keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Melanocyte evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806375/developmental-mechanisms-of-stripe-patterns-in-rodents
#1
Ricardo Mallarino, Corneliu Henegar, Mercedes Mirasierra, Marie Manceau, Carsten Schradin, Mario Vallejo, Slobodan Beronja, Gregory S Barsh, Hopi E Hoekstra
Mammalian colour patterns are among the most recognizable characteristics found in nature and can have a profound impact on fitness. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and subsequent evolution of these patterns. Here we show that, in the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio), periodic dorsal stripes result from underlying differences in melanocyte maturation, which give rise to spatial variation in hair colour. We identify the transcription factor ALX3 as a regulator of this process...
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699140/an-orbital-malignant-melanoma-arising-in-cellular-blue-nevus-in-a-patient-with-nevus-of-ota
#2
Talayesa Buntinx-Krieg, Jie Ouyang, Mont Cartwright
Melanomas arising from orbital melanocytic proliferations are exceedingly rare. Many questions remain regarding their development and malignant transformation. We report on a 45-year-old Caucasian woman with a nevus of Ota that presented with visual disturbances involving her right eye and was found to have a biopsy-proven cellular blue nevus in the orbital space. Five years later, she presented with proptosis and worsening symptoms. Biopsy at that time showed a cellular blue nevus with areas of melanoma. We conclude that patients with a nevus of Ota or an orbital cellular blue nevus, particularly Caucasians, should be monitored for ocular/orbital involvement and followed closely for signs of rapid growth...
July 18, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698666/in-silico-analysis-of-gene-expression-network-components-underlying-pigmentation-phenotypes-in-the-python-identified-evolutionarily-conserved-clusters-of-transcription-factor-binding-sites
#3
Kristopher J L Irizarry, Randall L Bryden
Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mammalian pigmentation phenotypes may also be important in python pigmentation phenotypes...
2016: Advances in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680950/molecular-bases-of-k-secretory-cells-in-the-inner-ear-shared-and-distinct-features-between-birds-and-mammals
#4
Viviane Wilms, Christine Köppl, Chris Söffgen, Anna-Maria Hartmann, Hans Gerd Nothwang
In the cochlea, mammals maintain a uniquely high endolymphatic potential (EP), which is not observed in other vertebrate groups. However, a high [K(+)] is always present in the inner ear endolymph. Here, we show that Kir4.1, which is required in the mammalian stria vascularis to generate the highly positive EP, is absent in the functionally equivalent avian tegmentum vasculosum. In contrast, the molecular repertoire required for K(+) secretion, specifically NKCC1, KCNQ1, KCNE1, BSND and CLC-K, is shared between the tegmentum vasculosum, the vestibular dark cells and the marginal cells of the stria vascularis...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638875/commentary-on-almassalha-et-al-the-greater-genomic-landscape-the-heterogeneous-evolution-of-cancer
#5
Henry T Lynch, Marc Rendell, Trudy G Shaw, Peter Silberstein, Binh T Ngo
In this issue of Cancer Research, Almassalha and colleagues have proposed a new concept of the development of malignancy, that of the greater genomic landscape. They propose a stressor-related exploration of intracellular genomic sites as a response mechanism. This process can express sites with beneficial or deleterious effects, among them those that promote cell proliferation. They point out that their conception is broader, although certainly inclusive, of the process of gene induction. The authors view the physical process of chromatin reorganization as central to the exploration of the genomic landscape...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447175/targeting-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-and-malignant-skin-diseases-an-historical-view-and-outlook
#6
Jörg Reichrath, Christos C Zouboulis, Thomas Vogt, Michael F Holick
Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
July 22, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430613/pediatric-melanomas-often-mimic-benign-skin-lesions-a-retrospective-study
#7
Mario Mitkov, Marie Chrest, Nancy N Diehl, Michael G Heckman, Megha Tollefson, Anokhi Jambusaria-Pahlajani
BACKGROUND: Childhood melanoma can be misdiagnosed because of its rarity and atypical presentation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to correlate the clinical appearance of pediatric melanomas with Breslow depth and clinical behavior, and to identify diagnostic errors made by dermatologists and nondermatologist physicians. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of Mayo Clinic records of children and young adults 21 years of age or younger with a diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma between January 2000 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354886/correlation-between-the-evaluation-of-pigmented-lesions-by-a-multi-spectral-digital-skin-lesion-analysis-device-and-the-clinical-and-histological-features-of-melanoma
#8
Richard R Winkelmann, Darrell S Rigel, Laura Ferris, Arthur Sober, Natalie Tucker, Clay J Cockerell
OBJECTIVE: To correlate Multi-spectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis classifier scores with histopathological severity of pigmented lesions and clinical features of melanoma. DESIGN: Classifier scores were computed for 1,632 skin lesions. Dermatologists evaluated the same lesions for Asymmetry, Border Irregularity, Color variegation, Diameter >6mm, Evolution, Patient's Concern, Regression, and/or "Ugly Duckling" sign. Classifier scores were correlated to the number of clinical risk features and for six histopathological severity levels of pigmented lesions...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27349893/a-de-novo-silencer-causes-elimination-of-mitf-m-expression-and-profound-hearing-loss-in-pigs
#9
Lei Chen, Weiwei Guo, Lili Ren, Mingyao Yang, Yaofeng Zhao, Zongyi Guo, Haijin Yi, Mingzhou Li, Yiqing Hu, Xi Long, Boyuan Sun, Jinxiu Li, Suoqiang Zhai, Tinghuan Zhang, Shilin Tian, Qingyong Meng, Ning Yu, Dan Zhu, Guoqing Tang, Qianzi Tang, Liming Ren, Ke Liu, Shihua Zhang, Tiandong Che, Zhengquan Yu, Nan Wu, Lan Jing, Ran Zhang, Tao Cong, Siqing Chen, Yiqiang Zhao, Yue Zhang, Xiaoqing Bai, Ying Guo, Lidong Zhao, Fengming Zhang, Hui Zhao, Liang Zhang, Zhaohui Hou, Jiugang Zhao, Jianan Li, Lijuan Zhang, Wei Sun, Xiangang Zou, Tao Wang, Liangpeng Ge, Zuohua Liu, Xiaoxiang Hu, Jingyong Wang, Shiming Yang, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: Genesis of novel gene regulatory modules is largely responsible for morphological and functional evolution. De novo generation of novel cis-regulatory elements (CREs) is much rarer than genomic events that alter existing CREs such as transposition, promoter switching or co-option. Only one case of de novo generation has been reported to date, in fish and without involvement of phenotype alteration. Yet, this event likely occurs in other animals and helps drive genetic/phenotypic variation...
2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27348579/cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-in-children-and-adolescents-treated-in-pediatric-oncology-units
#10
Yves Réguerre, Marie Vittaz, Daniel Orbach, Caroline Robert, Christine Bodemer, Christina Mateus, Dominique Plantaz, Emmanuel Plouvier, Patrick Lutz, Josue Rakotonjanahary, Sylvie Fraitag, Ludovic Martin
OBJECTIVES: Recent progress in the understanding of tumor biology and new targeted therapies has led to improved survival in adults with malignant melanoma (MM). MM is rare in children, especially before puberty. We report here our experience with pediatric patients with MM, describe the clinical presentation, treatment and evolution, and compare prepubescent and postpubescent disease. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive, national multicenter study was undertaken of 52 cases of MM in children and adolescents...
November 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324932/basis-for-the-gain-and-subsequent-dilution-of-epidermal-pigmentation-during-human-evolution-the-barrier-and-metabolic-conservation-hypotheses-revisited
#11
Peter M Elias, Mary L Williams
The evolution of human skin pigmentation must address both the initial evolution of intense epidermal pigmentation in hominins, and its subsequent dilution in modern humans. While many authorities believe that epidermal pigmentation evolved to protect against either ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation-induced mutagenesis or folic acid photolysis, we hypothesize that pigmentation augmented the epidermal barriers by shifting the UV-B dose-response curve from toxic to beneficial. Whereas erythemogenic UV-B doses produce apoptosis and cell death, suberythemogenic doses benefit permeability and antimicrobial function...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27319310/primary-amelanotic-leptomeningeal-melanomatosis-in-a-child-a-rare-but-severe-disease
#12
Alexandru Szathmari, Romain Perbet, Marc Hermier, Federico Di Rocco, Didier Frappaz, Carmine Mottolese
BACKGROUND: Primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis (PLM) is a rare and aggressive form of nonmetastatic invasion of leptomeninges by malignant melanocytic cells. Clinical presentation includes nonspecific meningism with various forms of cerebrospinal fluid circulation or absorption disorders leading to hydrocephalus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 5-year-old child with PLM without neurocutaneous melanosis presented with cystic enlargement of the brainstem surrounding cisterns and hydrocephalus requiring occipitoaxial decompression and endoscopic cystostomy...
August 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274625/skin-pigmentation-and-pigmentary-disorders-focus-on-epidermal-dermal-cross-talk
#13
REVIEW
Emanuela Bastonini, Daniela Kovacs, Mauro Picardo
Variation in human skin and hair color is the most notable aspect of human variability and several studies in evolution, genetics and developmental biology contributed to explain the mechanisms underlying human skin pigmentation, which is responsible for differences in skin color across the world's populations. Despite skin pigmentation is primarily related to melanocytes functionality, the surrounding keratinocytes and extracellular matrix proteins and fibroblasts in the underlying dermal compartment actively contribute to cutaneous homeostasis...
June 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27125352/from-melanocytes-to-melanomas
#14
A Hunter Shain, Boris C Bastian
Melanomas on sun-exposed skin are heterogeneous tumours, which can be subtyped on the basis of their cumulative levels of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. A melanocytic neoplasm can also be staged by how far it has progressed, ranging from a benign neoplasm, such as a naevus, to a malignant neoplasm, such as a metastatic melanoma. Each subtype of melanoma can evolve through distinct evolutionary trajectories, passing through (or sometimes skipping over) various stages of transformation. This Review delineates several of the more common progression trajectories that occur in the patient setting and proposes models for tumour evolution that integrate genetic, histopathological, clinical and biological insights from the melanoma literature...
June 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977047/human-pigmentation-cutaneous-vitamin-d-synthesis-and-evolution-variants-of-genes-snps-involved-in-skin-pigmentation-are-associated-with-25-oh-d-serum-concentration
#15
Willi Rossberg, Roman Saternus, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Marcus Kleber, Winfried März, Sandra Reichrath, Thomas Vogt, Jörg Reichrath
Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with higher risk for and unfavourable outcome of many diseases. Limited data exist on genetic determinants of serum 25(OH)D concentration. In a cohort of the LURIC study (n=2974, median 25(OH)D concentration 15.5 ng/ml), we tested the hypothesis that variants (SNPs, n=244) of several genes (n=15) involved in different aspects of skin pigmentation, including melanosomal biogenesis (ATP7A, DTNBP1, BLOC1S5, PLDN, PMEL), melanosomal transport within melanocytes (RAB27A, MYO5A, MLPH); or various melanocyte signaling pathways (MC1R, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, DKK1, RACK1, CNR1) are predictive of serum 25(OH)D levels...
March 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962743/the-genetic-evolution-of-melanoma
#16
LETTER
Dan Lipsker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962742/the-genetic-evolution-of-melanoma
#17
LETTER
Christine G Lian, George F Murphy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962741/the-genetic-evolution-of-melanoma
#18
LETTER
Maressa C Criscito, David Polsky, Jennifer A Stein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962740/the-genetic-evolution-of-melanoma
#19
LETTER
A Hunter Shain, Boris C Bastian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26916163/the-melanocortin-receptor-system-a-target-for-multiple-degenerative-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Minying Cai, Victor J Hruby
The melanocortin receptor system consists of five closely related G-protein coupled receptors (MC1R, MC2R, MC3R, MC4R and MC5R). These receptors are involved in many of the key biological functions for multicellular animals, including human beings. The natural agonist ligands for these receptors are derived by processing of a primordial animal gene product, proopiomelanocortin (POMC). The ligand for the MC2R is ACTH (Adrenal Corticotropic Hormone), a larger processed peptide from POMC. The natural ligands for the other 4 melanocortin receptors are smaller peptides including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and related peptides from POMC (β-MSH and γ-MSH)...
2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
keyword
keyword
87353
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"