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Pigment evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#1
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136137/copy-number-variation-and-expression-analysis-reveals-a-non-orthologous-pinta-gene-family-member-involved-in-butterfly-vision
#2
Aide Macias-Muñoz, Kyle J McCulloch, Adriana D Briscoe
Vertebrate (CRALBP) and Drosophila (PINTA) proteins with a CRAL-TRIO domain transport retinal-based chromophores that bind to opsin proteins and are necessary for phototransduction. The CRAL-TRIO domain gene family is composed of genes that encode proteins with a common N-terminal structural domain. While there is an expansion of this gene family in Lepidoptera, there is no lepidopteran ortholog of pinta. Further, the function of these genes in lepidopterans has not yet been established. Here we explored the molecular evolution and expression of CRAL-TRIO domain genes in the butterfly Heliconius melpomene in order to identify a member of this gene family as a candidate chromophore transporter...
November 9, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123214/evolution-of-facial-color-pattern-complexity-in-lemurs
#3
Hanitriniaina Rakotonirina, Peter M Kappeler, Claudia Fichtel
Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variation in hair length, hair and skin coloration as well as color brightness...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116063/-myc-gene-family-in-cereals-transformations-during-evolution-of-hexaploid-bread-wheat-and-its-relatives
#4
K V Strygina, E K Khlestkina
The transcription factors of the MYC gene family are an integral part of the MYB + MYC + WD40 regulatory complex required to activate the genes of plant flavonoid biosynthesis. The TaMyc1 gene, which controls the synthesis of flavonoid pigments in the grain pericarp, is known in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., BBAADD genome, 2n = 6x = 42). In the present work, we identified 10 copies of this gene in the T. aestivum genome, 22 copies in the nearest bread wheat relatives (T. durum, T. urartu, T. monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, Ae...
September 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104925/absence-of-selection-for-quantum-coherence-in-the-fenna-matthews-olson-complex-a-combined-evolutionary-and-excitonic-study
#5
Stéphanie Valleau, Romain A Studer, Florian Häse, Christoph Kreisbeck, Rafael G Saer, Robert E Blankenship, Eugene I Shakhnovich, Alán Aspuru-Guzik
We present a study on the evolution of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson bacterial photosynthetic pigment-protein complex. This protein complex functions as an antenna. It transports absorbed photons-excitons-to a reaction center where photosynthetic reactions initiate. The efficiency of exciton transport is therefore fundamental for the photosynthetic bacterium's survival. We have reconstructed an ancestor of the complex to establish whether coherence in the exciton transport was selected for or optimized over time...
October 25, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103793/consensus-definition-for-atrophy-associated-with-age-related-macular-degeneration-on-oct-classification-of-atrophy-report-3
#6
Srinivas R Sadda, Robyn Guymer, Frank G Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Christine A Curcio, Alan C Bird, Barbara A Blodi, Ferdinando Bottoni, Usha Chakravarthy, Emily Y Chew, Karl Csaky, Ronald P Danis, Monika Fleckenstein, K Bailey Freund, Juan Grunwald, Carel B Hoyng, Glenn J Jaffe, Sandra Liakopoulos, Jordi M Monés, Daniel Pauleikhoff, Philip J Rosenfeld, David Sarraf, Richard F Spaide, Ramin Tadayoni, Adnan Tufail, Sebastian Wolf, Giovanni Staurenghi
PURPOSE: To develop consensus terminology and criteria for defining atrophy based on OCT findings in the setting of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: Panel of retina specialists, image reading center experts, retinal histologists, and optics engineers. METHODS: As part of the Classification of Atrophy Meetings (CAM) program, an international group of experts surveyed the existing literature, performed a masked analysis of longitudinal multimodal imaging for a series of eyes with AMD, and reviewed the results of this analysis to define areas of agreement and disagreement...
November 2, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102895/insights-into-visual-pigment-adaptation-and-diversity-from-model-ecological-and-evolutionary-systems
#7
REVIEW
Frances E Hauser, Belinda Sw Chang
Sensory systems provide valuable insight into the evolution of molecular mechanisms underlying organismal anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Visual pigments, which mediate the first step in visual transduction, offer a unique window into the relationship between molecular variation and visual performance, and enhance our understanding of how ecology, life history, and physiology may shape genetic variation across a variety of organisms. Here we review recent work investigating vertebrate visual pigments from a number of perspectives...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095994/pyomelanin-produced-by-vibriocholerae-confers-resistance-to-predation-by-acanthamoebacastellanii
#8
Parisa Noorian, Hu Jie, Zhiliang Chen, Staffan Kjelleberg, Marc R Wilkins, Shuyang Sun, Diane McDougald
Protozoan predation is one of the main environmental factors constraining bacterial growth in aquatic environments, and thus has led to the evolution of a number of defence mechanisms that protect bacteria from predation. These mechanisms may also function as virulence factors in infection of animal and human hosts. Whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of Vibrio cholerae biofilms during predation by the amoebae, Acanthamoeba castellanii, revealed that 131 transcripts were significantly differentially regulated when compared to the non-grazed control...
October 31, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076154/dermoscopy-in-vitiligo-diagnosis-and-beyond
#9
Abhijeet Kumar Jha, Sidharth Sonthalia, Aimilios Lallas, R K P Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is essentially a clinical diagnosis, and dermoscopy may aid in noninvasive confirmation of diagnosis by excluding other clinically simulating hypopigmentary conditions. More importantly, dermoscopy is rapidly gaining ground as an important adjunct tool to evaluate disease activity. AIM: To study the dermoscopic features of vitiligo and ascertain their correlation with disease activity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of dermoscopy of 60 cases suffering from vitiligo was undertaken...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070719/higher-iridescent-to-pigment-optical-effect-in-flowers-facilitates-learning-memory-and-generalization-in-foraging-bumblebees
#10
Géraud de Premorel, Martin Giurfa, Christine Andraud, Doris Gomez
Iridescence-change of colour with changes in the angle of view or of illumination-is widespread in the living world, but its functions remain poorly understood. The presence of iridescence has been suggested in flowers where diffraction gratings generate iridescent colours. Such colours have been suggested to serve plant-pollinator communication. Here we tested whether a higher iridescence relative to corolla pigmentation would facilitate discrimination, learning and retention of iridescent visual targets. We conditioned bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) to discriminate iridescent from non-iridescent artificial flowers and we varied iridescence detectability by varying target iridescent relative to pigment optical effect...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070589/mitochondria-targeted-molecules-determine-the-redness-of-the-zebra-finch-bill
#11
Alejandro Cantarero, Carlos Alonso-Alvarez
The evolution and production mechanisms of red carotenoid-based ornaments in animals are poorly understood. Recently, it has been suggested that enzymes transforming yellow carotenoids to red pigments (ketolases) in animal cells may be positioned in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) intimately linked to the electron transport chain. These enzymes may mostly synthesize coenzyme Q10 (coQ10), a key redox-cycler antioxidant molecularly similar to yellow carotenoids. It has been hypothesized that this shared pathway favours the evolution of red traits as sexually selected individual quality indices by revealing a well-adjusted oxidative metabolism...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023752/a-novel-r3-myb-transcriptional-repressor-associated-with-the-loss-of-floral-pigmentation-in-iochroma
#12
Daniel J Gates, Bradley J S C Olson, Tom E Clemente, Stacey D Smith
Losses of floral pigmentation represent one of the most common evolutionary transitions in flower color, yet the genetic basis for these changes has been elucidated in only a handful of cases. Here we used crossing studies, bulk-segregant RNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional tests to identify the gene(s) responsible for the transition to white flowers in Iochroma loxense. Crosses between I. loxense and its blue-flowered sister species, I. cyaneum, suggested that a single locus controls the flower color difference and that the white allele causes a nearly complete loss of pigmentation...
October 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990194/relaxation-of-tyrosine-pathway-regulation-underlies-the-evolution-of-betalain-pigmentation-in-caryophyllales
#13
Samuel Lopez-Nieves, Ya Yang, Alfonso Timoneda, Minmin Wang, Tao Feng, Stephen A Smith, Samuel F Brockington, Hiroshi A Maeda
Diverse natural products are synthesized in plants by specialized metabolic enzymes, which are often lineage-specific and derived from gene duplication followed by functional divergence. However, little is known about the contribution of primary metabolism to the evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. Betalain pigments, uniquely found in the plant order Caryophyllales, are synthesized from the aromatic amino acid l-tyrosine (Tyr) and replaced the otherwise ubiquitous phenylalanine-derived anthocyanins...
October 9, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987085/communication-broad-manifold-of-excitonic-states-in-light-harvesting-complex-1-promotes-efficient-unidirectional-energy-transfer-in-vivo
#14
Sara H Sohail, Peter D Dahlberg, Marco A Allodi, Sara C Massey, Po-Chieh Ting, Elizabeth C Martin, C Neil Hunter, Gregory S Engel
In photosynthetic organisms, the pigment-protein complexes that comprise the light-harvesting antenna exhibit complex electronic structures and ultrafast dynamics due to the coupling among the chromophores. Here, we present absorptive two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra from living cultures of the purple bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, acquired using gradient assisted photon echo spectroscopy. Diagonal slices through the 2D lineshape of the LH1 stimulated emission/ground state bleach feature reveal a resolvable higher energy population within the B875 manifold...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983094/application-of-oct-angiography-to-characterise-the-evolution-of-chorioretinal-lesions-in-acute-posterior-multifocal-placoid-pigment-epitheliopathy
#15
T R Burke, C J Chu, S Salvatore, C Bailey, A D Dick, R W J Lee, A H Ross, E Carreño
PurposeThe aim of this study was to determine a sequence of structural changes in acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) using optical coherence tomography-angiography (OCT-A) and comparing with other imaging modalities.Patients and methodsPatients with a new diagnosis of acute-onset APMPPE referred to a regional specialist centre from October 2015 to October 2016 were included. Multimodal imaging employed on all patients from diagnosis included the following: fundus fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral domain-OCT (SD-OCT), and OCT-A...
October 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978734/divergence-in-cryptic-leaf-colour-provides-local-camouflage-in-an-alpine-plant
#16
Yang Niu, Zhe Chen, Martin Stevens, Hang Sun
The efficacy of camouflage through background matching is highly environment-dependent, often resulting in intraspecific colour divergence in animals to optimize crypsis in different visual environments. This phenomenon is largely unexplored in plants, although several lines of evidence suggest they do use crypsis to avoid damage by herbivores. Using Corydalis hemidicentra, an alpine plant with cryptic leaf colour, we quantified background matching between leaves and surrounding rocks in five populations based on an approximate model of their butterfly enemy's colour perception...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973076/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-lutein-zeaxanthin-and-%C3%AF-3-on-macular-pigment-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Alain Bron, Bénédicte M J Merle, Hélène Savel, Geneviève Chêne, Cécile Delcourt, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
Importance: Nutritional uptake of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and thereby protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objectives: To estimate the efficiency of dietary supplementation containing lutein, zeaxanthin, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins to increase the density of macular pigment in first-generation offspring of parents with neovascular AMD...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957507/accelerated-evolution-and-functional-divergence-of-the-dim-light-visual-pigment-accompanies-cichlid-colonization-of-central-america
#18
Frances E Hauser, Katriina L Ilves, Ryan K Schott, Gianni M Castiglione, Hernán López-Fernández, Belinda S W Chang
Cichlids encompass one of the most diverse groups of fishes in South and Central America, and show extensive variation in life history, morphology, and colouration. While studies of visual system evolution in cichlids have focussed largely on the African rift lake species flocks, Neotropical cichlids offer a unique opportunity to investigate visual system evolution at broader temporal and geographic scales. South American cichlid colonization of Central America has likely promoted accelerated rates of morphological evolution in Central American lineages as they encountered reduced competition, renewed ecological opportunity, and novel aquatic habitats...
October 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952157/digest-frog-spots-show-broken-receptors-might-work-harder
#19
Theresa M Grieco
Posso-Terranova and Andrés (2017) used harlequin poison frogs to investigate the genetic basis of pigmentation evolution and variation. Using a candidate gene approach, they clearly delimited the origins and distribution of MC1R haplotypes and associated them with key pigmentation phenotypes on multiple levels. They demonstrated that MC1R-related cellular phenotypes and associated protein truncations evolved at least twice to produce dark dorsal skin colors in different clades.
November 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949044/a-functional-zeaxanthin-epoxidase-from-red-algae-shedding-light-on-the-evolution-of-light-harvesting-carotenoids-and-the-xanthophyll-cycle-in-photosynthetic-eukaryotes
#20
Oliver Dautermann, Martin Lohr
The epoxy-xanthophylls antheraxanthin and violaxanthin are key precursors of light-harvesting carotenoids and participate in the photoprotective xanthophyll cycle. Thus, the invention of zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) catalyzing their formation from zeaxanthin has been a fundamental step in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. ZEP genes have only been found in Viridiplantae and chromalveolate algae with secondary plastids of red algal ancestry, suggesting that ZEP evolved in the Viridiplantae and spread to chromalveolates by lateral gene transfer...
September 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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