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Pigment evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329973/altered-gene-expression-in-tree-shrew-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-produced-by-short-periods-of-minus-lens-wear
#1
Li He, Michael R Frost, John T Siegwart, Thomas T Norton
Hyperopic refractive error is detected by retinal neurons, which generate GO signals through a direct emmetropization signaling cascade: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into choroid and then into sclera, thereby increasing axial elongation. To examine signaling early in this cascade, we measured gene expression in the retina and RPE after short exposure to hyperopia produced by minus-lens wear. Gene expression in each tissue was compared with gene expression in combined retina + RPE. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening, three groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 7 each) wore a monocular -5 D lens...
January 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322482/variation-in-cell-size-of-the-diatom-coscinodiscus-granii-influences-photosynthetic-performance-and-growth
#2
Dong Yan, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Cell size has implications for the package effect in photon absorption as well as for metabolic scaling of metabolism. In this study, we have avoided species-related differences by using isolates of the marine planktonic diatom Coscinodiscus granii with cells of different sizes and grown at different light intensities to investigate their energy allocation strategies. To make full use of incident light, several fold variations in cellular chlorophyll a content were employed across cell size. This modulation of pigment-related light absorbance was deemed effective as similar light absorbing capacities were found in all treatments...
January 10, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316344/widespread-dynamic-and-pleiotropic-expression-of-the-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-system-is-conserved-across-chick-mouse-and-human-embryonic-development
#3
Anna C Thomas, Pauline Heux, Chloe Santos, Wisenave Arulvasan, Nita Solanky, Magalie E Carey, Dianne Gerrelli, Veronica A Kinsler, Heather C Etchevers
BACKGROUND: MC1R, a G-protein coupled receptor with high affinity for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), modulates pigment production in melanocytes from many species and is associated with human melanoma risk. MC1R mutations affecting human skin and hair color also have pleiotropic effects on the immune response and analgesia. Variants affecting human pigmentation in utero alter the congenital phenotype of both oculocutaneous albinism and congenital melanocytic naevi, and have a possible effect on birthweight...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297463/cis-regulatory-evolution-integrated-the-bric-%C3%A3-brac-transcription-factors-into-a-novel-fruit-fly-gene-regulatory-network
#4
Maxwell J Roeske, Eric M Camino, Sumant Grover, Mark Rebeiz, Thomas Michael Williams
Gene expression evolution through gene regulatory network (GRN) changes has gained appreciation as a driver of morphological evolution. However, understanding how GRNs evolve is hampered by finding relevant cis-regulatory element (CRE) mutations, and interpreting the protein-DNA interactions they alter. We investigated evolutionary changes in the duplicated Bric-à-brac (Bab) transcription factors and a key Bab target gene in a GRN underlying the novel dimorphic pigmentation of D. melanogaster and its relatives...
January 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297327/the-factors-affecting-the-evolution-of-the-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-pathway-genes-in-monocot-and-dicot-plant-species
#5
Olesya Yu Shoeva, Anastasiya Yu Glagoleva, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: The available data demonstrate that even in universal metabolic pathways, some species-specific regulatory features of structural genes are present. For instance, in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway (ABP), genes may be regulated by ABP-specific regulatory factors, and their expression levels may be strongly associated with anthocyanin pigmentation, or they may be expressed independently of pigmentation. A dataset of orthologous ABP genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3'h, Dfr, Ans) from monocot and dicot plant species that have distinct gene regulation patterns and different types of pollination was constructed to test whether these factors affect the evolution of the genes...
December 28, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297201/geographic-variation-in-pollen-color-is-associated-with-temperature-stress
#6
Matthew H Koski, Laura F Galloway
The evolution of flower color, especially petal pigmentation, has received substantial attention. Less understood is the evolutionary ecology of pollen pigmentation, though it varies among and within species and its biochemical properties affect pollen viability. We characterize the distribution of pollen color across 24 populations of the North American herb Campanula americana, and assess the degree to which this variation is genetically based. We identify abiotic factors that covary with pollen color and test whether germination of light and dark pollen is differentially affected by variable temperature and UV...
January 3, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276475/evolution-development-and-function-of-vertebrate-cone-oil-droplets
#7
REVIEW
Matthew B Toomey, Joseph C Corbo
To distinguish colors, the nervous system must compare the activity of distinct subtypes of photoreceptors that are maximally sensitive to different portions of the light spectrum. In vertebrates, a variety of adaptations have arisen to refine the spectral sensitivity of cone photoreceptors and improve color vision. In this review article, we focus on one such adaptation, the oil droplet, a unique optical organelle found within the inner segment of cone photoreceptors of a diverse array of vertebrate species, from fish to mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274041/intraoral-pigmented-low-grade-adenocarcinoma-not-otherwise-specified-case-report-and-immunohistochemical-study
#8
Jessica Luana Dos Santos, Albina Messias de Almeida Milani Altemani, Alexandre Elias Trivellato, Cássio Edvard Sverzut, Luciana Yamamoto Almeida, Lucas Ribeiro Teixeira, Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva, Jorge Esquiche León
Salivary adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (AdCaNOS) is a rare malignant tumor with potential diagnostic challenge, which mainly affects the parotid glands; however, the minor salivary glands can also be involved by AdCaNOS. This paper reports a case of a 45-year-old Afro-descendant woman complaining of a slow-growing mass with 6 months of evolution in the left superior vestibular fornix. Microscopic examination revealed an infiltrative epithelial neoplasm composed of predominantly solid growth pattern, arranged in a lobular configuration, admixed with glandular or ductal structures...
December 22, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260086/retinal-findings-in-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis
#9
Ahmad M Mansour, Luiz H Lima, J Fernando Arevalo, Miguel Hage Amaro, Virginia Lozano, Alaa Bou Ghannam, Errol W Chan
Purpose: To assess the evolution of retinal findings in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) by funduscopy, intravenous fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Observations: Three women and one man were followed for a period of 1.5-37 years. Four patients (8 eyes) had drusen detected at first fundus exam at age 24, 29, 50 and 55. Three patients (6 eyes) had diffuse thickening of Bruch's membrane, and two patients (3 eyes) had detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium with serous retinal detachment...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249120/the-variegated-histopathological-features-of-atypical-lentiginous-melanocytic-nevi-almns-a-single-institution-experience
#10
Alessia Barisani, Salvatore D Infusino, Cosimo Misciali, Beatrice Passarini, Nunzio C Salfi, Elisa Varotti, Annalisa Patrizi
BACKGROUND: Atypical lentiginous melanocytic nevi (ALMNs) are atypical pigmented lesions with histopathological features similar to those of dysplastic nevi, with a lentiginous pattern. Variable histopathological features of ALMNs were observed in our practice. METHODS: We described the histopathological features of ALMNs diagnosed in the period 2009- 2015. Our cases were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: ALMNs showing the same histopathological features as previously described in the literature; Group 2: ALMNs with different features...
December 15, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247705/transcriptome-and-metabolic-profiling-provides-insights-into-betalain-biosynthesis-and-evolution-in-mirabilis-jalapa
#11
Guy Polturak, Uwe Heinig, Noam Grossman, Maor Battat, Dena Leshkowitz, Sergey Malitsky, Ilana Rogachev, Asaph Aharoni
Betalains are tyrosine-derived pigments that occur solely in one plant order, the Caryophyllales, where they largely replace the anthocyanins in a mutually exclusive fashion. In this study, we conducted multi-species transcriptome and metabolic profiling in Mirabilis jalapa and additional betalain-producing species to identify candidate genes possibly involved with betalain biosynthesis. Among the candidates identified, betalain-related cytochrome P450 and glucosyltransferase-type genes, which catalyze tyrosine hydroxylation or (hydroxy)cinnamoyl-glucose formation, respectively, were further functionally characterized...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241566/a-catechol-oxidase-acppo-from-cherimoya-annona-cherimola-mill-is-localized-to-the-golgi-apparatus
#12
Patricio Olmedo, Adrián A Moreno, Dayan Sanhueza, Iván Balic, Christian Silva-Sanzana, Baltasar Zepeda, Julian C Verdonk, César Arriagada, Claudio Meneses, Reinaldo Campos-Vargas
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238562/colorful-seashells-identification-of-haem-pathway-genes-associated-with-the-synthesis-of-porphyrin-shell-color-in-marine-snails
#13
Suzanne T Williams, Anne E Lockyer, Patricia Dyal, Tomoyuki Nakano, Celia K C Churchill, Daniel I Speiser
Very little is known about the evolution of molluskan shell pigments, although Mollusca is a highly diverse, species rich, and ecologically important group of animals comprised of many brightly colored taxa. The marine snail genus Clanculus was chosen as an exceptional model for studying the evolution of shell color, first, because in Clanculus margaritarius and Clanculus pharaonius both shell and foot share similar colors and patterns; and second, because recent studies have identified the pigments, trochopuniceus (pink-red), and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown), both comprised of uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III, in both shell and colored foot tissue of these species...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238294/unique-temporal-expression-of-triplicated-long-wavelength-opsins-in-developing-butterfly-eyes
#14
Kentaro Arikawa, Tomoyuki Iwanaga, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Michiyo Kinoshita
Following gene duplication events, the expression patterns of the resulting gene copies can often diverge both spatially and temporally. Here we report on gene duplicates that are expressed in distinct but overlapping patterns, and which exhibit temporally divergent expression. Butterflies have sophisticated color vision and spectrally complex eyes, typically with three types of heterogeneous ommatidia. The eyes of the butterfly Papilio xuthus express two green- and one red-absorbing visual pigment, which came about via gene duplication events, in addition to one ultraviolet (UV)- and one blue-absorbing visual pigment...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230900/expression-of-a-carotenoid-modifying-gene-and-evolution-of-red-colouration-in-weaverbirds-ploceidae
#15
Hanlu Twyman, Maria Prager, Nicholas I Mundy, Staffan Andersson
Red carotenoid colours in birds are widely assumed to be sexually selected quality indicators, but this rests on a very incomplete understanding of genetic mechanisms and honesty-mediating costs. Recent progress was made by the implication of the gene CYP2J19 as an avian carotenoid ketolase, catalysing the synthesis of red C4-ketocarotenoids from yellow dietary precursors, and potentially a major mechanism behind red coloration in birds. Here we investigate the role of CYP2J19 in the spectacular colour diversification of African weaverbirds (Ploceidae), represented by five genera and 16 species; eight red, seven yellow, and one without carotenoid coloration...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226181/a-bioreactor-method-to-generate-high-titer-genetically-stable-clinical-isolate-human-cytomegalovirus
#16
Victoria R Saykally, Luke I Rast, Jeff Sasaki, Seung-Yong Jung, Cynthia Bolovan-Fritts, Leor S Weinberger
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients and a leading cause of congenital birth defects (Saint Louis, 2016). Vaccination and therapeutic studies often require scalable cell culture production of wild type virus, represented by clinical isolates. Obtaining sufficient stocks of wild-type clinical HCMV is often labor intensive and inefficient due to low yield and genetic loss, presenting a barrier to studies of clinical isolates. Here we report a bioreactor method based on continuous infection, where retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells adhered to microcarrier beads are infected in a bioreactor and used to produce high-titers of clinical isolate HCMV that maintain genetic integrity of key viral tropism factors and the viral genome...
November 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215078/melanization-in-response-to-wounding-is-ancestral-in-arthropods-and-conserved-in-albino-cave-species
#17
Helena Bilandžija, Mara Laslo, Megan L Porter, Daniel W Fong
Many species adapted to aphotic subterranean habitats have lost all body pigmentation. Yet, melanization is an important component of wound healing in arthropods. We amputated appendages in a variety of cave-adapted and surface-dwelling arthropods. A dark clot formed at the site of injury in most species tested, including even albino cave-adapted species. The dark coloration of the clots was due to melanin deposition. The speed of wound melanization was uncorrelated with a difference in metabolic rate between surface and cave populations of an amphipod...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214008/comparing-growth-in-surface-and-cave-morphs-of-the-species-astyanax-mexicanus-insights-from-scales
#18
Victor Simon, Romain Elleboode, Kélig Mahé, Laurent Legendre, Patricia Ornelas-Garcia, Luis Espinasa, Sylvie Rétaux
Background: Life in the darkness of caves is accompanied, throughout phyla, by striking phenotypic changes including the loss or severe reduction in eyes and pigmentation. On the other hand, cave animals have undergone constructive changes, thought to be adaptive, to survive in this extreme environment. The present study addresses the question of the evolution of growth in caves, taking advantage of the comparison between the river-dwelling and the cave-dwelling morphs of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210936/optical-coherence-tomography-and-histology-of-age-related-macular-degeneration-support-mitochondria-as-reflectivity-sources
#19
Katie M Litts, Yuhua Zhang, K Bailey Freund, Christine A Curcio
PURPOSE: Widespread adoption of optical coherence tomography has revolutionized the diagnosis and management of retinal disease. If the cellular and subcellular sources of reflectivity in optical coherence tomography can be identified, the value of this technology will be advanced even further toward precision medicine, mechanistic thinking, and molecular discovery. Four hyperreflective outer retinal bands are created by the exquisite arrangement of photoreceptors, Müller cells, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch membrane...
November 23, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206201/selection-on-the-major-color-gene-melanocortin-1-receptor-shaped-the-evolution-of-the-melanocortin-system-genes
#20
Linda Dib, Luis M San-Jose, Anne-Lyse Ducrest, Nicolas Salamin, Alexandre Roulin
Modular genetic systems and networks have complex evolutionary histories shaped by selection acting on single genes as well as on their integrated function within the network. However, uncovering molecular coevolution requires the detection of coevolving sites in sequences. Detailed knowledge of the functions of each gene in the system is also necessary to identify the selective agents driving coevolution. Using recently developed computational tools, we investigated the effect of positive selection on the coevolution of ten major genes in the melanocortin system, responsible for multiple physiological functions and human diseases...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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