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Pigment evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088020/sulphur-alters-chromium-vi-toxicity-in-solanum-melongena-seedlings-role-of-sulphur-assimilation-and-sulphur-containing-antioxidants
#1
Madhulika Singh, Bishwajit Kumar Kushwaha, Samiksha Singh, Vipin Kumar, Vijay Pratap Singh, Sheo Mohan Prasad
The present study investigates modulation in hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI) 25 μM] toxicity by sulphur (S; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM S as low (LS), medium (MS) and high sulphur (HS), respectively) in Solanum melongena (eggplant) seedlings. Biomass accumulation (fresh and dry weights), photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic oxygen evolution and S content were declined by Cr(VI) toxicity. Furthermore, fluorescence characteristics (JIP-test) were also affected by Cr(VI), but Cr(VI) toxicity on photosystem II photochemistry was ameliorated by HS treatment via reducing damaging effect on PS II reaction centre and its reduction side...
December 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078486/two-nadph-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase-por-isoforms-play-distinct-roles-in-environmental-adaptation-in-rice
#2
Choon-Tak Kwon, Suk-Hwan Kim, Giha Song, Dami Kim, Nam-Chon Paek
BACKGROUND: NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067720/swept-source-optical-coherence-tomography-evaluation-of-chorioretinal-changes-in-hypertensive-choroidopathy-related-to-hellp-syndrome
#3
Daniel Velazquez-Villoria, Pablo Marti Rodrigo, Maria L DeNicola, Miguel A Zapata Vitori, Antonio Segura García, Jose García-Arumí
PURPOSE: To report a case of hypertensive choroidopathy with detailed chorioretinal images obtained using swept source optical coherence tomography. METHODS: We report the case of a 36-year-old pregnant woman who presented with extensive bilateral exudative retinal detachments (visual acuity of hands movement bilaterally), high blood pressure, and severe alteration of the laboratory test results resulting in the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome. The baby was delivered by emergency cesarean section and the patient was hospitalized in the intensive care unit...
January 6, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065296/patterns-and-drivers-of-egg-pigment-intensity-and-colour-diversity-in-the-ocean-a-meta-analysis-of-phylum-echinodermata
#4
E M Montgomery, J-F Hamel, A Mercier
Egg pigmentation is proposed to serve numerous ecological, physiological, and adaptive functions in egg-laying animals. Despite the predominance and taxonomic diversity of egg layers, syntheses reviewing the putative functions and drivers of egg pigmentation have been relatively narrow in scope, centring almost exclusively on birds. Nonvertebrate and aquatic species are essentially overlooked, yet many of them produce maternally provisioned eggs in strikingly varied colours, from pale yellow to bright red or green...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058680/quantum-classical-model-of-retinal-photoisomerization-reaction-in-visual-pigment-rhodopsin
#5
V D Lakhno, A S Shigaev, T B Feldman, V A Nadtochenko, M A Ostrovsky
A quantum-classical model of photoisomerization of the visual pigment rhodopsin chromophore is proposed. At certain (and more realistic) parameter value combinations, the model is shown to accurately reproduce a number of independent experimental data on the photoreaction dynamics: the quantum yield, the time to reach the point of conical intersection of potential energy surfaces, the termination time of the evolution of quantum subsystem, as well as the characteristic low frequencies of retinal molecular lattice fluctuations during photoisomerization...
November 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057690/related-allopolyploids-display-distinct-floral-pigment-profiles-and-transgressive-pigments
#6
Elizabeth W McCarthy, Andrea E Berardi, Stacey D Smith, Amy Litt
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. METHODS: We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035811/revealing-the-nature-and-distribution-of-metal-carboxylates-in-jackson-pollock-s-alchemy-1947-by-micro-attenuated-total-reflection-ft-ir-spectroscopic-imaging
#7
Francesca Gabrieli, Francesca Rosi, Alessandra Vichi, Laura Cartechini, Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Sergei G Kazarian, Costanza Miliani
Protrusions, efflorescence, delamination, and opacity decreasing are severe degradation phenomena affecting oil paints with zinc oxide, one of the most common white pigments of the 20th century. Responsible for these dramatic alterations are the Zn carboxylates (also known as Zn soaps) originated by the interaction of the pigment and the fatty acids resulting from the hydrolysis of glycerides in the oil binding medium. Despite their widespread occurrence in paintings and the growing interest of the scientific community, the process of formation and evolution of Zn soaps is not yet fully understood...
December 28, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027432/an-allelic-series-at-pax7a-is-associated-with-color-polymorphism-diversity-in-lake-malawi-cichlid-fish
#8
Reade B Roberts, Emily C Moore, Thomas D Kocher
Despite longstanding interest in the evolution and maintenance of discrete phenotypic polymorphisms, the molecular genetic basis of such polymorphism in the wild is largely unknown. Female sex-associated blotched color polymorphisms found in cichlids of Lake Malawi, East Africa represent a highly successful polymorphic phenotype, found and maintained in four genera across the geographic expanse of the lake. Previously, we identified an association with an allelic variant of the paired-box transcription factor gene pax7a and blotched color morphs in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018399/the-onion-allium-cepa-l-r2r3-myb-gene-myb1-regulates-anthocyanin-biosynthesis
#9
Kathy E Schwinn, Hanh Ngo, Fernand Kenel, David A Brummell, Nick W Albert, John A McCallum, Meeghan Pither-Joyce, Ross N Crowhurst, Colin Eady, Kevin M Davies
Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009054/new-icing-media-for-quality-enhancement-of-chilled-hake-merluccius-merluccius-using-a-jumbo-squid-dosidicus-gigas-skin-extract
#10
Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer, José M Miranda, Jesús Enrique Chan-Higuera, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Santiago P Aubourg
BACKGROUD: An advanced strategy for chilled fish preservation, based on the inclusion in ice of an extract of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin (JSS), is proposed. Aqueous solutions including acetic acid-ethanol extracts of JSS were tested at two different concentrations as icing media, being the effects on the quality evolution of chilled hake (Merluccius merluccius) monitored. RESULTS: A significant inhibition (p < 0.05) of microbial activity (aerobes, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, proteolytic bacteria; pH, trimethylamine) was obtained in hake corresponding to the icing batch including the highest JSS concentration...
December 23, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005664/retinal-pigment-epithelium-aperture-a-previously-unreported-finding-in-the-evolution-of-avascular-pigment-epithelium-detachment
#11
Giuseppe Querques, Vittorio Capuano, Eliana Costanzo, Federico Corvi, Lea Querques, Ugo Introini, Eric H Souied, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To describe retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) aperture and to generate hypotheses about pathogenesis of this previously unreported finding in the evolution of avascular pigment epithelium detachment (PED) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: Medical records and multimodal imaging results from 10 patients with RPE apertures were reviewed between January 2009 and December 2014 by 2 institutions. Main outcome measures were analysis of RPE aperture imaging characteristics, including aperture areas and PED diameters, and their temporal course...
December 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997050/why-uv-and-red-vision-are-important-for-damselfish-pomacentridae-structural-and-expression-variation-in-opsin-genes
#12
Sara M Stieb, Fabio Cortesi, Lorenz Sueess, Karen L Carleton, Walter Salzburger, N Justin Marshall
Coral reefs belong to the most diverse ecosystems on our planet. The diversity in coloration and lifestyles of coral reef fishes makes them a particularly promising system to study the role of visual communication and adaptation. Here, we investigated the evolution of visual pigment genes (opsins) in damselfish (Pomacentridae), and examined whether structural and expression variation of opsins can be linked to ecology. Using DNA sequence data of a phylogenetically representative set of 31 damselfish species, we show that all but one visual opsin are evolving under positive selection...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994128/cavefish-and-the-basis-for-eye-loss
#13
REVIEW
Jaya Krishnan, Nicolas Rohner
Animals have colonized the entire world from rather moderate to the harshest environments, some of these so extreme that only few animals are able to survive. Cave environments present such a challenge and obligate cave animals have adapted to perpetual darkness by evolving a multitude of traits. The most common and most studied cave characteristics are the regression of eyes and the overall reduction in pigmentation. Studying these traits can provide important insights into how evolutionary forces drive convergent and regressive adaptation...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984027/generating-functional-recombinant-nrps-enzymes-in-the-laboratory-setting-via-peptidyl-carrier-protein-engineering
#14
Jeremy G Owen, Mark J Calcott, Katherine J Robins, David F Ackerley
Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are modular enzymatic assembly lines where substrates and intermediates undergo rounds of transformation catalyzed by adenylation (A), condensation (C), and thioesterase (TE) domains. Central to the NRPS biosynthesis are peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains, small, catalytically inactive domains that shuttle substrates and intermediates between the catalytic modules and govern product release from TE domains. There is strong interest in recombination of NRPS systems to generate new chemical entities...
November 17, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918537/the-genome-and-transcriptome-of-japanese-flounder-provide-insights-into-flatfish-asymmetry
#15
Changwei Shao, Baolong Bao, Zhiyuan Xie, Xinye Chen, Bo Li, Xiaodong Jia, Qiulin Yao, Guillermo Ortí, Wenhui Li, Xihong Li, Kristin Hamre, Juan Xu, Lei Wang, Fangyuan Chen, Yongsheng Tian, Alex M Schreiber, Na Wang, Fen Wei, Jilin Zhang, Zhongdian Dong, Lei Gao, Junwei Gai, Takashi Sakamoto, Sudong Mo, Wenjun Chen, Qiong Shi, Hui Li, Yunji Xiu, Yangzhen Li, Wenteng Xu, Zhiyi Shi, Guojie Zhang, Deborah M Power, Qingyin Wang, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Flatfish have the most extreme asymmetric body morphology of vertebrates. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the contralateral side of the skull, and this migration is accompanied by extensive craniofacial transformations and simultaneous development of lopsided body pigmentation. The evolution of this developmental and physiological innovation remains enigmatic. Comparative genomics of two flatfish and transcriptomic analyses during metamorphosis point to a role for thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling, as well as phototransduction pathways...
January 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871088/structure-of-photosystem-ii-and-substrate-binding-at-room-temperature
#16
Iris D Young, Mohamed Ibrahim, Ruchira Chatterjee, Sheraz Gul, Franklin D Fuller, Sergey Koroidov, Aaron S Brewster, Rosalie Tran, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Thomas Kroll, Tara Michels-Clark, Hartawan Laksmono, Raymond G Sierra, Claudiu A Stan, Rana Hussein, Miao Zhang, Lacey Douthit, Markus Kubin, Casper de Lichtenberg, Long Vo Pham, Håkan Nilsson, Mun Hon Cheah, Dmitriy Shevela, Claudio Saracini, Mackenzie A Bean, Ina Seuffert, Dimosthenis Sokaras, Tsu-Chien Weng, Ernest Pastor, Clemens Weninger, Thomas Fransson, Louise Lassalle, Philipp Bräuer, Pierre Aller, Peter T Docker, Babak Andi, Allen M Orville, James M Glownia, Silke Nelson, Marcin Sikorski, Diling Zhu, Mark S Hunter, Thomas J Lane, Andy Aquila, Jason E Koglin, Joseph Robinson, Mengning Liang, Sébastien Boutet, Artem Y Lyubimov, Monarin Uervirojnangkoorn, Nigel W Moriarty, Dorothee Liebschner, Pavel V Afonine, David G Waterman, Gwyndaf Evans, Philippe Wernet, Holger Dobbek, William I Weis, Axel T Brunger, Petrus H Zwart, Paul D Adams, Athina Zouni, Johannes Messinger, Uwe Bergmann, Nicholas K Sauter, Jan Kern, Vittal K Yachandra, Junko Yano
Light-induced oxidation of water by photosystem II (PS II) in plants, algae and cyanobacteria has generated most of the dioxygen in the atmosphere. PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction centre with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). Under illumination, the OEC cycles through five intermediate S-states (S0 to S4), in which S1 is the dark-stable state and S3 is the last semi-stable state before O-O bond formation and O2 evolution...
December 15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866864/anatomical-histochemical-and-immunohistochemical-characterisation-of-the-cardiac-outflow-tract-of-the-silver-arowana-osteoglossum-bicirrhosum-teleostei-osteoglossiformes
#17
Miguel Lorenzale, Miguel A López-Unzu, M Carmen Fernández, Ana C Durán, Borja Fernández, M Teresa Soto-Navarrete, Valentín Sans-Coma
The cardiac outflow tract of chondrichthyans and actinopterygians is composed of a myocardial conus arteriosus and a non-myocardial bulbus arteriosus. In teleosts, the conus has been subjected to a reduction in size over the evolution in conjunction with the further development of the bulbus. Most studies on the outflow tract of the teleost heart refer to species of modern groups and are mainly devoted to the bulbus. Knowledge on the outflow tract of species belonging to early teleost groups is scarce. The aim here was to characterise the structure of the cardiac outflow tract of the silver arowana, a representative of the ancient teleost clade of the Osteoglossomorpha...
September 28, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824724/multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome-with-central-visual-loss
#18
Gaetano R Barile, Sarah A Harmon
PURPOSE: To report the clinical case of a 64-year-old man who developed several features of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) but with central visual loss that persisted because of significant structural macular disease. METHODS: A case report was generated by a review of the clinical course and imaging investigations of one patient, along with review of the literature. RESULTS: A 64-year-old man noted decreased vision in the right eye for 2 weeks, associated with a central scotoma with shimmering, gauze effect of the vision...
January 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814569/deciphering-the-ecophysiological-traits-involved-during-water-stress-acclimation-and-recovery-of-the-threatened-wild-carnation-dianthus-inoxianus
#19
Javier López-Jurado, Francisco Balao, Enrique Mateos-Naranjo
Dianthus inoxianus is an endangered species endemic from a small littoral area in the SW Spain, with an unusual flowering season under the adverse conditions of dry Mediterranean summer. A greenhouse experiment was designed to assess the physiological traits involved in drought acclimation and recovery of 3-month-old plants. The evolution of plant water status, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments concentrations and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations were followed during water stress and re-watering...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806375/developmental-mechanisms-of-stripe-patterns-in-rodents
#20
Ricardo Mallarino, Corneliu Henegar, Mercedes Mirasierra, Marie Manceau, Carsten Schradin, Mario Vallejo, Slobodan Beronja, Gregory S Barsh, Hopi E Hoekstra
Mammalian colour patterns are among the most recognizable characteristics found in nature and can have a profound impact on fitness. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and subsequent evolution of these patterns. Here we show that, in the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio), periodic dorsal stripes result from underlying differences in melanocyte maturation, which give rise to spatial variation in hair colour. We identify the transcription factor ALX3 as a regulator of this process...
November 24, 2016: Nature
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