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Rudolf Nieuwenhuys
Morphological and genoarchitectonic studies have conclusively shown that the human brain (and that of all vertebrates) is segmented i. e. is fundamentally composed of a number of rostrocaudally arranged brain segments or neuromeres. However in the current neuroimaging literature the term segmentation, derived initially from computer graphics technology, is used instead to indicate the neuroanatomical parcellation or subdivision of neural structures in the fully formed brain, especially the cortex. The neuroimaging community should be aware of the prior use of this term in the parallel discipline of neuroembryology, and should use a different one e...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
Peter T Dorsher, Poney Chiang
Background: Accumulating evidence from anatomical, physiologic, and neuroimaging research shows that Classical acupuncture points stimulate nerve trunks or their branches in the head, trunk, and extremities. The first part of this series revealed that phenomenon in the extremities. Principal meridian distributions mirror those of major peripheral nerves there and Classical acupuncture points are proximate to peripheral nerves there. These relationships were shown to be consistent with the linear neuroembryologic development of the extremities...
April 1, 2018: Medical Acupuncture
Mobin Ibne Mokbul
Optical coherence tomography is a micrometer-scale imaging modality that permits label-free, cross-sectional imaging of biological tissue microstructure using tissue backscattering properties. After its invention in the 1990s, OCT is now being widely used in several branches of neuroscience as well as other fields of biomedical science. This review study reports an overview of OCT's applications in several branches or subbranches of neuroscience such as neuroimaging, neurology, neurosurgery, neuropathology, and neuroembryology...
2017: Journal of Medical Engineering
Diana Darnell, Scott F Gilbert
How is it that some cells become neurons? And how is it that neurons become organized in the spinal cord and brain to allow us to walk and talk, to see, recall events in our lives, feel pain, keep our balance, and think? The cells that are specified to form the brain and spinal cord are originally located on the outside surface of the embryo. They loop inward to form the neural tube in a process called neurulation. Structures that are nearby send signals to the posterior neural tube to form and pattern the spinal cord so that the dorsal side receives sensory input and the ventral side sends motor signals from neurons to muscles...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Lana Vasung, Claude Lepage, Milan Radoš, Mihovil Pletikos, Jennifer S Goldman, Jonas Richiardi, Marina Raguž, Elda Fischi-Gómez, Sherif Karama, Petra S Huppi, Alan C Evans, Ivica Kostovic
The cerebral wall of the human fetal brain is composed of transient cellular compartments, which show characteristic spatiotemporal relationships with intensity of major neurogenic events (cell proliferation, migration, axonal growth, dendritic differentiation, synaptogenesis, cell death, and myelination). The aim of the present study was to obtain new quantitative data describing volume, surface area, and thickness of transient compartments in the human fetal cerebrum. Forty-four postmortem fetal brains aged 13-40 postconceptional weeks (PCW) were included in this study...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Ingmar Blümcke, Harvey B Sarnat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic studies in focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCD II) provided ample evidence for somatic mutations in genes associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Interestingly, the mTOR pathway can also be activated by the E6 oncogene of human papilloma viruses, and available data in FCD II remain controversial. We review and discuss the contradicting etiologies. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuroembryologic basis of cortical development and timing of a somatic mutation occurring in proliferating neuroblasts can mechanistically link mTORopathies...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Cerebral malformations are best understood as abnormal tissue morphogenesis in the context of disorders of ontogenesis. In neuroembryology, the timing of onset and duration of abnormal genetic expression and neurodevelopmental processes are primordial and must always be assessed, regardless whether the dysgenesis is primarily genetic in origin or acquired in utero due to ischemia, fetal infarcts that interrupt cellular migration or exposure to teratogenic drugs or neurotoxins. Defective timing interferes with the synchrony between different developmental processes, such as synaptogenesis in relation to other aspects of neuronal maturation...
2014: Progress in Brain Research
Lawrence A Zeidman, Jaap Cohen
Dutch neuroscientist Cornelius Ubbo Ariëns Kappers is famous for pioneering neuroembryological work and for establishing the Amsterdam Central Institute for Brain Research. Less well known is his anthropological work, which ultimately played a role in saving Dutch Jews from deportation to their deaths during the Holocaust. Ariëns Kappers extensively campaigned against anti-Semitism and Nazi persecution during the 1930s. During World War II, he utilized his credentials to help create anthropological reports "proving" full-Jews were "actually" partial- or non-Jews to evade Nazi criteria, and at least 300 Jews were thus saved by Ariëns Kappers and colleagues...
2014: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Timothy Uschold, David S Xu, David A Wilson, Adib A Abla, Peter Nakaji, Robert F Spetzler, Steve W Chang
OBJECTIVE: Neurenteric cysts (NECs) are uncommonly encountered lesions of the central nervous system with heterogeneous imaging characteristics. The object of this study was to review the preoperative imaging findings represented among a cohort of surgically treated posterior fossa NECs. These findings are considered in the context of surgical technique, and inform an understanding of aberrant neuroembryological development associated with NECs. METHODS: A single-institution, multisurgeon series of 7 consecutive patients (5 female and 2 male patients, mean age 36 years, range 19 to 57 years) treated surgically for histopathologically confirmed posterior fossa NECs was retrospectively reviewed...
September 2014: World Neurosurgery
Juan C Jiménez-León, Yaline M Betancourt-Fursow, Cristina S Jiménez-Betancourt
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them...
September 6, 2013: Revista de Neurologia
Harvey B Sarnat
This review surveys immunocytochemical and histochemical markers of neuronal lineage for application to tissue sections of fetal and neonatal brain. They determine maturation of individual nerve cells as the tissue progresses to mature architecture. From a developmental perspective, neuronal markers are all about timing. These diverse cellular labels may be classified in two ways: 1) time of onset of expression (early; intermediate; late); 2) labeling of subcellular structures or metabolic functions (nucleoproteins; synaptic vesicle proteins; enolases; cytoskeletal elements; calcium-binding; nucleic acids; mitochondria)...
September 2013: Clinical Neuropathology
Harvey B Sarnat, Laura Flores-Sarnat
Modern neuroembryology integrates descriptive morphogenesis with more recent insight into molecular genetic programing and data enabled by cell-specific tissue markers that further define histogenesis. Maturation of individual neurons involves the development of energy pumps to maintain membrane excitability, ion channels, and membrane receptors. Most malformations of the nervous system are best understood in the context of aberrations of normal developmental processes that result in abnormal structure and function...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Robert H A Haslam
A thorough but focused history and neurological examination remain the most important initial elements of neurological diagnosis at all ages. Advances over the past two decades in clinical neurophysiology, neuroimaging, genetics, and neuropathological examination of tissue have at times appeared to predominate over traditional history and physical exam, but no laboratory studies can provide the focus and clues to diagnosis that clinical findings offer. History taking and the techniques of neurological examination are skills to be learned by the student, refined by the resident, and practiced and perfected throughout the career of a pediatric neurologist...
2013: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Dean A Hertzler, John J DePowell, Charles B Stevenson, Francesco T Mangano
Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a clinical condition of various origins that arises from tension on the spinal cord. Radiographic findings may include the conus medullaris in a lower than normal position, fatty infiltration of the filum terminale, lipomyelomeningocele, myelomeningocele, myelocystocele, meningocele, split cord malformations, dermal sinus, anorectal malformations, and intraspinal tumors. The clinical constellation of signs and symptoms associated with TCS may include dermatologic, urological, gastrointestinal, neurological, and orthopedic findings...
July 2010: Neurosurgical Focus
Ivica Kostović, Milos Judas
UNLABELLED: The aim of this review is to present clinically relevant data on prenatal development of thalamocortical connections in the human brain. The analysis is based on extensive Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection, including more than 500 prenatal human brains stained with various classical neurohistological, as well as modern histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The connection of thalamocortical axons during the 'waiting' period with transient cortical subplate zone and subsequent synaptic engagement in the cortical plate is the main connectivity event in the late foetus and preterm infant...
August 2010: Acta Paediatrica
Harvey B Sarnat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2010: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Luis Puelles
The contributions of Cajal to Neuroembryology are glossed with the help of a selection of images extracted from Cajals (1929) own synthesis of his neuroembryological output, laying emphasis on the persisting relevance and unsurpassed quality of many individual achievements and milestones he delivered on neurohistogenesis, practically throughout his career. Cajals theoretical background as regards embryology, morphology, comparative neuroanatomy and evolution is sketched at the beginning. The body of the review is divided into sections covering spinal cord, cerebellum, cortex, retina, sensory organs and muscular terminals, and astroglia...
2009: International Journal of Developmental Biology
Ember L Ewings, Michael H Carstens
The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields...
October 2009: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Mohammadali M Shoja, Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
INTRODUCTION: The contributions to neuroanatomy by the Swiss scientist Wilhelm His, Sr. (1831-1904) are underrepresented in the literature. DISCUSSION: The present paper will discuss the life and writings of this pioneer of the neurosciences who expanded our knowledge of neurohistology and neuroembryology.
December 2009: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Manuel A Pombal, Manuel Megías, Sylvia M Bardet, Luis Puelles
Ten years ago, we published the first detailed prosomeric map of the forebrain in lampreys. In the interim, the prosomeric model has been modified and simplified to better explain numerous data on the expression patterns of regulatory genes, as well as data from chemical, hodological and neuroembryological experiments, mostly in amniote vertebrates. In this report we first review the main historical concepts of lamprey forebrain organization, relating them to either columnar- or segmental-influenced models and explicit or implicit axial references...
2009: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
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