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Jonathan Negrel, Francine Javelle, Dominique Morandi, Géraldine Lucchi
A Gram-negative bacterium able to grow using chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as sole carbon source has been isolated from the roots of tomato plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. An intracellular esterase exhibiting very high affinity (Km = 2 μM) for chlorogenic acid has been extracted and purified by FPLC from the chlorogenate-grown cultures of this bacterium. The molecular mass of the purified esterase determined by SDS-PAGE was 61 kDa and its isoelectric point determined by chromatofocusing was 7...
October 17, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Janet Bouttell, James Lewsey, Claudia Geue, Grace Antony, Andrew Briggs, Gerry McCartney, Sharon Hutchinson, Lesley Graham, Mathis Heydtmann
Studies assessing the costs of alcoholic liver disease are lacking. We aimed to calculate the costs of hospitalisations before and after diagnosis compared to population controls matched by age, sex and socio-economic deprivation. We aimed to use population level data to identify a cohort of individuals hospitalised for the first time with alcoholic liver disease in Scotland between 1991 and 2011.Incident cases were classified by disease severity, sex, age group, socio-economic deprivation and year of index admission...
2016: PloS One
Séverine Deguen, Wahida Kihal, Maxime Jeanjean, Cindy Padilla, Denis Zmirou-Navier
BACKGROUND: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between the socioeconomic level of the neighborhoods in which pregnant women live and the risk of Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs), Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) and OroFacial Clefts (OFCs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from its inception to December 20th, 2015 for case-control, cohort and ecological studies assessing the association between neighborhood socioeconomic level and the risk of CHDs, NTDs and the specific phenotypes Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate (CLP) and Cleft Palate (CP)...
2016: PloS One
Nadine Küster, Sabine Rosahl, Birgit Dräger
Solanum tuberosum tropinone reductase I reduced tropinone in vivo. Suppression of tropinone reductase II strongly reduced calystegines in sprouts. Overexpression of putrescine N -methyltransferase did not alter calystegine accumulation. Calystegines are hydroxylated alkaloids formed by the tropane alkaloid pathway. They accumulate in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanaceae) roots and sprouting tubers. Calystegines inhibit various glycosidases in vitro due to their sugar-mimic structure, but functions of calystegines in plants are not understood...
October 25, 2016: Planta
A V Sirotkin, A H Harrath, R Grossmann
The aim of the present study was to examine the role of nutritional status, the metabolic hormone ghrelin and their interrelationships in the control of chicken hormones involved in the regulation of reproduction. For this purpose, we identified the effect of food deprivation, administration of ghrelin 1-18 and their combination on plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E), arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and growth hormone (GH) as well as the release of these hormones by isolated and cultured ovarian fragments...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
Irma Triasih Kurniawan, James Nicholas Cousins, Pearlynne L H Chong, Michael W L Chee
The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD)...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shuangxi Liu, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yu, Baoming Zhao, Lu Liu, Yin Zhao, Zhenzhao Luo, Jing Shi
Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1)...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Haojie Sun, Mingzhi Zhang, Kai Cheng, Peng Li, Shuo Han, Ruizhi Li, Ming Su, Wotan Zeng, Jinwen Liu, Jinhai Guo, Yinan Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Qihua He, Li Shen
CD133 is a pentaspan transmembrane protein that can serve as a biomarker for cancer stem cells, although its biochemical mechanism remains unclear. Here we report that CD133 expression enhances glioma cell tolerance of a nutrient-deprived microenvironment. Under starvation conditions, CD133-positive cells exhibited higher survival and decreased levels of apoptosis. These changes were dependent on activation of autophagy-associated gene signaling and were impaired by the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine. Furthermore, rapamycin up-regulated the level of autophagy and inversely reduced CD133 expression...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Jane Koziol-McLain, Christine McLean, Maheswaran Rohan, Rose Sisk, Terry Dobbs, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Denise Wilson, Alain C Vandal
BACKGROUND: Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
A Loblaw, T Pickles, J Crook, A-G Martin, E Vigneault, L Souhami, F Cury, J Morris, C Catton, H Lukka, P Cheung, P Sethukavalan, A Warner, Y Yang, G Rodrigues
AIMS: To compare biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) and overall survival for prostate cancer treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR), low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using a large Canadian multi-institutional database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with low risk localised prostate cancer treated with SABR, LDR or EBRT and no androgen deprivation therapy were selected. Propensity score matching was used to create two sets of matched cohorts with LDR and EBRT serving as control groups...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
E Castaldi, G M Cicchini, L Cinelli, L Biagi, S Rizzo, M C Morrone
Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI). After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
Luca Lo Verde, Maria Concetta Morrone, Claudia Lunghi
It is known that, after a prolonged period of visual deprivation, the adult visual cortex can be recruited for nonvisual processing, reflecting cross-modal plasticity. Here, we investigated whether cross-modal plasticity can occur at short timescales in the typical adult brain by comparing the interaction between vision and touch during binocular rivalry before and after a brief period of monocular deprivation, which strongly alters ocular balance favoring the deprived eye. While viewing dichoptically two gratings of orthogonal orientation, participants were asked to actively explore a haptic grating congruent in orientation to one of the two rivalrous stimuli...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Maxwell S Barnish, Nara Tagiyeva, Graham Devereux, Lorna Aucott, Steve Turner
BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a common condition whose prevalence is changing. We hypothesised that the relationship between asthma and associated risk factors has changed over a 50-year period. METHODS: An ecological study design was used. Children aged 8-13 attending schools in Aberdeen city were surveyed on seven occasions between 1964 and 2014. The following were determined: history of asthma, history of eczema, parental smoking, parental asthma, sex and socioeconomic status...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Shao-Hua Xie, Jesper Lagergren
The Chinese famine in 1958-1962 was one of the worst in human history, but its potential influence on cancer risks is uncertain. Using cancer incidence data in Shanghai, China, during 1983-2007, we calculated age-specific incidence rates of gastrointestinal cancers in birth cohorts exposed to the Chinese famine in different periods of life and a non-exposed reference cohort. Age-period-cohort regressions estimated the overall relative risks of gastrointestinal cancers in each birth cohort. A total of 212,098 new cases of gastrointestinal cancer were identified during the study period (129,233 males and 82,865 females), among whom 18,146 had esophageal cancer, 71,011 gastric cancer, 55,864 colorectal cancer, 42,751 liver cancer, 9,382 gallbladder cancer, and 14,944 had pancreatic cancer...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Benjamin H J Yap, Simon A Crawford, Raymond R Dagastine, Peter J Scales, Gregory J O Martin
Nitrogen deprivation (N-deprivation) is a proven strategy for inducing triacylglyceride accumulation in microalgae. However, its effect on the physical properties of cells and subsequently on product recovery processes is relatively unknown. In this study, the effect of N-deprivation on the cell size, cell wall thickness, and mechanical strength of three microalgae was investigated. As determined by analysis of micrographs from transmission electron microscopy, the average cell size and cell wall thickness for N-deprived Nannochloropsis sp...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Yan Yan, Xin-Yu Chai, Yao Chen, Chuan-Qing Zhou, Qiu-Shi Ren, Li-Ming Li
Vision is one of the most important human sensations about the surrounding world. Visual deprivation not only markedly affects the life of blind people, but also gives a heavy burden to their family and the society. A visual prosthesis is an electronic device that helps the blinds to regain visual perception by directly stimulating the visual pathway using the microelectrodes implanted into the body. In recent years, visual prostheses have been developed rapidly and some devices have already become clinically available...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Bernadette Brennan, Charles Stiller, Robert Grimer, Nicola Dennis, John Broggio, Matthew Francis
BACKGROUND: The role of age as a prognostic factor has been examined in single institutional studies and in larger data sets from the SEER database, showing a survival advantage for younger versus adult patients with synovial sarcoma (SS). To further assess the role of age, socioeconomic status and other prognostic factors on outcome for SS, we analysed a contemporary all-age population-based cohort of patients with SS registered in England. METHODS: The data on 1318 synovial sarcomas diagnosed in England between 1985 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed for incidence, and the effect of age, patient characteristics and deprivation on outcome using both univariate and multivariate analysis...
2016: Clinical Sarcoma Research
John Busby, Sarah Purdy, William Hollingworth
BACKGROUND: Reducing unplanned hospital admissions is a key priority within the UK. Substantial interpractice variation in admission rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) suggests that decreases might be possible. AIM: To identify the clinical areas and patient subgroups where the greatest opportunities exist for GPs to improve ACSC care. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study using routine hospital data from patients registered at 8123 English GP practices during 2011 and 2012...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
J C Mennie, P-N Mohanna, J M O'Donoghue, R Rainsbury, D A Cromwell
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about post-mastectomy reconstruction procedural trends in women diagnosed with breast cancer in England. Our aim was to examine patterns of immediate and delayed reconstruction procedures over time and within regions. METHODS: Women with breast cancer who underwent unilateral index immediate or delayed post-mastectomy reconstruction between 2007 and 2014 were identified using the National Hospital Episode Statistics database. Women were grouped into categories based on the type of reconstruction procedure...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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