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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098781/distinct-neurotoxicity-profile-of-listeriolysin-o-from-listeria-monocytogenes
#1
Jana Maurer, Sabrina Hupp, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Foertsch, Timothy J Mitchell, Trinad Chakraborty, Asparouh I Iliev
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087822/amygdala-and-hippocampus-are-symptomatogenic-zones-for-central-apneic-seizures
#2
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Luisa Londono, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: To identify limbic sites of respiratory control in the human brain, and by extension, the symptomatogenic zone for central apnea. METHODS: We used direct stimulation of anatomically, precisely placed stereotactic EEG electrodes to analyze breathing responses. We prospectively studied 3 patients who were explored with stereotactically implanted depth electrodes. The amygdala and hippocampus, as well as extralimbic sites (orbitofrontal, temporal tip, and temporal neocortex), were investigated...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077713/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#4
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under pathological conditions, such as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries, ranging from severe to mild...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074856/local-field-potentials-primarily-reflect-inhibitory-neuron-activity-in-human-and-monkey-cortex
#5
Bartosz Teleńczuk, Nima Dehghani, Michel Le Van Quyen, Sydney S Cash, Eric Halgren, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Alain Destexhe
The local field potential (LFP) is generated by large populations of neurons, but unitary contribution of spiking neurons to LFP is not well characterised. We investigated this contribution in multi-electrode array recordings from human and monkey neocortex by examining the spike-triggered LFP average (st-LFP). The resulting st-LFPs were dominated by broad spatio-temporal components due to ongoing activity, synaptic inputs and recurrent connectivity. To reduce the spatial reach of the st-LFP and observe the local field related to a single spike we applied a spatial filter, whose weights were adapted to the covariance of ongoing LFP...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064015/cognitive-memory-and-mapping-in-a-brain-like-system-for-robotic-navigation
#6
Huajin Tang, Weiwei Huang, Aditya Narayanamoorthy, Rui Yan
Electrophysiological studies in animals may provide a great insight into developing brain-like models of spatial cognition for robots. These studies suggest that the spatial ability of animals requires proper functioning of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex (EC). The involvement of the hippocampus in spatial cognition has been extensively studied, both in animal as well as in theoretical studies, such as in the brain-based models by Edelman and colleagues. In this work, we extend these earlier models, with a particular focus on the spatial coding properties of the EC and how it functions as an interface between the hippocampus and the neocortex, as proposed by previous work...
December 7, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060929/a-single-vector-platform-for-high-level-gene-transduction-of-central-neurons-adeno-associated-virus-vector-equipped-with-the-tet-off-system
#7
Jaerin Sohn, Megumu Takahashi, Shinichiro Okamoto, Yoko Ishida, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki
Visualization of neurons is indispensable for the investigation of neuronal circuits in the central nervous system. Virus vectors have been widely used for labeling particular subsets of neurons, and the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has gained popularity as a tool for gene transfer. Here, we developed a single AAV vector Tet-Off platform, AAV-SynTetOff, to improve the gene-transduction efficiency, specifically in neurons. The platform is composed of regulator and response elements in a single AAV genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060307/lateral-chronic-cranial-window-preparation-enables-in-vivo-observation-following-distal-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#8
Simon H Bayerl, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Thomas Broggini, Peter Vajkoczy, Vincent Prinz
Focal cerebral ischemia (i.e., ischemic stroke) may cause major brain injury, leading to a severe loss of neuronal function and consequently to a host of motor and cognitive disabilities. Its high prevalence poses a serious health burden, as stroke is among the principal causes of long-term disability and death worldwide(1). Recovery of neuronal function is, in most cases, only partial. So far, treatment options are very limited, in particular due to the narrow time window for thrombolysis(2,3). Determining methods to accelerate recovery from stroke remains a prime medical goal; however, this has been hampered by insufficient mechanistic insights into the recovery process...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053041/lhx2-interacts-with-the-nurd-complex-and-regulates-cortical-neuron-subtype-determinants-fezf2-and-sox11
#9
Bhavana Muralidharan, Zeba Khatri, Upasana Maheshwari, Ritika Gupta, Basabdatta Roy, Saurabh J Pradhan, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Hari Padmanabhan, Ashwin S Shetty, Chinthapalli Balaji, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam, Jeffrey D Macklis, Sanjeev Galande, Shubha Tole
: In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor LHX2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that LHX2 binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052244/brain-state-dependence-of-hippocampal-subthreshold-activity-in-awake-mice
#10
Brad K Hulse, Evgueniy V Lubenov, Athanassios G Siapas
Monitoring the membrane potential of individual neurons has uncovered how single-cell properties contribute to network processing across different brain states in neocortex. In contrast, the subthreshold modulation of hippocampal neurons by brain state has not been systematically characterized. To address this, we combined whole-cell recordings from dentate granule cells and CA1 pyramidal neurons with multisite extracellular recordings and behavioral measurements in awake mice. We show that the average membrane potential, amplitude of subthreshold fluctuations, and distance to spike threshold are all modulated by brain state...
January 3, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050973/behavioral-state-classification-in-epileptic-brain-using-intracranial-electrophysiology
#11
Vaclav Kremen, Juliano Duque, Benjamin Brinkmann, Brent Berry, Michal Kucewicz, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jamie Van Gompel, Squire Stead, Erik St Louis, Gregory A Worrell
OBJECTIVE: Automated behavioral state classification can benefit next generation implantable epilepsy devices. In this study we explored the feasibility of automated awake (AW) and slow wave sleep (SWS) classification using wide bandwidth intracranial EEG (iEEG) in patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. APPROACH: Data from seven patients (age 34+/-12, 4 women, 5 right handed) who underwent intracranial depth electrode implantation for iEEG monitoring were included...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041895/induction-of-expansion-and-folding-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#12
Yun Li, Julien Muffat, Attya Omer, Irene Bosch, Madeline A Lancaster, Mriganka Sur, Lee Gehrke, Juergen A Knoblich, Rudolf Jaenisch
An expansion of the cerebral neocortex is thought to be the foundation for the unique intellectual abilities of humans. It has been suggested that an increase in the proliferative potential of neural progenitors (NPs) underlies the expansion of the cortex and its convoluted appearance. Here we show that increasing NP proliferation induces expansion and folding in an in vitro model of human corticogenesis. Deletion of PTEN stimulates proliferation and generates significantly larger and substantially folded cerebral organoids...
December 20, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039370/hippocampal-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-contributes-to-memory-impairment-and-is-consistent-with-spread-of-pathology
#13
David H Adamowicz, Subhojit Roy, David P Salmon, Douglas R Galasko, Lawrence A Hansen, Eliezer Masliah, Fred H Gage
: Despite considerable research to uncover them, the anatomic and neuropathologic correlates of memory impairment in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) remain unclear. While some studies have implicated Lewy bodies in the neocortex, others have pointed to α-synuclein pathology in the hippocampus. We systematically examined hippocampal Lewy pathology and its distribution in hippocampal subfields in 95 clinically and neuropathologically characterized human cases of DLB, finding that α-synuclein pathology was highest in two hippocampal-related subregions: the CA2 subfield and the entorhinal cortex (EC)...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031177/dmrt5-together-with-dmrt3-directly-controls-hippocampus-development-and-neocortical-area-map-formation
#14
Sarah De Clercq, Marc Keruzore, Elodie Desmaris, Charlotte Pollart, Stavroula Assimacopoulos, Julie Preillon, Sabrina Ascenzo, Clinton K Matson, Melody Lee, Xinsheng Nan, Meng Li, Yasushi Nakagawa, Tino Hochepied, David Zarkower, Elizabeth A Grove, Eric J Bellefroid
Mice that are constitutively null for the zinc finger doublesex and mab-3 related (Dmrt) gene, Dmrt5/Dmrta2, show a variety of patterning abnormalities in the cerebral cortex, including the loss of the cortical hem, a powerful cortical signaling center. In conditional Dmrt5 gain of function and loss of function mouse models, we generated bidirectional changes in the neocortical area map without affecting the hem. Analysis indicated that DMRT5, independent of the hem, directs the rostral-to-caudal pattern of the neocortical area map...
December 27, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025813/the-sensory-neocortex-and-associative-memory
#15
Dominik Aschauer, Simon Rumpel
Most behaviors in mammals are directly or indirectly guided by prior experience and therefore depend on the ability of our brains to form memories. The ability to form an association between an initially possibly neutral sensory stimulus and its behavioral relevance is essential for our ability to navigate in a changing environment. The formation of a memory is a complex process involving many areas of the brain. In this chapter we review classic and recent work that has shed light on the specific contribution of sensory cortical areas to the formation of associative memories...
December 27, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025777/brain-development-and-akt-signaling-the-crossroads-of-signaling-pathway-and-neurodevelopmental-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Long Wang, Kai Zhou, Zhi Fu, Di Yu, Hesuyuan Huang, Xiaodong Zang, Xuming Mo
Neurodevelopmental biology, coupled with the application of advanced histological, imaging, molecular, cellular, biochemical, and genetic approaches, has provided new insights into these intricate genetic, cellular, and molecular events. During telencephalic development, specific neural progenitor cells (NPCs) proliferate, differentiate into numerous cell types, migrate to their apposite positions, and form an integrated circuitry. Critical disturbance to this dynamic process via genetic and environmental risk can cause neurological disorders and disability...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017473/huntingtin-mediated-multipolar-bipolar-transition-of-newborn-cortical-neurons-is-critical-for-their-postnatal-neuronal-morphology
#17
Monia Barnat, Julien Le Friec, Caroline Benstaali, Sandrine Humbert
In the developing cortex, projection neurons undergo multipolar-bipolar transition, radial-directed migration, and maturation. The contribution of these developmental steps to the structure of the adult cortex is not completely understood. Here, we report that huntingtin (HTT), the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, is enriched in polarizing projection neurons. The depletion of HTT in postmitotic projection neurons leads to the mislocalization of layer-specific neuronal populations in the mouse neocortex...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011084/multiscale-mapping-of-frequency-sweep-rate-in-mouse-auditory-cortex
#18
John B Issa, Benjamin D Haeffele, Eric D Young, David T Yue
Functional organization is a key feature of the neocortex that often guides studies of sensory processing, development, and plasticity. Tonotopy, which arises from the transduction properties of the cochlea, is the most widely studied organizational feature in auditory cortex; however, in order to process complex sounds, cortical regions are likely specialized for higher order features. Here, motivated by the prevalence of frequency modulations in mouse ultrasonic vocalizations and aided by the use of a multiscale imaging approach, we uncover a functional organization across the extent of auditory cortex for the rate of frequency modulated (FM) sweeps...
February 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009304/long-term-optical-access-to-an-estimated-one-million-neurons-in-the-live-mouse-cortex
#19
Tony Hyun Kim, Yanping Zhang, Jérôme Lecoq, Juergen C Jung, Jane Li, Hongkui Zeng, Cristopher M Niell, Mark J Schnitzer
A major technological goal in neuroscience is to enable the interrogation of individual cells across the live brain. By creating a curved glass replacement to the dorsal cranium and surgical methods for its installation, we developed a chronic mouse preparation providing optical access to an estimated 800,000-1,100,000 individual neurons across the dorsal surface of neocortex. Post-surgical histological studies revealed comparable glial activation as in control mice. In behaving mice expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in cortical pyramidal neurons, we performed Ca(2+) imaging across neocortex using an epi-fluorescence macroscope and estimated that 25,000-50,000 individual neurons were accessible per mouse across multiple focal planes...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009284/targeted-inactivation-of-bax-reveals-a-subtype-specific-mechanism-of-cajal-retzius-neuron-death-in-the-postnatal-cerebral-cortex
#20
Fanny Ledonne, David Orduz, Judith Mercier, Lisa Vigier, Elisabeth A Grove, Fadel Tissir, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Alessandra Pierani, Eva Coppola
Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), the first-born neurons in the developing cerebral cortex, coordinate crucial steps in the construction of functional circuits. CRs are thought to be transient, as they disappear during early postnatal life in both mice and humans, where their abnormal persistence is associated with pathological conditions. Embryonic CRs comprise at least three molecularly and functionally distinct subtypes: septum, ventral pallium/pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB), and hem. However, whether subtype-specific features exist postnatally and through which mechanisms they disappear remain unknown...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
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