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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467621/immunosignals-of-oligodendrocyte-markers-and-myelin-associated-proteins-are-critically-affected-after-experimental-stroke-in-wild-type-and-alzheimer-modeling-mice-of-different-ages
#1
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459723/generalized-leaky-integrate-and-fire-models-classify-multiple-neuron-types
#2
Corinne Teeter, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Vilas Menon, Nathan Gouwens, David Feng, Jim Berg, Aaron Szafer, Nicholas Cain, Hongkui Zeng, Michael Hawrylycz, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas
There is a high diversity of neuronal types in the mammalian neocortex. To facilitate construction of system models with multiple cell types, we generate a database of point models associated with the Allen Cell Types Database. We construct a set of generalized leaky integrate-and-fire (GLIF) models of increasing complexity to reproduce the spiking behaviors of 645 recorded neurons from 16 transgenic lines. The more complex models have an increased capacity to predict spiking behavior of hold-out stimuli. We use unsupervised methods to classify cell types, and find that high level GLIF model parameters are able to differentiate transgenic lines comparable to electrophysiological features...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459142/modulation-of-human-corticospinal-excitability-by-paired-associative-stimulation-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-effects-of-riluzole
#3
M Ceccanti, E Onesti, A Rubino, C Cambieri, G Tartaglia, A Miscioscia, V Frasca, M Inghilleri
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes an impairment in both the upper and lower motor neurons. The recent description of numerous non-motor signs points to an involvement of the neocortex networks that is more complex than was previously believed. Paired associative stimulation (PAS), a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation, can enhance motor output in the contralateral hand through an NMDA-mediated sensorimotor mechanism...
February 7, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457245/longitudinal-relationships-among-depressive-symptoms-cortisol-and-brain-atrophy-in-the-neocortex-and-the-hippocampus
#4
A Lebedeva, A Sundström, L Lindgren, A Stomby, D Aarsland, E Westman, B Winblad, T Olsson, L Nyberg
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels. METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456488/exploring-the-complexity-of-cortical-development-using-single-cell-transcriptomics
#5
REVIEW
Hyobin Jeong, Vijay K Tiwari
The developing neocortex in the mammalian brain is composed of multiple cell types including apical progenitors (AP), basal progenitors (BP), and neurons that populate three different layers, the ventricular zone (VZ), the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the cortical plate (CP). Despite recent advances, the diversity of the existing cell populations including those which are differentiating and mature, their biogenesis and the underlying gene regulatory mechanisms remain poorly known. Recent studies have taken advantage of the rapidly emerging single-cell technologies to decode the heterogeneity of cell populations at the transcriptome level during cortical development and their molecular details...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451323/-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-and-primary-progressive-aphasia
#6
Keith A Josephs, Peter R Martin, Hugo Botha, Christopher G Schwarz, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Stephen D Weigand, Matthew L Senjem, Rene L Utianski, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Jennifer L Whitwell
OBJECTIVES: To assess [ 18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET uptake patterns across the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants (logopenic, semantic and agrammatic), examine regional uptake patterns of [ 18 F]AV-1451 independent of clinical diagnosis, and compare the diagnostic utility of [ 18 F]AV-1451, [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxygluclose (FDG)-PET and MRI to differentiate the PPA variants. METHODS: We performed statistical parametric mapping of [ 18 F]AV-1451 across 40 PPA patients (logopenic-PPA=14, semantic-PPA=13 and agrammatic-PPA=13) compared to 80 cognitively normal, PiB-negative controls, age and gender matched 2:1...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440997/layer-and-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-excitatory-neuronal-activity-in-the-neocortex
#7
REVIEW
Gabriele Radnikow, Dirk Feldmeyer
From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439322/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-are-differentially-related-to-structural-and-functional-changes-in-dementia-of-the-alzheimer-s-type
#8
Charles B Malpas, Michael M Saling, Dennis Velakoulis, Patricia Desmond, Rodney J Hicks, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Terence J O'Brien
The two cardinal pathologies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) develop according to distinct anatomical trajectories. Cerebral tau-related pathology first accumulates in the mesial temporal region, while amyloid-related pathology first appears in neocortex. The eventual distributions of these pathologies reflect their anatomical origins. An implication is that the cardinal pathologies might exert preferential effects on the structurofunctional brain changes observed in AD. We investigated this hypothesis in 39 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438820/intraoperative-hippocampal-electrocorticography-frequently-captures-electrographic-seizures-and-correlates-with-hippocampal-pathology
#9
Aashit K Shah, Darren Fuerst, Sandeep Mittal
OBJECTIVE: Relationship between electrographic seizures on hippocampal electrocorticography (IH-ECoG) and presence/type of hippocampal pathology remains unclear. METHODS: IH-ECoG was recorded for 10-20 min from the ventricular surface of the hippocampus following removal of the temporal neocortex in 40 consecutive patients. Correlation between intraoperative hippocampal seizures and preoperative MRI, hippocampal histopathology, and EEG from invasive monitoring was determined...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435558/association-between-amyloid-and-tau-accumulation-in-young-adults-with-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#10
Yakeel T Quiroz, Reisa A Sperling, Daniel J Norton, Ana Baena, Joseph F Arboleda-Velasquez, Danielle Cosio, Aaron Schultz, Molly Lapoint, Edmarie Guzman-Velez, John B Miller, Leo A Kim, Kewei Chen, Pierre N Tariot, Francisco Lopera, Eric M Reiman, Keith A Johnson
Importance: It is critically important to improve our ability to diagnose and track Alzheimer disease (AD) as early as possible. Individuals with autosomal dominant forms of AD can provide clues as to which and when biological changes are reliably present prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Objective: To characterize the associations between amyloid and tau deposits in the brains of cognitively unimpaired and impaired carriers of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432531/brain-tissue-plasticity-protein-synthesis-rates-of-the-human-brain
#11
Joey S J Smeets, Astrid M H Horstman, Olaf E M G Schijns, Jim T A Dings, Govert Hoogland, Annemie P Gijsen, Joy P B Goessens, Freek G Bouwman, Will K W H Wodzig, Edwin C Mariman, Luc J C van Loon
All tissues undergo continuous reconditioning via the complex orchestration of changes in tissue protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Skeletal muscle tissue has been well studied in this regard, and has been shown to turnover at a rate of 1-2% per day in vivo in humans. Few data are available on protein synthesis rates of other tissues. Because of obvious limitations with regard to brain tissue sampling no study has ever measured brain protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Here, we applied stable isotope methodology to directly assess protein synthesis rates in neocortex and hippocampus tissue of six patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (Clinical trial registration: NTR5147)...
February 8, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422840/mechanisms-underlying-serotonergic-excitation-of-callosal-projection-neurons-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Emily K Stephens, Arielle L Baker, Allan T Gulledge
Serotonin (5-HT) selectively excites subpopulations of pyramidal neurons in the neocortex via activation of 5-HT2A (2A) receptors coupled to Gq subtype G-protein alpha subunits. Gq-mediated excitatory responses have been attributed primarily to suppression of potassium conductances, including those mediated by KV7 potassium channels (i.e., the M-current), or activation of non-specific cation conductances that underlie calcium-dependent afterdepolarizations (ADPs). However, 2A-dependent excitation of cortical neurons has not been extensively studied, and no consensus exists regarding the underlying ionic effector(s) involved...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420935/the-mouse-cortical-connectome-characterized-by-an-ultra-dense-cortical-graph-maintains-specificity-by-distinct-connectivity-profiles
#13
Răzvan Gămănuţ, Henry Kennedy, Zoltán Toroczkai, Mária Ercsey-Ravasz, David C Van Essen, Kenneth Knoblauch, Andreas Burkhalter
The inter-areal wiring pattern of the mouse cerebral cortex was analyzed in relation to a refined parcellation of cortical areas. Twenty-seven retrograde tracer injections were made in 19 areas of a 47-area parcellation of the mouse neocortex. Flat mounts of the cortex and multiple histological markers enabled detailed counts of labeled neurons in individual areas. The observed log-normal distribution of connection weights to each cortical area spans 5 orders of magnitude and reveals a distinct connectivity profile for each area, analogous to that observed in macaques...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420702/rab23-regulates-radial-migration-of-projection-neurons-via-n-cadherin
#14
Catherine H H Hor, Eyleen L K Goh
Radial migration of cortical projection neurons is a prerequisite for shaping a distinct multilayered cerebral cortex during mammalian corticogenesis. Members of Rab GTPases family were reported to regulate radial migration. Here, in vivo conditional knockout or in utero knockdown (KD) of Rab23 in mice neocortex causes aberrant polarity and halted migration of cortical projection neurons. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism reveals down-regulation of N-cadherin in the Rab23-deficient neurons, which is a cell adhesion protein previously known to modulate radial migration...
February 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419480/comparative-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-quantifications-of-pathological-tau-deposits-and-their-association-with-neurodegeneration-in-tauopathy-mouse-models
#15
Ruiqing Ni, Bin Ji, Maiko Ono, Naruhiko Sahara, Ming-Rong Zhang, Ichio Aoki, Agneta Nordberg, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
Fibrillary tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and allied neurodegenerative disorders have been visualized in-vivo by positron emission tomography (PET), while mechanistic links between PET-detectable tau deposits and neurotoxicity remain elusive. Here, we took advantage of transgenic mouse models of tauopathies to evaluate associations between PET and postmortem measures of tau probe binding and their relation to neuronal loss. Methods: PET with a tau probe, 11C-PBB3 (2-((1E,3E)-4-(6-(11C-methylamino)pyridine-3-yl)buta-1,3-dienyl)benzo[d]thiazol-6-ol), and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for rTg4510 and non-transgenic mice...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414094/a-silicon-based-neural-probe-with-densely-packed-low-impedance-titanium-nitride-microelectrodes-for-ultrahigh-resolution-in-vivo-recordings
#16
Richárd Fiáth, Bogdan Cristian Raducanu, Silke Musa, Alexandru Andrei, Carolina Mora Lopez, Chris van Hoof, Patrick Ruther, Arno Aarts, Domonkos Horváth, István Ulbert
In this study, we developed and validated a single-shank silicon-based neural probe with 128 closely-packed microelectrodes suitable for high-resolution extracellular recordings. The 8-mm-long, 100-µm-wide and 50-µm-thick implantable shank of the probe fabricated using a 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) metallization technology contains square-shaped (20 × 20 µm2), low-impedance (~ 50 kΩ at 1 kHz) recording sites made of rough and porous titanium nitride which are arranged in a 32 × 4 dense array with an inter-electrode pitch of 22...
January 31, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414069/a-disinhibitory-circuit-motif-and-flexible-information-routing-in-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
Xiao-Jing Wang, Guangyu Robert Yang
In the mammalian neocortex, an area typically receives inputs from, and projects to, dozens of other areas. Mechanisms are needed to flexibly route information to the right place at the right time, which we term 'pathway gating'. For instance, a region in your brain that receives signals from both visual and auditory pathways may want to 'gate in' the visual pathway while 'gating out' the auditory pathway when you try to read a book surrounded by people in a noisy café. In this review, we marshall experimental and computational evidence in support of a circuit mechanism for flexible pathway gating realized by a disinhibitory motif...
January 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413892/mechanisms-of-cortical-differentiation
#18
Lata Adnani, Sisu Han, Saiqun Li, Pierre Mattar, Carol Schuurmans
During fetal and postnatal development, the human brain generates 160 billion neuronal and glial cells, each with precise cellular phenotypes. To effectively manage such a complicated task, intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors) and extrinsic (environmental signals) cues cooperate to regulate the decision by neural progenitors to continue to proliferate or to differentiate. Loss- and gain-of-function studies in the mouse brain have been instrumental in identifying these cues, leading to a fairly well-developed and well-integrated model of neocortical development...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#19
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412138/simultaneous-two-photon-optogenetics-and-imaging-of-cortical-circuits-in-three-dimensions
#20
Weijian Yang, Luis Carrillo-Reid, Yuki Bando, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The simultaneously imaging and manipulating of neural activity in three-dimensions could enable the functional dissection of neural circuits. Here we have combined two-photon optogenetics with simultaneous volumetric two-photon calcium imaging to manipulate neural activity in mouse neocortex in vivo in 3D, while maintaining cellular resolution. Using a hybrid holographic approach, we simultaneously photostimulate more than 80 neurons over 150 μm in depth in cortical layer 2/3 from mouse visual cortex. We validate the usefulness of the microscope by photoactivating in 3D selected groups of interneurons, suppressing the response of nearby pyramidal neurons to visual stimuli...
February 7, 2018: ELife
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