi Ichigo, Hiroshi Takagi, Atsushi Imai
Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis (PFPA) is an uncommon disorder clinically characterized by rapidly developing bilateral arthritis of the hands and fasciitis of the palms. This cancer-associated syndrome, primarily linked to ovarian cancer, has also been associated with multiple different malignancies. PFPA symptoms usually precede the detection of ovarian cancer. In all patients from case series and single case reports described, ovarian cancer is already present at an advanced stage. Therefore, the authors aimed to present a case and systematically review available evidence on the association between PFPA and ovarian cancer, as gynecological oncologists...
February 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Stephanie Rockfield, Idhaliz Flores, Meera Nanjundan
Iron is proposed to contribute to the transition from endometriosis to specific subtypes of ovarian cancers (OVCAs). Regulation of intracellular iron occurs via a ferritinophagic process involving NCOA4 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 4), represented by two major isoforms (NCOA4α and NCOA4β), whose contribution to ovarian cancer biology remains uninvestigated. We thus generated transformed endometriotic cells (via HRAS V12A , c-MYC T58A , and p53 inactivation) whose migratory potential was increased in response to conditioned media from senescent endometriotic cells...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
San-Duk Yang, So Hee Ahn, Jong-Il Kim
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second leading cause of mortality from gynecological malignancies and has the highest mortality rate worldwide. As it is commonly asymptomatic during the early stages of the disease, >70% of patients with OC are diagnosed at advanced stages with metastasis. Despite treatment methods, including optimal debulking surgery and chemotherapy with the platinum-based drug cisplatin, OC recurrence is often inevitable, with an overall 5-year survival rate of 45%, mostly due to the steady development of cisplatin resistance...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Ling Han, Wei Zhang, Bingyi Zhang, Leyun Zhan
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant gynecological cancers. Although conventional chemotherapies have improved the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer, the mortality rate remains high. Hence, it is crucial that the detailed mechanisms that promote ovarian cancer are urgently identified. Therefore, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to reveal the relative transcript levels. Colony formation assay and cell cycle assay were performed in siRNA-treated cells...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yichen Wang, Feng Shao, Lu Chen
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy worldwide. A better understanding of epithelial ovarian cancer pathogenesis and the molecular mechanism underlying its metastasis may increase overall survival rates. Previous studies have indicated that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A2 (ALDH1A2) is a candidate tumor suppressor in epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the potential role of ALDH1A2 in the molecular mechanisms of epithelial ovarian cancer remains largely unclear. In the present study, we found lower expression of ALDH1A2 in high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer tissues than in low-grade epithelial ovarian cancer tissues...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Frank Daniel Martos-Benítez, Anarelys Gutiérrez-Noyola, Andrés Soto-García, Iraida González-Martínez, Ilionanys Betancourt-Plaza
Nutritional depletion is commonly observed in patients undergoing surgical treatment for a gastrointestinal malignancy. An appropriate nutritional intervention could be associated with improved postoperative outcomes. The study was aimed to determine the effect of a program of gastrointestinal rehabilitation and early postoperative enteral nutrition upon complications and clinical outcomes in patients who experienced gastrointestinal surgery for cancer. This is a prospective study (2013 January-2015 December) of 465 consecutive patients submitted to gastrointestinal surgery for cancer and admitted to an Oncological Intensive Care Unit...
February 10, 2018: Updates in Surgery
Rui-Qiong Ma, Zhi-Jian Tang, Xue Ye, Hong-Yan Cheng, Kun-Kun Sun, Xiao-Hong Chang, Heng Cui
OBJECTIVE: Glycoprotein non-metastatic protein B (GPNMB) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed at higher levels in several malignant human tissues than those in matched normal tissues. Thus, GPNMB may serve as an attractive therapeutic target of cancer treatment. In this study, the prognostic value of GPNMB expression was examined in tumors derived from a cohort of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: GPNMB expression in matched formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC), whereas GPNMB mRNA expression in fresh-frozen biopsy tissues was detected using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
February 10, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Jing Zhang, Xiao Li, Xiaorui Liu, Fuju Tian, Weihong Zeng, Xiaowei Xi, Yi Lin
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most common gynecological cancers and has the highest mortality rate thereof. We found abundant eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (EIF5A1) in 54 EOC tissues, and high EIF5A1 levels predicted poor survival. EIF5A1 ectopic expression enhanced EOC cell proliferative, migration, and invasive capabilities, while EIF5A1 knockdown suppressed them. Most importantly, GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane, an EIF5A1 hypusination inhibitor) could reverse the effect of EIF5A1 upregulation on EOC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and mutant type EIF5A1K50A plasmid [bearing a single point mutation (K50 → A50) that prevents hypusination] had no effects on these malignant behaviors...
February 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kari L Ring, Susan C Modesitt
Obstetrician gynecologists play a critical role in the identification of women who may carry a germline mutation placing them at an increased lifetime risk of gynecologic and nongynecologic cancers. Given this, all gynecologists must have a basic understanding of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes, the associated cancer risks, and possible risk-reducing interventions to play a proactive role in the care of these women. This article presents general guidelines and potential tools for identification of high-risk patients, reviews the current literature regarding genetic mutations associated with gynecologic malignancies, and proposes screening and risk-reduction options for high-risk patients...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
Miroslav P Peev, Anne Therese C Lim, Tianle Zou, Laurence H Brinckerhoff
A 49-year-old female with history of uterine leiomyoma and intermittent shortness of breath presented to the emergency department with new onset of tachycardia and chest pain. Subsequent cardiac work up revealed hypoechoic mass compressing the right ventricle. Computer tomography guided biopsy for tissue characterization revealed a benign spindle cell tumor. Surgical resection of a large epicardial tumor was undertaken. The histologic examination of the tumor was consistent with Estrogen and Progesterone positive leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential...
September 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Masayuki Sekine, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Tsutomu Tabata, Tamotsu Sudo, Ryuichiro Nishimura, Koji Matsuo, Brendan H Grubbs, Takayuki Enomoto, Tomoaki Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Malignancy during pregnancy has become a significant cause of maternal death in developed countries, likely due to both an older pregnant population, and increases of cervical cancer in younger women. Our aim is to investigate the clinical aspects of malignancy during pregnancy in Japan and to use this information to identify opportunities for earlier detection and treatment. METHODS: We provided a questionnaire to 1508 secondary or tertiary care hospitals in Japan...
February 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Shih-Ern Yao, Tom Manolitsas
Minimally invasive platforms have afforded women undergoing hysterectomy the advantages of improved postoperative pain control, reduced complication rates, and shorter inpatient recovery time. In patients where malignancy has been confirmed or suspected, the necessity for uterine delivery per vagina is imperative to maintain these advantages without compromising oncological outcome.A previously unreported technique of enlarging the apical circumference of the vagina during robotic hysterectomy facilitates intact uterine passage after extended reflection of the bladder and/or rectum...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Irena Aleksioska-Papestiev, Vesna Chibisheva, Megi Micevska, Goran Dimitrov
Introduction: Cervical cancer is a malignancy originating in the transformation zone of the cervix, most commonly in the squamous cells. It is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the third most common cause of female cancer death. Genital human papilloma viruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted and approximately 630 milion people worldwide are infected. More than 200 genotypes, subtypes and variants have been reported, 13-15 being oncogenic type, which could be responsible for cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cancer...
February 2018: Medical Archives
Elif Sinem Iplik, Tolga Catmakas, Bedia Cakmakoglu
Endometrium cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Succinic acid (CO2HCH2-CH2CO2H) is a type of dibasic acid that has uncolored crystal. Succinic acid is used in bakery products and aromatized products. It is naturally found in some vegetables. Succinic acid has no adverse effects because it is metabolized by body cells and has a role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) as a cycle media component. The TCA cycle and its enzyme components have some crucial roles for basal cell metabolism...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Wenjun Zhou, Zheng Peng, Chun Zhang, Shuangshen Liu, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Adenomyosis is a benign gynecological disease, characterized by the malignant biological behaviors of invasion and metastasis. ILK plays an important role in intercellular adhesion and triggers the process of EMT. In this study, we investigated the role of ILK-induced EMT in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. METHODS: ILK and EMT markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin have been detected with Immunohistochemistry(IHC), RT-PCR and Western Blot, in normal endometrium, matched eutopic and ectopic endometrium respectively...
January 31, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kari E Hacker, R Kevin Reynolds, Shitanshu Uppal
The opioid crisis in the United States has been declared a public health emergency. Various governmental agencies, cancer care organizations and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have issued guidelines in hopes of managing this crisis. Curbing over-prescription of opioids by medical professionals has been a central theme in many of these guidelines. Gynecologic oncologists encounter patients with a variety of pain sources, including acute pain secondary to the underlying malignancy or surgical procedures as well as chronic pain related to the malignancy and the sequelae of treatments rendered...
February 3, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Siavash Rahimi, Iolia Akaev, Carla Marani, Mridula Chopra, Chit Cheng Yeoh
Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) are rare and understudied gynecologic mesenchymal neoplasms. These tumors can be confused with many other gynecologic and nongynecologic tumors due to their variegated morphologic appearance and nonspecific immunohistochemical profile. ESS can express cytokeratin (CK) and, therefore, may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma especially in extrauterine locations and when recurrence/metastasis is present. In this study, we investigated the expression of a wide spectrum of CKs consisting of AE1/3, CAM 5...
February 5, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Carla B Ripamonti, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernard Peissel, Jacopo Azzollini, Maria Luisa Carcangiu, Paolo Radice
Carcinosarcomas (CSs) are biphasic neoplasms composed of high grade, malignant, epithelial and mesenchymal elements. The incidence of gynecological CSs (GCSs) is 0.4/100,000 women per year. Patients affected with GCSs have been occasionally reported in Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) families, including a few cases with pathogenic variants in BRCA1/BRCA2 genes. The prevalence and the association of GCSs in HBOC families have not been systematically investigated. Thus, we searched for families with GCSs in the HBOC registry of the National Cancer Institute of Milan...
February 2018: Cancer Genetics
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