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Daniela Schulz
Similar doses of caffeine have been shown to produce either anxiolytic or anxiogenic effects in rats. The reasons for these conflicting results are not known. We hypothesized that food deprivation stress interacts with the stimulant effects of caffeine to increase anxiety-like behavior. We tested 32 female Sprague Dawley rats in a dim open field for 10 min. Half of the animals were food deprived for 24 h and injected (intraperitoneal) with caffeine (30 mg/kg; n=7) or deionized water (n=8) 20 min before the open field test...
March 14, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Cheryl Holly, Sallie Porter, Mercedes Echevarria, Margaret Dreker, Sevara Ruzehaji
The findings can facilitate earlier recognition and prevention of pediatric delirium. ABSTRACT: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the evidence regarding the risk factors for and characteristics of acute pediatric delirium in hospitalized children. METHODS: The systematic review method within an epidemiological framework of person, place, and time was used. Fifty-two studies were selected for initial retrieval. Of these, after assessment for methodological quality, 21 studies involving 2,616 subjects were included in the review...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Tristan Martin, Antoine Gauthier, Zhang Ying, Nicolas Benguigui, Sebastien Moussay, Jan Bulla, Damien Davenne, Nicolas Bessot
The aim of the study was to test the effect of total sleep deprivation on performance and time-of-day pattern of Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) and postural control. Nineteen healthy young participants (4 females and 15 males 21.9 {plus minus} 1.2 years) were engaged in two counterbalanced experimental sessions with or without total sleep deprivation. Oral temperature, Karolinska sleepiness scale and visual analogic scale for fatigue, postural control and SVV were randomly measured every 4h, from 6:00 h to 22:00 h...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Charles K Davis, Sreekala S Nampoothiri, G K Rajanikant
The constant failure of single-target drug therapies for ischemic stroke necessitates the development of novel pleiotropic pharmacological treatment approaches, to effectively combat the aftermath of this devastating disorder. The major objective of our study involves a multi-target drug repurposing strategy to stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1α) via a structure-based screening approach to simultaneously inhibit its regulatory proteins, PHD2, FIH, and pVHL. Out of 1424 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs that were screened, folic acid (FA) emerged as the top hit and its binding potential to PHD2, FIH, and pVHL was further verified by re-docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and by Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS) assay...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Munveer S Bhangoo, Brian Cheng, Gregory P Botta, Phataraporn Thorson, Michael P Kosty
As with other genitourinary malignancies, a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes have been revealed to occur in patients with prostate cancer. Stauffer's Syndrome is a well-described clinical syndrome which manifests via intrahepatic cholestasis in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Less common is intrahepatic cholestasis occurring in association with prostate cancer. The current case report discusses a 67-year-old man presenting with liver failure secondary to intrahepatic cholestasis co-existing with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Michael V Fiandalo, John J Stocking, Elena A Pop, John H Wilton, Krystin M Mantione, Yun Li, Kristopher M Attwood, Gissou Azabdaftari, Yue Wu, David S Watt, Elizabeth M Wilson, James L Mohler
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is palliative and prostate cancer (CaP) recurs as lethal castration-recurrent/resistant CaP (CRPC). One mechanism that provides CaP resistance to ADT is primary backdoor androgen metabolism, which uses up to four 3α-oxidoreductases to convert 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol (DIOL) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The goal was to determine whether inhibition of 3α-oxidoreductase activity decreased conversion of DIOL to DHT. Protein sequence analysis showed that the four 3α-oxidoreductases have identical catalytic amino acid residues...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
María Huete-Ortega, Katarzyna Okurowska, Rahul Vijay Kapoore, Matthew P Johnson, D James Gilmour, Seetharaman Vaidyanathan
Background: Microalgae accumulate lipids when exposed to stressful conditions such as nutrient limitation that can be used to generate biofuels. Nitrogen limitation or deprivation is a strategy widely employed to elicit this response. However, this strategy is associated with a reduction in the microalgal growth, leading to overall poor lipid productivities. Here, we investigated the combined effect of a reduced source of nitrogen (ammonium) and super-saturating light intensities on the growth and induction of lipid accumulation in two model but diverse microalgal species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oceanica ...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Motoko Sasaki, Yasunori Sato, Yasuni Nakanuma
Dysregulated autophagy may be a central player in trehe pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) by inducing autoimmune processes via abnormal expression of mitochondrial antigens such as pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, E2 component (PDC-E2) and also by inducing cellular senescence in biliary epithelial cells (BECs) in bile duct lesions in PBC. We examined the association of an impaired "biliary bicarbonate umbrella" due to dysfunction of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) with dysregulated autophagy and cellular senescence in PBC...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Jacque P K Ip, Ikue Nagakura, Jeremy Petravicz, Keji Li, Erik A C Wiemer, Mriganka Sur
Microdeletion of a region in chromosome 16p11.2 increases susceptibility to autism. Although this region contains exons of 29 genes, disrupting only a small segment of the region, which spans 5 genes, is sufficient to cause autistic traits. One candidate gene in this critical segment is MVP , which encodes for the major vault protein (MVP) that has been implicated in regulation of cellular transport mechanisms. MVP expression levels in MVP +/- mice closely phenocopy those of 16p11.2 mutant mice, suggesting that MVP +/- mice may serve as a model of MVP function in 16p11...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
G David Batty, George B Ploubidis, Alissa Goodman, David Bann
BACKGROUND: Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. AIMS: To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Aimilia Exarchakou, Bernard Rachet, Aurélien Belot, Camille Maringe, Michel P Coleman
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: England. POPULATION: More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Mei Jiang, Xinghui Liu, Denghai Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoxia Hu, Fengxia Xu, Mingming Jin, Fanfan Cao, Limin Xu
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the most common type of cerebrovascular disease and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Recently, a study suggested that transformation of microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 state to the anti-inflammatory and tissue-reparative M2 phenotype may be an effective therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Celastrol, a traditional oriental medicine, may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Liang Weng, Yi-Peng Han, Atsushi Enomoto, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Naoya Asai, Jian An, Maki Takagishi, Masato Asai, Shinji Mii, Takashi Masuko, Yoshiharu Shimomura, Masahide Takahashi
Amino acid signaling mediated by the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is fundamental to cell growth and metabolism. However, how cells negatively regulate amino acid signaling remains largely unknown. Here, we show that interaction between 4F2 heavy chain (4F2hc), a subunit of multiple amino acid transporters, and the multifunctional hub protein girders of actin filaments (Girdin) down-regulates mTORC1 activity. 4F2hc interacts with Girdin in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)- and amino acid signaling-dependent manners to translocate to the lysosome...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
Jan Cosgrave, Katharina Wulff, Philip Gehrman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is designed to give an overview of the latest developments in research exploring the relationship between sleep and psychosis, with particular attention paid to the evidence for a causal relationship between the two. RECENT FINDINGS: The most interesting avenues currently in pursuit are focused upon sleep spindle deficits which may hallmark an endophenotype; explorations of the continuum of psychotic experiences, and experimental manipulations to explore the evidence for bidirectional causality; inflammatory markers, psychosis and sleep disturbances and finally, treatment approaches for sleep in psychosis and the subsequent impact on positive experiences...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
T Cesak, J Adamkov, J Habalova, P Poczos, M Kanta, M Bartos, T Hosszu
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between intracranial pressure (intracranial pressure monitoring) and lactate pyruvate ratio (cerebral microdialysis) in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: In a group of fifteen patients, intracranial pressure and lactate/pyruvate ratios were measured and logged in hourly intervals. The relationship between these two variables was subsequently analysed in two ways. 1) Intracranial hypertension (ICP > 20 mmHg) in the presence of energy deprivation (L/P ratio > 30) was noted...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Yin-Feng Dong, Ruo-Bing Guo, Juan Ji, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Zheng-Zhen Chen, Ji-Ye Huang, Jin Wu, Jun Lu, Xiu-Lan Sun
Fingolimod (FTY720) is used as an immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis. Numerous studies indicated its neuroprotective effects in stroke. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. This study was intended to investigate the mechanisms of phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which was the principle active molecule in regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Results demonstrated that pFTY720 could protect astrocytes against OGD-induced injury and inflammatory responses...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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