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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811780/role-of-vitamin-d-in-reducing-number-of-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-patients
#1
Dur Muhammad Khan, Aziz Ullah, Fawad Ahmad Randhawa, Somia Iqtadar, Nasir Farooq Butt, Khadija Waheed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. METHODS: This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811658/political-pressures-increased-vulnerability-to-climate-hazards-for-nomadic-livestock-in-inner-mongolia-china
#2
Ang Li, Shi Chen, Xueyao Zhang, Jianhui Huang
Herders in Inner Mongolia experienced two completely different political periods during their last nomadic period between 1961 and 1986. However, climate and technical factors were very similar between these two periods according to statistical analyses. We retrieved historical climate and livestock population data and performed a retrospective study using generalized additive models to analyze three major livestock population demographic metrics changes between these two periods. We found that the sociopolitical factors significantly impacted all three major demographic metrics (adult mortality, neonatal mortality and birthrate) between the two periods for both large (cattle, horse, and camel) and small livestock (sheep and goat)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811558/cross-modal-plasticity-in-the-deaf-enhances-processing-of-masked-stimuli-in-the-visual-modality
#3
Seema Prasad, Gouri Shanker Patil, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811384/loss-of-spdef-and-gain-of-tgfbi-activity-after-androgen-deprivation-therapy-promote-emt-and-bone-metastasis-of-prostate-cancer
#4
Wei-Yu Chen, Yuan-Chin Tsai, Hsiu-Lien Yeh, Florent Suau, Kuo-Ching Jiang, Ai-Ning Shao, Jiaoti Huang, Yen-Nien Liu
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) targeting the androgen receptor (AR) is a standard therapeutic regimen for treating prostate cancer. However, most tumors progress to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after ADT. We identified the type 1, 2, and 4 collagen-binding protein transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced protein (TGFBI) as an important factor in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant progression of prostate cancer. In prostate cancer cell lines, AR signaling stimulated the activity of the transcription factor SPDEF, which repressed the expression of TGFBI ADT, AR antagonism, or overexpression of TGFBI inhibited the activity of SPDEF and enhanced the proliferation rates of prostate cancer cells...
August 15, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811363/targeting-ar-variant-coactivator-interactions-to-exploit-prostate-cancer-vulnerabilities
#5
Fiorella Magani, Stephanie O Peacock, Meghan A Rice, Maria J Martinez, Ann M Greene, Pablo S Magani, Rolando Lyles, Jonathan R Weitz, Kerry L Burnstein
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progresses rapidly and is incurable. Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) represent a well-established mechanism of therapeutic resistance and disease progression. These variants lack the AR ligand-binding domain and, as such, are not inhibited by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is the standard systemic approach for advanced PC. Signaling by AR-Vs, including the clinically relevant AR-V7, is augmented by Vav3, an established AR coactivator in CRPC...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811348/a-critical-role-of-glutamine-and-asparagine-%C3%AE-nitrogen-in-nucleotide-biosynthesis-in-cancer-cells-hijacked-by-an-oncogenic-virus
#6
Ying Zhu, Tingting Li, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Jae-Jin Lee, Chun Lu, Hyungjin Eoh, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
While glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized from glucose, some cancer cells primarily depend on glutamine for their growth, proliferation, and survival. Numerous types of cancer also depend on asparagine for cell proliferation. The underlying mechanisms of the glutamine and asparagine requirement in cancer cells in different contexts remain unclear. In this study, we show that the oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) accelerates the glutamine metabolism of glucose-independent proliferation of cancer cells by upregulating the expression of numerous critical enzymes, including glutaminase 2 (GLS2), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 (GOT2), to support cell proliferation...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811344/the-capacity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-to-survive-iron-starvation-might-enable-it-to-persist-in-iron-deprived-microenvironments-of-human-granulomas
#7
Krishna Kurthkoti, Hamel Amin, Mohlopheni J Marakalala, Saleena Ghanny, Selvakumar Subbian, Alexandra Sakatos, Jonathan Livny, Sarah M Fortune, Michael Berney, G Marcela Rodriguez
This study was conducted to investigate the role of iron deprivation in the persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis We present evidence of iron restriction in human necrotic granulomas and demonstrate that under iron starvation M. tuberculosis persists, refractive to antibiotics and capable of restarting replication when iron is made available. Transcriptomics and metabolomic analyses indicated that the persistence of M. tuberculosis under iron starvation is dependent on strict control of endogenous Fe utilization and is associated with upregulation of pathogenicity and intrinsic antibiotic resistance determinants...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811197/seasonal-changes-in-plasma-testosterone-and-cortisol-suggest-an-androgen-mediated-regulation-of-the-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-the-tarabul-s-gerbil-gerbillus-tarabuli-thomas-1902
#8
Yamina Zatra, Naouel Aknoun-Sail, Arezki Kheddache, Abdelouafi Benmouloud, Salima Charallah, Elara N Moudilou, Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Farida Khammar, Zaina Amirat
In the desert gerbil Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902), cortisol is the main glucocorticosteroid produced by the adrenal glands. Plasma cortisol concentrations show highest values when testosterone is reduced and lowest values during the breeding season which occurs from early winter to late spring. In order to specify the implication of testicular androgens in these corticosteroid seasonal variations we investigated the effects induced by gonadectomy performed during the breeding season on the pituitary adrenal axis...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810965/the-benefits-and-risks-of-energy-drinks-in-young-adults-and-military-service-members
#9
Julianne Manchester, Inbal Eshel, Donald W Marion
INTRODUCTION: Energy drinks (EDs) have become an integral part of the young adult, athletic, and military culture. Many athletes are convinced that EDs enhance performance, and service members as well as college students frequently use EDs as stimulants to counter sleep deprivation, or to improve academic performance. However, concerns have been raised by some military leaders about potential adverse effects of EDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of military health care providers was conducted and identified EDs as a top knowledge need for those providers working in the area of traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810591/dual-character-of-flavonoids-in-attenuating-and-aggravating-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-myocardial-injury
#10
Wenqiang Li, Yun Li, Ruifang Sun, Sumei Zhou, Meifeng Li, Mingchen Feng, Yingguang Xie
The concept that flavonoids exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury has been acknowledged by a large body of evidence. However, recent studies reported cardiotoxic effects of certain flavonoids, while the underlying mechanisms have remained largely elusive. Flavonoids have been demonstrated to activate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), which is implicated in an array of cell signaling processes. The present study examined the cardioprotective roles of quercetin (Qu) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) against I/R injury and explored whether the underlying mechanism proceeds via molecular signaling downstream of Ahr...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810560/effects-of-taohongsiwu-decoction-on-the-expression-of-%C3%AE-sma-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-mrna-in-the-liver-tissues-of-a-rat-model-of-hepatic-cirrhosis
#11
Tongsheng Wang, Deling Wu, Peipei Li, Ke Zhang, Shanjun Tao, Zhu Li, Jun Li
The present study aimed to explore the treatment effects of Taohongsiwu decoction on the liver fibrosis in a rat model, as few prior studies have investigated the anti-fibrotic effects of Taohongsiwu decoction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentration of ferulic acid and hydrosafflower flavin A in the decoction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, model, colchicine (positive group), Taohongsiwu-high, Taohongsiwu-moderate and Taohongsiwu-low groups; 50% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) of peanut oil solution was subcutaneously injected to the rats except for the control group, and the drugs were intragastrically administered (10 ml/kg) starting at week 7 for 6 continuous weeks...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810446/physical-recovery-mental-detachment-and-sleep-as-predictors-of-injury-and-mental-energy
#12
Yannick A Balk, Jan de Jonge, Wido Gm Oerlemans, Sabine Ae Geurts
Although sports activities are generally considered beneficial to people's health and well-being, they can cause injuries and increased fatigue. Guided by the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation Recovery Model, this study hypothesized that physical recovery and mental detachment from sport-related activities would prevent injury and enhance mental energy. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 161 recreational athletes. Structural equation modelling analyses showed that mental detachment was negatively associated with injury and positively associated with mental energy...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810131/prescription-opioid-registry-protocol-in-an-integrated-health-system
#13
G Thomas Ray, Amber L Bahorik, Paul C VanVeldhuisen, Constance M Weisner, Andrea L Rubinstein, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: To establish a prescription opioid registry protocol in a large health system and to describe algorithms to characterize individuals using prescription opioids, opioid use episodes, and concurrent use of sedative/hypnotics. STUDY DESIGN: Protocol development and retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Using Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) electronic health record data, we selected patients using prescription opioids in 2011...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810072/dreamless-the-silent-epidemic-of-rem-sleep-loss
#14
Rubin Naiman
We are at least as dream deprived as we are sleep deprived. Many of the health concerns attributed to sleep loss result from a silent epidemic of REM sleep deprivation. REM/dream loss is an unrecognized public health hazard that silently wreaks havoc with our lives, contributing to illness, depression, and an erosion of consciousness. This paper compiles data about the causes and extent of REM/dream loss associated with commonly used medications, endemic substance use disorders, rampant sleep disorders, and behavioral and lifestyle factors...
August 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809932/rem-sleep-deprivation-induces-endothelial-dysfunction-and-hypertension-in-middle-aged-rats-roles-of-the-enos-no-cgmp-pathway-and-supplementation-with-l-arginine
#15
Jiaye Jiang, Zhongyuan Gan, Yuan Li, Wenqi Zhao, Hanqing Li, Jian-Pu Zheng, Yan Ke
Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to REM sleep deprivation for 5 days, their blood pressures and endothelial function were measured. In addition, one group of rats was given continuous access to L-arginine supplementation (2% in distilled water) for the 5 days before and the 5 days of REM sleep deprivation to reverse sleep deprivation-induced pathological changes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809798/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-green-space-quality-and-accessibility-evidence-from-a-southern-european-city
#16
Elaine Hoffimann, Henrique Barros, Ana Isabel Ribeiro
Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809155/microbe-profile-candida-albicans-a-shape-changing-opportunistic-pathogenic-fungus-of-humans
#17
Neil A R Gow, Bhawna Yadav
(a) Morphotypes of Candida albicans (blue sector, vegetative forms; pink sector, forms related to mating or changes in ploidy). Cell types shown include: budding yeast cells; elongated conjoined yeasts forming pseudohyphae; parallel-sided hyphae; chlamydospores formed from suspensor cells; enlarged goliath cells formed under zinc deprivation (unpublished study, image from Duncan Wilson); intestinal gut form cells (image from Suzanne Noble); mating competence defined by white-grey-opaque cell transitions (images from Guanghua Huang); elongated chemotactic shmoo-mating projections leading to tetraploid zygote formation (images from David Soll and Karla Daniels); trimera formed by unequal chromosome segregation under antifungal exposure (image from Judith Berman)...
August 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808379/screening-of-fruits-of-seven-plants-indicated-for-medicinal-use-in-iraq
#18
Omar Aldulaimi
INTRODUCTION: Coumarins exert many biological effects in humans, animals, and plants, which make the evaluation of their biological activities and study of their role in ethnomedicine highly valued. OBJECTIVES: Here, we selected seven plants which have ethnopharmacological use as antimicrobial in Iraq and the aims were to quantify the two structural isomers bergapten and methoxsalen in their seeds, to evaluate the antibacterial activities against several clinical isolates, and to isolate bergapten and methoxsalen from Ammi majus...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808162/listeria-monocytogenes-and-shigella-flexneri-activate-the-nlrp1b-inflammasome
#19
Jana Neiman-Zenevich, Sarah Stuart, Mena Abdel-Nour, Stephen E Girardin, Jeremy Mogridge
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might, therefore, sense microbial infection as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808055/dynamin-dependent-amino-acid-endocytosis-activates-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-mtorc1
#20
Shusaku Shibutani, Hana Okazaki, Hiroyuki Iwata
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of protein synthesis and potential target for modifying cellular metabolism in various conditions, including cancer and aging. mTORC1 activity is tightly regulated by the availability of extracellular amino acids, and previous studies have revealed that amino acids in the extracellular fluid are transported to the lysosomal lumen. There, amino acids induce recruitment of cytoplasmic mTORC1 to the lysosome by the Rag GTPases, followed by mTORC1 activation by the small GTPase Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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