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head and neck cancer care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931031/reducing-therapeutic-misconception-a-randomized-intervention-trial-in-hypothetical-clinical-trials
#1
Paul P Christopher, Paul S Appelbaum, Debbie Truong, Karen Albert, Louise Maranda, Charles Lidz
BACKGROUND: Participants in clinical trials frequently fail to appreciate key differences between research and clinical care. This phenomenon, known as therapeutic misconception, undermines informed consent to clinical research, but to date there have been no effective interventions to reduce it and concerns have been expressed that to do so might impede recruitment. We determined whether a scientific reframing intervention reduces therapeutic misconception without significantly reducing willingness to participate in hypothetical clinical trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894827/the-genetic-landscape-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-alterations-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#2
Thomas E Heineman, Adam Widman, Edward C Kuan, Maie St John
OBJECTIVES: Nivolumab has recently been shown in the phase III clinical trial CheckMate-141 to have superior survival rates compared to the current standard of care chemotherapy for recurrent or metastatic platinum-resistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Nivolumab targets the immune inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) genomics have been poorly characterized in the context of HNSCC, including expression levels of PD-L1 in individual tumors as well as related up or down-regulated genes that might function as co-targets...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891406/clinical-practice-guideline-evaluation-of-the-neck-mass-in-adults
#3
Melissa A Pynnonen, M Boyd Gillespie, Benjamin Roman, Richard M Rosenfeld, David E Tunkel, Laura Bontempo, Itzhak Brook, Davoren Ann Chick, Maria Colandrea, Sandra A Finestone, Jason C Fowler, Christopher C Griffith, Zeb Henson, Corinna Levine, Vikas Mehta, Andrew Salama, Joseph Scharpf, Deborah R Shatzkes, Wendy B Stern, Jay S Youngerman, Maureen D Corrigan
Objective Neck masses are common in adults, but often the underlying etiology is not easily identifiable. While infections cause most of the neck masses in children, most persistent neck masses in adults are neoplasms. Malignant neoplasms far exceed any other etiology of adult neck mass. Importantly, an asymptomatic neck mass may be the initial or only clinically apparent manifestation of head and neck cancer, such as squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), lymphoma, thyroid, or salivary gland cancer. Evidence suggests that a neck mass in the adult patient should be considered malignant until proven otherwise...
September 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882057/interethnic-dna-methylation-difference-and-its-implications-in-pharmacoepigenetics
#4
Shih-Kai Chu, Hsin-Chou Yang
AIM: This is the first systematic study to examine the population differentiation effect of DNA methylation on the treatment response and drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in multiple tissue types and cancer types. MATERIALS & METHODS: We analyzed the whole methylome and transcriptome data of primary tumor tissues of four cancer types (breast, colon, head & neck and uterine corpus) and lymphoblastoid cell lines for African and European ancestry populations...
September 8, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881249/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-pet-ct-guided-management-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer
#5
A F Smith, P S Hall, C T Hulme, J A Dunn, C C McConkey, J K Rahman, C McCabe, H Mehanna
BACKGROUND: A recent large United Kingdom (UK) clinical trial demonstrated that positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT)-guided administration of neck dissection (ND) in patients with advanced head and neck cancer after primary chemo-radiotherapy treatment produces similar survival outcomes to planned ND (standard care) and is cost-effective over a short-term horizon. Further assessment of long-term outcomes is required to inform a robust adoption decision. Here we present results of a lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis of PET-CT-guided management from a UK secondary care perspective...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877959/prognostic-role-of-tumour-associated-macrophages-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-ebv-positive-and-ebv-negative-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#6
Marc L Ooft, Jolique A van Ipenburg, Maxime E Sanders, Mariette Kranendonk, Ingrid Hofland, Remco de Bree, Senada Koljenović, Stefan M Willems
AIMS: Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) form a special niche supporting tumour progression, and both correlate with worse survival in head and neck cancers. However, the prognostic role of TAM and Tregs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still unknown. Therefore, we determined differences in TAMs and Tregs in different NPC subtypes, and their prognostic significance. METHODS: Tissue of 91 NPCs was assessed for TAMs and Tregs by determination of CD68, CD163, CD206 and FOXP3 expression in the tumour microenvironment...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877058/nonuniform-distribution-of-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-in-squamous-cell-carcinomas-of-the-oropharynx-rethinking-the-anatomic-boundaries-of-oral-and-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-from-an-oncologic-hpv-perspective
#7
Elise Gelwan, Ian-James Malm, Armen Khararjian, Carol Fakhry, Justin A Bishop, William H Westra
The oral cavity and oropharynx have historically been viewed as a single anatomic compartment of the head and neck. The practice of combining the oral cavity and oropharynx has recently been revised, largely owing to the observation that human papillomavirus (HPV)-related carcinogenesis has a strong predilection for the oropharynx but not the oral cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HPV is evenly distributed across squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx including those sites that do not harbor tonsillar tissues such as the soft palate...
September 4, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870248/functional-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-after-partial-glossectomy-a-multi-institutional-longitudinal-study-of-the-head-and-neck-research-network
#8
Agnieszka Dzioba, Daniel Aalto, Georgina Papadopoulos-Nydam, Hadi Seikaly, Jana Rieger, Johan Wolfaardt, Martin Osswald, Jeffrey R Harris, Daniel A O'Connell, Cathy Lazarus, Mark Urken, Ilya Likhterov, Raymond L Chai, Erika Rauscher, Daniel Buchbinder, Devin Okay, Risto-Pekka Happonen, Ilpo Kinnunen, Irjala Heikki, Tero Soukka, Juhani Laine
BACKGROUND: While aggressive treatment for oral cancer may optimize survival, decrements in speech and swallowing function and quality of life often result. This exploratory study investigated how patients recover their communicative function, swallowing ability, and quality of life after primary surgery [with or without adjuvant (chemo)radiation therapy] for tongue cancer over the course of the first year post-operation. METHODS: Patients treated for oral cancer at three institutions (University of Alberta Hospital, Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, and Turku University Hospital) were administered patient-reported outcomes assessing speech [Speech Handicap Index (SHI)], swallowing [(M...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865969/-role-and-interest-of-induction-chemotherapy-for-head-and-neck-cancers
#9
Y Pointreau, U Schick, F Huguet
Induction chemotherapy must be integrated in a global approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Its use has theoretical advantages but should not compromise locoregional radiotherapy. Induction chemotherapy is a standard for organ preservation with the use of the TPF scheme to avoid total laryngectomy without compromising survival data. It is more controversial in other locally advanced head and neck cancer because concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care. It may be an option for patients with significant lymph node invasion to reduce the occurrence of distant metastasis...
August 30, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865517/management-of-radiation-toxicity-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#10
REVIEW
Farzan Siddiqui, Benjamin Movsas
Head and neck cancers account for approximately 3% of all cancers in the United States with 62,000 new cases diagnosed annually. The global incidence is approximately 700,000 new cases a year. There has also been a recent increase in human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal cancers. External beam radiation therapy (RT) is commonly used as an effective therapy for head and neck (H&N) cancers. This is used as a definitive treatment (alone or in combination with chemotherapy) or as an adjuvant treatment after surgical resection of the tumors...
October 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858212/novel-molecular-targets-for-chemoprevention-in-malignancies-of-the-head-and-neck
#11
REVIEW
Aarti Bhatia, Barbara Burtness
Cancers of the head and neck region are among the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia are identified as precursor lesions to malignancy. Patients cured of an initial primary head and neck cancer are also susceptible to developing second primary tumors due to cancerization of their mucosal field. Multi-step acquisition of genetic mutations leading to tumorigenesis and development of invasive cancer has been previously described. Recently, whole exome sequencing of tumor specimens has helped to identify driver mutations in this disease...
August 31, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846706/experience-of-awareness-of-and-help-seeking-for-potential-cancer-symptoms-in-smokers-and-non-smokers-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Julie Walabyeki, Joy Adamson, Hannah L Buckley, Helena Sinclair, Karl Atkin, Hilary Graham, Katriina Whitaker, Jane Wardle, Una Macleod
BACKGROUND: Presenting to primary care with potential cancer symptoms is contingent on one's ability to recognize potentially serious symptoms. We investigated differences between smokers and non-smokers in symptoms experienced, awareness and consulting of potential respiratory, head and neck cancer symptoms. METHODS: Smokers and non-smokers aged over 50 from Yorkshire general practice lists were sent a postal questionnaire asking about symptoms, consulting and awareness of cancer symptoms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845336/elimination-of-cancer-health-disparities-through-the-acceleration-of-hpv-vaccines-and-vaccinations-a-simplified-version-of-the-president-s-cancer-panel-report-on-hpv-vaccinations
#13
Eva McGhee, Hill Harper, Adaku Ume, Melanie Baker, Cheick Diarra, John Uyanne, Sebhat Afework, Keosha Partlow, Lucy Tran, Judith Okoro, Anh Doan, Karen Tate, Mechelle Rouse, Meidrah Tyler, Kamilah Evans, Tonya Sanchez, Ishmum Hasan, Enijah Smith-Joe, Jasmine Maniti, Liliana Zarate, Camille King, Antoinette Alugbue, Chiamaka Opara, Bileko Wissa, Joanne Maniti, Roland Pattillo
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major public health concern affecting both females and males. HPV is associated with cervical, anal, head and neck cancers. About 99% of all cervical cancers are related to HPV. HPV vaccines, Gardasil, Cervarix, and Gardasil 9 are used in the primary prevention of HPV related cancers. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are available for use in both females and males ages 9 to 26, while Cervarix is available for females ages 9 to 25. Gardasil 9 was approved by the FDA for prevention against additional HPV types...
June 2017: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844331/caution-is-required-in-the-implementation-of-90-day-mortality-indicators-for-radiotherapy-in-a-curative-setting-a-retrospective-population-based-analysis-of-over-16-000-episodes
#14
K Spencer, R Ellis, R Birch, E Dugdale, R Turner, D Sebag-Montefiore, G Hall, A Crellin, E Morris
BACKGROUND: 90-day mortality (90DM) has been proposed as a clinical indicator in radiotherapy delivered in a curative setting. No large scale assessment has been made. Its value in allowing robust comparisons between centres and facilitating service improvement is unknown. METHODS: All radiotherapy treatments delivered in a curative setting over seven years were extracted from the local electronic health record and linked to cancer registry data. 90DM rates were assessed and factors associated with this outcome were investigated using logistic regression...
August 22, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841392/nutrition-care-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-or-esophageal-cancer-the-patient-perspective
#15
Cathy Alberda, Tatjana Alvadj-Korenic, Maria Mayan, Leah Gramlich
BACKGROUND: Patients with head/neck or esophageal (HNE) cancer are likely to develop malnutrition throughout the course of their disease and its treatment. Although nutrition care is considered a cornerstone of disease management, clinical practices to treat malnutrition vary. The objective of this qualitative study is to understand the patients' experiences with nutrition care in the context of their treatment and recovery. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study design was used to explore patients' experiences...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837757/systemic-antibiotics-for-treating-malignant-wounds
#16
REVIEW
Darshini A Ramasubbu, Valerie Smith, Fiona Hayden, Patricia Cronin
BACKGROUND: Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration...
August 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836124/checkpoint-immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#17
Paul Zolkind, Ravindra Uppaluri
Checkpoint inhibitors have recently gained FDA approval for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by outperforming standard of care chemotherapy and inducing durable responses in a subset of patients. These monoclonal antibodies unleash the patient's own immune system to target cancer cells. HNSCC is a good target for these agents as there is ample evidence of active immunosurveillance in the head and neck and a number of immune evasion mechanisms by which HNSCCs form progressive disease including via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833675/efficacy-of-oral-brush-biopsy-in-potentially-malignant-disorder-management
#18
M L Goodson, D R Smith, P J Thomson
BACKGROUND: Oral potentially malignant disorders (PMD) harbour unpredictable risk for squamous cell carcinoma development. Current management requires tissue biopsy for histopathology characterisation, dysplasia grading and targeted intervention to "high-risk" lesions, although evidence-based guidelines are limited and diagnoses subjective. This study investigated the use of adjunctive oral brush biopsy techniques during the management of PMD in a UK hospital population. METHODS: Retrospective review of a 310 PMD patient cohort presenting to Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne with new, single-site lesions between December 2009 and May 2014...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832673/consumption-and-direct-costs-of-dental-care-for-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-a-16-year-cohort-study
#19
Duangjai Lexomboon, Pär Karlsson, Jan Adolfsson, Anders Ekbom, Aron Naimi-Akbar, Shahram Bahmanyar, Scott Montgomery, Gunilla Sandborgh-Englund
Patients with head and neck (H&N) cancer are commonly treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy, which can increase the risk of oral infection, dental caries, and periodontal disease. The present study investigated dental care consumption and costs in patient with H&N cancer before and after the cancer diagnosis. Data from Swedish regional and national registers were used to follow up dental care utilization and dental procedure costs. The analysis included 2,754 patients who had been diagnosed with H&N cancer (exposed cohort) in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 2000-2012 and 13,036 matched persons without cancer (unexposed cohort)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828766/perspective-on-health-seeking-behavior-of-patients-with-oropharyngeal-cancers-from-a-pakistani-background
#20
Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed, Syed Muhammad Waqar, Zainab Abbasi, Farah Hafiz Yusuf
Oropharyngeal cancers are the most common cancers of head neck region, they are placed amongst the top ten malignancies globally and around 40% of all the cancers in South and South East Asia. Patient's personal behaviour impacts causality more than the environmental factors in the pathology and prognosis of this particular cancer. In our country risk factors are based on poor infrastructure of the health care system, illiteracy, poor socioeconomic status, Betel nut and quid, smokeless and smoke tobacco. We recommend that an active precautionary approach is required to restrict the rising incidence in the oral cancers, particularly due to culturally related risk habits and reluctance to seek early healthcare amongst our people...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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