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Pigment evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924499/genome-wide-identification-of-the-mads-box-transcription-factor-family-in-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri-reveals-evolution-and-functional-divergence
#1
Runze Wang, Meiling Ming, Jiaming Li, Dongqing Shi, Xin Qiao, Leiting Li, Shaoling Zhang, Jun Wu
MADS-box transcription factors play significant roles in plant developmental processes such as floral organ conformation, flowering time, and fruit development. Pear (Pyrus), as the third-most crucial temperate fruit crop, has been fully sequenced. However, there is limited information about the MADS family and its functional divergence in pear. In this study, a total of 95 MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome, and classified into two types by phylogenetic analysis. Type I MADS-box genes were divided into three subfamilies and type II genes into 14 subfamilies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923944/single-master-regulatory-gene-coordinates-the-evolution-and-development-of-butterfly-color-and-iridescence
#2
Linlin Zhang, Anyi Mazo-Vargas, Robert D Reed
The optix gene has been implicated in butterfly wing pattern adaptation by genetic association, mapping, and expression studies. The actual developmental function of this gene has remained unclear, however. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to show that optix plays a fundamental role in nymphalid butterfly wing pattern development, where it is required for determination of all chromatic coloration. optix knockouts in four species show complete replacement of color pigments with melanins, with corresponding changes in pigment-related gene expression, resulting in black and gray butterflies...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922458/developmental-mechanisms-of-longitudinal-stripes-in-the-japanese-four-lined-snake
#3
Arata Murakami, Masami Hasegawa, Takeo Kuriyama
The developmental mechanisms of color patterns formation and its evolution remain unclear in reptilian sauropsids. We, therefore, studied the pigment cell mechanisms of stripe pattern formation during embryonic development of the snake Elaphe quadrivirgata. We identified 10 post-ovipositional embryonic developmental stages based on external morphological characteristics. Examination for the temporal changes in differentiation, distribution, and density of pigment cells during embryonic development revealed that melanophores first appeared in myotome and body cavity but not in skin surface at Stage 5...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883798/eye-development-in-sepia-officinalis-embryo-what-the-uncommon-gene-expression-profiles-tell-us-about-eye-evolution
#4
Boudjema Imarazene, Aude Andouche, Yann Bassaglia, Pascal-Jean Lopez, Laure Bonnaud-Ponticelli
In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876222/co-expression-of-xenopsin-and-rhabdomeric-opsin-in-photoreceptors-bearing-microvilli-and-cilia
#5
Oliver Vöcking, Ioannis Kourtesis, Sharat Chandra Tumu, Harald Hausen
Ciliary and rhabdomeric opsins are employed by cells differing fundamentally in structure and molecular physiology, such as ciliary vertebrate rods and cones and protostome microvillar eye photoreceptors. We report unprecedented cellular co-expression of rhabdomeric opsin and a visual pigment of the recently described xenopsins in larval eyes of a mollusk. The photoreceptors bear both microvilli and cilia and express orthologs to transporters for microvillar and ciliary opsin trafficking. Highly conserved but distinct gene structures suggest that xenopsins and ciliary opsins are of independent origin, irrespective of their mutually exclusive distribution in animals...
September 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875070/dinosaur-origin-of-egg-color-oviraptors-laid-blue-green-eggs
#6
Jasmina Wiemann, Tzu-Ruei Yang, Philipp N Sander, Marion Schneider, Marianne Engeser, Stephanie Kath-Schorr, Christa E Müller, P Martin Sander
Protoporphyrin (PP) and biliverdin (BV) give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854926/single-molecule-sequencing-and-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly-of-amaranth-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-chromosomes-provide-insights-into-genome-evolution
#7
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851818/rapid-expansion-of-pigmentation-genes-in-penaeid-shrimp-with-absolute-preservation-of-function
#8
Alyssa M Budd, Tracey M Hinton, Mark Tonks, Sue Cheers, Nicholas M Wade
Crustaceans form their distinct patterns and colors through the interaction of the carotenoid astaxanthin with a protein called crustacyanin (CRCN). Presently, the expression of just two CRCN genes is thought to provide the protein subunits that combine to form the crustacyanin complex and associated carotenoid colour change from red to blue. This study aimed to explore the genetic complexity underlying the production of pigmentation and camouflage in penaeid shrimp. We isolated 35 new CRCN genes from 12 species, and their sequence analysis indicated that this gene family has undergone significant expansion and diversification in this lineage...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837535/optical-coherence-tomography-analysis-of-outer-retinal-tubulations-sequential-evolution-and-pathophysiological-insights
#9
Rony C Preti, Andrea Govetto, Richard Geraldo Aqueta Filho, Leandro Cabral Zacharias, Sergio Gianotti Pimentel, Walter Y Takahashi, Mario L R Monteiro, Jean Pierre Hubschman, David Sarraf
PURPOSE: To describe the sequential evolution of outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) in patients diagnosed with choroidal neovascularization and/or retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of spectral domain optical coherence tomography of a consecutive cohort of patients with various retinal conditions. RESULTS: We reviewed the clinical findings of 238 eyes of 119 consecutive patients (54 men and 65 women) with a mean age of 76...
August 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831177/condition-dependence-of-pheomelanin-based-coloration-in-nuthatches-sitta-europaea-suggests-a-detoxifying-function-implications-for-the-evolution-of-juvenile-plumage-patterns
#10
Ismael Galván
Adult-like juvenile plumage patterns often signal genotypic quality to parents. During adulthood, the same patterns often signal quality to mates. This has led to assume that adult-like juvenile plumage is a developmental consequence of sexual selection operating in adults. Many of these patterns are produced by the pigment pheomelanin, whose synthesis may help remove toxic excess cysteine. Excess cysteine is likely to arise under conditions of relatively low stress, such as those experienced by nestling birds...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777894/evolution-of-novel-mimicry-rings-facilitated-by-adaptive-introgression-in-tropical-butterflies
#11
Juan Enciso-Romero, Carolina Pardo-Díaz, Simon H Martin, Carlos F Arias, Mauricio Linares, W Owen McMillan, Chris D Jiggins, Camilo Salazar
Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the mechanisms involved in the evolution of adaptive novelty, especially in adaptive radiations, is a major goal in evolutionary biology. Here, we used whole genome sequence data to investigate the origin of the yellow hindwing bar in the Heliconius cydno radiation. We found modular variation associated with hindwing phenotype in two narrow non-coding regions upstream and downstream of the cortex gene, which was recently identified as a pigmentation pattern controller in multiple species of Heliconius...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776029/genome-wide-signatures-of-complex-introgression-and-adaptive-evolution-in-the-big-cats
#12
Henrique V Figueiró, Gang Li, Fernanda J Trindade, Juliana Assis, Fabiano Pais, Gabriel Fernandes, Sarah H D Santos, Graham M Hughes, Aleksey Komissarov, Agostinho Antunes, Cristine S Trinca, Maíra R Rodrigues, Tyler Linderoth, Ke Bi, Leandro Silveira, Fernando C C Azevedo, Daniel Kantek, Emiliano Ramalho, Ricardo A Brassaloti, Priscilla M S Villela, Adauto L V Nunes, Rodrigo H F Teixeira, Ronaldo G Morato, Damian Loska, Patricia Saragüeta, Toni Gabaldón, Emma C Teeling, Stephen J O'Brien, Rasmus Nielsen, Luiz L Coutinho, Guilherme Oliveira, William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik
The great cats of the genus Panthera comprise a recent radiation whose evolutionary history is poorly understood. Their rapid diversification poses challenges to resolving their phylogeny while offering opportunities to investigate the historical dynamics of adaptive divergence. We report the sequence, de novo assembly, and annotation of the jaguar (Panthera onca) genome, a novel genome sequence for the leopard (Panthera pardus), and comparative analyses encompassing all living Panthera species. Demographic reconstructions indicated that all of these species have experienced variable episodes of population decline during the Pleistocene, ultimately leading to small effective sizes in present-day genomes...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763337/folliculotropic-metastatic-melanoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Elizabeth L McKinnon, Kelly L West, Russell A Ball, Nathan Wright, Raymond L Barnhill
Folliculotropic metastasis of cutaneous melanoma is rare, with only 5 published case reports in the English language literature since it was first described in 2009. We report a 41-year-old man with a primary cutaneous melanoma of the right upper preauricular region with metastatic spread to the parotid gland and pulmonary lymph nodes. Excision of the primary lesion was performed and immunotherapy was initiated. Sixteen months later, the patient presented with 2 new lesions of the left forehead and left neck...
September 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751471/structure-of-a-symmetric-photosynthetic-reaction-center-photosystem
#14
Christopher Gisriel, Iosifina Sarrou, Bryan Ferlez, John H Golbeck, Kevin E Redding, Raimund Fromme
Reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that drive photosynthesis by converting light into chemical energy. It is believed that they arose once from a homodimeric protein. The symmetry of a homodimer is broken in heterodimeric reaction center structures, such as those reported previously. The 2.2-Å resolution X-ray structure of the homodimeric reaction center/photosystem from the phototroph, Heliobacterium modesticaldum, exhibits perfect C2 symmetry. The core polypeptide dimer and two small subunits coordinate 54 (bacterio)chlorophylls and 2 carotenoids that capture and transfer energy to the electron transfer chain at the center, which performs charge separation and consists of 6 (bacterio)chlorophylls and an iron-sulfur cluster; unlike other reaction centers, it lacks a bound quinone...
July 27, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731798/most-colorful-example-of-genetic-assimilation-exploring-the-evolutionary-destiny-of-recurrent-phenotypic-accommodation
#15
Alexander V Badyaev, Ahva L Potticary, Erin S Morrison
Evolution of adaptation requires both generation of novel phenotypic variation and retention of a locally beneficial subset of this variation. Such retention can be facilitated by genetic assimilation, the accumulation of genetic and molecular mechanisms that stabilize induced phenotypes and assume progressively greater control over their reliable production. A particularly strong inference into genetic assimilation as an evolutionary process requires a system where it is possible to directly evaluate the extent to which an induced phenotype is progressively incorporated into preexisting developmental pathways...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729899/evolutionary-loss-of-melanogenesis-in-the-tunicate-molgula-occulta
#16
Claudia Racioppi, Maria Carmen Valoroso, Ugo Coppola, Elijah K Lowe, C Titus Brown, Billie J Swalla, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi, Filomena Ristoratore
BACKGROUND: Analyzing close species with diverse developmental modes is instrumental for investigating the evolutionary significance of physiological, anatomical and behavioral features at a molecular level. Many examples of trait loss are known in metazoan populations living in dark environments. Tunicates are the closest living relatives of vertebrates and typically present a lifecycle with distinct motile larval and sessile adult stages. The nervous system of the motile larva contains melanized cells associated with geotactic and light-sensing organs...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726562/gene-therapy-for-age-related-macular-degeneration
#17
Nicholas A Moore, Peter Bracha, Rehan M Hussain, Nuria Morral, Thomas A Ciulla
In neovascular age related macular degeneration (nAMD), gene therapy to chronically express anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins could ameliorate the treatment burden of chronic intravitreal therapy and improve limited visual outcomes associated with 'real world' undertreatment. Areas covered: In this review, the authors assess the evolution of gene therapy for AMD. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can transduce retinal pigment epithelium; one such early application was a phase I trial of AAV2-delivered pigment epithelium derived factor gene in advanced nAMD...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707403/melanocytic-lesion-evolution-patterns-with-targeted-therapies-and-immunotherapies-for-advanced-metastatic-melanoma-an-observational-study
#18
Cathy Yunjia Zhao, Shelley Ji Eun Hwang, Deepal Wakade, Giuliana Carlos, Rachael Anforth, Pablo Fernández-Peñas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Various cutaneous side-effects have been reported with anti-melanoma systemic therapies. This study investigated the changes in melanocytic lesion pigmentation in patients on four different therapies. METHODS: We analysed the serial dermatoscopic photographs of atypical melanocytic lesions taken from patients with advanced metastatic melanoma on four different systemic therapies (selective BRAF-inhibitor monotherapy, dabrafenib combined with trametinib [D&T], anti-programmed cell death protein 1 [anti-PD1] therapies, and anti-PD1 combined with ipilimumab) seen from February 2013 to May 2016...
July 14, 2017: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701907/adaptation-of-human-skin-color-in-various-populations
#19
REVIEW
Lian Deng, Shuhua Xu
BACKGROUND: Skin color is a well-recognized adaptive trait and has been studied extensively in humans. Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation of skin color in various populations has many implications in human evolution and medicine. DISCUSSION: Impressive progress has been made recently to identify genes associated with skin color variation in a wide range of geographical and temporal populations. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the genetics of skin color variation...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644828/a-mutant-of-chlamydomonas-without-lhcsr-maintains-high-rates-of-photosynthesis-but-has-reduced-cell-division-rates-in-sinusoidal-light-conditions
#20
Michael Cantrell, Graham Peers
The LHCSR protein belongs to the light harvesting complex family of pigment-binding proteins found in oxygenic photoautotrophs. Previous studies have shown that this complex is required for the rapid induction and relaxation of excess light energy dissipation in a wide range of eukaryotic algae and moss. The ability of cells to rapidly regulate light harvesting between this dissipation state and one favoring photochemistry is believed to be important for reducing oxidative stress and maintaining high photosynthetic efficiency in a rapidly changing light environment...
2017: PloS One
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