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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045559/segregated-excitatory-inhibitory-recurrent-subnetworks-in-layer-5-of-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#1
Mieko Morishima, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yasuo Kawaguchi
A prominent feature of neocortical pyramidal cells (PCs) is their numerous projections to diverse brain areas. In layer 5 (L5) of the rat frontal cortex, there are 2 major subtypes of PCs that differ in their long-range axonal projections, corticopontine (CPn) cells and crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells. The outputs of these L5 PCs can be regulated by feedback inhibition from neighboring cortical GABAergic cells. Two major subtypes of GABAergic cells are parvalbumin (PV)-positive and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044416/disease-and-region-specificity-of-granulin-immunopositivities-in-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#2
Qinwen Mao, Dongyang Wang, Yanqing Li, Missia Kohler, Jayson Wilson, Zachary Parton, Bella Shmaltsuyeva, Demirkan Gursel, Rosa Rademakers, Sandra Weintraub, Marek-Marsel Mesulam, Haibin Xia, Eileen H Bigio
Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in GRN, the progranulin gene, which result in progranulin (PGRN) protein haploinsufficiency, are a major cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy (FTLD-TDP). PGRN is composed of seven and a half repeats of a highly conserved granulin motif that is cleaved to produce the granulin peptides A-G and paragranulin. To better understand the role of PGRN and granulin (Grn) peptides in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration, we evaluated PGRN/Grn in brains of patients with Alzheimer disease, FTLD-TDP type A with or without GRN mutations, and normal individuals, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies against Grn peptides A-G...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043558/enriched-expression-of-neutral-sphingomyelinase-2-in-the-striatum-is-essential-for-regulation-of-lipid-raft-content-and-motor-coordination
#3
Laura Hui-Ru Tan, Angela Jin-Rong Tan, Yu-Ying Ng, John Jia-En Chua, Wee-Siong Chew, Sneha Muralidharan, Federico Torta, Bamaprasad Dutta, Siu Kwan Sze, Deron R Herr, Wei-Yi Ong
Sphingomyelinases are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze sphingomyelin to generate phosphocholine and ceramide. The brain distribution and function of neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) were elucidated in this study. nSMase2 mRNA expression was greatest in the striatum, followed by the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, thalamus, brainstem, and olfactory bulb. The striatum had the highest level of nSMase2 protein expression, followed by the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus, brainstem, and cerebellum...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042296/computations-in-the-deep-vs-superficial-layers-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#4
Edmund T Rolls, W Patrick C Mills
A fundamental question is how the cerebral neocortex operates functionally, computationally. The cerebral neocortex with its superficial and deep layers and highly developed recurrent collateral systems that provide a basis for memory-related processing might perform somewhat different computations in the superficial and deep layers. Here we take into account the quantitative connectivity within and between laminae. Using integrate-and-fire neuronal network simulations that incorporate this connectivity, we first show that attractor networks implemented in the deep layers that are activated by the superficial layers could be partly independent in that the deep layers might have a different time course, which might because of adaptation be more transient and useful for outputs from the neocortex...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040828/neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-energetics-of-drug-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#5
Camila Moreira Osório, Alexandra Latini, Rodrigo Bainy Leal, Maria Emília Rodrigues de Oliveira Thais, Helena Dresch Vascouto, Aline Pertile Remor, Mark William Lopes, Marcelo Neves Linhares, Juliana Ben, Roberta de Paula Martins, Rui Daniel Prediger, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Hans Joachim Markowitsch, Peter Wolf, Kátia Lin, Roger Walz
Interictal hypometabolism is commonly measured by 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in the temporal lobe of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE-HS). Left temporal lobe interictal FDG-PET hypometabolism has been associated with verbal memory impairment, while right temporal lobe FDG-PET hypometabolism is associated with nonverbal memory impairment. The biochemical mechanisms involved in these findings remain unknown. In comparison to healthy controls (n=21), surgically treated patients with MTLE-HS (n=32, left side=17) had significant lower scores in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT retention and delayed), Logical Memory II (LMII), Boston Naming test (BNT), Letter Fluency and Category Fluency...
October 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038217/hippocampal-area-ca1-and-remote-memory-in-rats
#6
Amber C Ocampo, Larry R Squire, Robert E Clark
Hippocampal lesions often produce temporally graded retrograde amnesia (TGRA), whereby recent memory is impaired more than remote memory. This finding has provided support for the process of systems consolidation. However, temporally graded memory impairment has not been observed with the watermaze task, and the findings have been inconsistent with context fear conditioning. One possibility is that large hippocampal lesions indirectly disrupt (by retrograde degeneration) the function of areas that project to the hippocampus that are important for task performance or thought to be important for storing consolidated memories...
November 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034319/high-precision-fast-spiking-basket-cell-discharges-during-complex-events-in-the-human-neocortex
#7
Viktor Szegedi, Gábor Molnár, Melinda Paizs, Eszter Csakvari, Pál Barzó, Gábor Tamás, Karri Lamsa
In the human neocortex, solitary action potentials in some layer 2-3 pyramidal cells (PCs) trigger brief episodes of network activity known as complex events through strong excitatory synapses that specifically innervate GABAergic interneurons. Yet, how these "master PCs" configure the local network activity is not well understood. We report that single spikes in the PCs, studied here in synaptically connected cell pairs in frontal or temporal neocortical areas of both males and females, elicit firing of fast-spiking basket cells (FSBCs) with a short delay (on average 2...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033352/the-primate-specific-gene-tmem14b-marks-outer-radial-glia-cells-and-promotes-cortical-expansion-and-folding
#8
Jing Liu, Wensu Liu, Lu Yang, Qian Wu, Haofeng Zhang, Ai Fang, Long Li, Xiaohui Xu, Le Sun, Jun Zhang, Fuchou Tang, Xiaoqun Wang
Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG...
October 10, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032754/pharmacological-neuroprotection-in-cardiac-surgery-effectiveness-of-pharmacologic-preconditioning-with-erythromycin
#9
Charilaos-Panagiotis C Koutsogiannidis, Elizabeth O Johnson
Regardless of the degree of advances in neuroprotective strategies, and despite the technological progress in neuromonitoring, brain injury still remains the "Achilles' heel" in cardiac surgery. A large number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions have been investigated during the last two decades. Recently, both theoretical and experimental findings suggest benefits of pharmacological cerebral protection, although, there is no conclusive evidence of clinical superiority of specific agents that have been applied as neuroprotectants, in human randomized controlled trials...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030434/cadherin-10-maintains-excitatory-inhibitory-ratio-through-interactions-with-synaptic-proteins
#10
Katharine R Smith, Kelly A Jones, Katherine J Kopeikina, Alain C Burette, Bryan A Copits, Sehyoun Yoon, Marc Forrest, Jessica M Fawcett-Patel, Jonathan G Hanley, Richard J Weinberg, Geoffrey T Swanson, Peter Penzes
Appropriate excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance is essential for normal cortical function and is altered in some psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Cell-autonomous molecular mechanisms that control the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapse function remain poorly understood; no proteins that regulate excitatory and inhibitory synapse strength in a coordinated reciprocal manner have been identified. Using super-resolution imaging, electrophysiology, and molecular manipulations we show that cadherin-10, encoded by CDH10 within the ASD risk locus 5p14...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025168/-a-model-explaining-infantile-esotropia-dissociated-strabismus-as-a-result-of-sensory-interhemispheric-dissociation-and-crossed-dominance-in-the-brainstem
#11
Marcel Paulus Ten Tusscher
Over 150 million years, modern reptiles, birds and mammals evolved. Predatory birds and mammals have eyes on the front of their heads. In these animals, binocular correspondence, voluntary eye movements, eye-hand coordination, partial decussation at the optic chiasm and cortical interhemispheric pathways could develop at the cost of a smaller visual field. The subsequent enlargement of the cerebral neocortex and the hemispheric pathways are of central importance in binocular vision, sensory fusion and infantile strabismus...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021587/relationships-between-structure-in-vivo-function-and-long-range-axonal-target-of-cortical-pyramidal-tract-neurons
#12
Gerardo Rojas-Piloni, Jason M Guest, Robert Egger, Andrew S Johnson, Bert Sakmann, Marcel Oberlaender
Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the neocortex. To investigate principles of how the results of cortical processing are broadcasted to different downstream targets thus requires experimental approaches, which provide access to the in vivo electrophysiology of PTs, whose subcortical target regions are identified. On the example of rat barrel cortex (vS1), we illustrate that retrograde tracer injections into multiple subcortical structures allow identifying the long-range axonal targets of individual in vivo recorded PTs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018334/cornu-ammonis-regions-antecedents-of-cortical-layers
#13
REVIEW
Audrey Mercer, Alex M Thomson
Studying neocortex and hippocampus in parallel, we are struck by the similarities. All three to four layered allocortices and the six layered mammalian neocortex arise in the pallium. All receive and integrate multiple cortical and subcortical inputs, provide multiple outputs and include an array of neuronal classes. During development, each cell positions itself to sample appropriate local and distant inputs and to innervate appropriate targets. Simpler cortices had already solved the need to transform multiple coincident inputs into serviceable outputs before neocortex appeared in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989083/resveratrol-activation-of-ampk-dependent-pathways-is-neuroprotective-in-human-neural-stem-cells-against-amyloid-beta-induced-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Ming-Chang Chiang, Christopher J Nicol, Yi-Chuan Cheng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with progressive memory loss resulting in dementia. Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides play a critical role in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are thought to promote inflammation and oxidative stress leading to neurodegeneration in the neocortex and hippocampus of the AD brains. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, and cell survival in response to inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms by which AMPK achieves these beneficial effects in human neural stem cells (hNSCs) exposed to Aβ is still not well understood...
October 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988234/dynamics-of-goldfish-subregional-hippocampal-pallium-activity-throughout-spatial-memory-formation
#15
Francisco M Ocaña, Sara Uceda, Jorge L Arias, Cosme Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
The teleost fish hippocampal pallium, like the hippocampus of tetrapods, is essential for relational map-like spatial memories. In mammals, these relational memories involve the dynamic interactions among different hippocampal subregions and between the hippocampus-neocortex network, which performs specialized operations such as memory encoding and retrieval. However, how the teleost hippocampal homologue operates to achieve comparably sophisticated spatial cognition capabilities is largely unknown. In the present study, the progressive changes in the metabolic activity of the pallial regions that have been proposed as possible homologues of the mammalian hippocampus were monitored in goldfish...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987180/alzheimer-disease
#16
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Charles Duyckaerts
Alzheimer disease neuropathology is characterized by the extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptide and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau. With the progression of the disease, macroscopic atrophy affects the entorhinal area and hippocampus, amygdala, and associative regions of the neocortex. The locus coeruleus is depigmented. The deposition of Aβ is first made of diffuse deposits. Amyloid focal deposits constitute the core of the senile plaque which also comprises a corona of tau-positive neurites...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983921/epileptogenic-networks-in-nodular-heterotopia-a-stereoelectroencephalography-study
#17
Francesca Pizzo, Nicolas Roehri, Hélène Catenoix, Samuel Medina, Aileen McGonigal, Bernard Giusiano, Romain Carron, Didier Scavarda, Karine Ostrowsky, Anne Lepine, Sébastien Boulogne, Julia Scholly, Edouard Hirsch, Sylvain Rheims, Christian-George Bénar, Fabrice Bartolomei
OBJECTIVE: Defining the roles of heterotopic and normotopic cortex in the epileptogenic networks in patients with nodular heterotopia is challenging. To elucidate this issue, we compared heterotopic and normotopic cortex using quantitative signal analysis on stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. METHODS: Clinically relevant biomarkers of epileptogenicity during ictal (epileptogenicity index; EI) and interictal recordings (high-frequency oscillation and spike) were evaluated in 19 patients undergoing SEEG...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983585/complex-role-of-connexin-43-in-astrocytic-tumors-and-possible-promotion-of-glioma%C3%A2-associated-epileptic-discharge-review
#18
Hui Dong, Xing-Wang Zhou, Xiang Wang, Yuan Yang, Jie-Wen Luo, Yan-Hui Liu, Qing Mao
Connexin (Cx)43 is a multifunction protein which forms gap junction channels and hemi‑channels. It also contains abundant binding domains which possess the ability to interact with certain Cx43‑associated proteins and therefore serve a fundamental role in various physiological and pathological functions. However, the understanding of the association between cancer and Cx43 along with Cx43‑gap junctions (GJ) remains unclear. All available data illustrate that Cx43 and its associated GJ serve important functions in cancers...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981586/gabapentin-prevents-progressive-increases-in-excitatory-connectivity-and-epileptogenesis-following-neocortical-trauma
#19
D K Takahashi, Sha Jin, D A Prince
Neocortical injury initiates a cascade of events, some of which result in maladaptive epileptogenic reorganization of surviving neural circuits. Research focused on molecular and organizational changes that occur following trauma may reveal processes that underlie human post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE), a common and unfortunate consequence of traumatic brain injury. The latency between injury and development of PTE provides an opportunity for prophylactic intervention, once the key underlying mechanisms are understood...
June 26, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978667/foxp1-in-forebrain-pyramidal-neurons-controls-gene-expression-required-for-spatial-learning-and-synaptic-plasticity
#20
Daniel J Araujo, Kazuya Toriumi, Christine O Escamilla, Ashwinikumar Kulkarni, Ashley G Anderson, Matthew Harper, Noriyoshi Usui, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Shari G Birnbaum, Haley O Tucker, Craig M Powell, Genevieve Konopka
Genetic perturbations of the transcription factor Forkhead Box P1 (FOXP1) are causative for severe forms of autism spectrum disorder that are often comorbid with intellectual disability. Recent work has begun to reveal an important role for FoxP1 in brain development, but the brain-region-specific contributions of Foxp1 to autism and intellectual disability phenotypes have yet to be fully determined. Here, we describe Foxp1 conditional knockout (Foxp1(cKO) ) male and female mice with loss of Foxp1 in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex and the CA1/CA2 subfields of the hippocampus...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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