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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727685/erbb4-signaling-in-dopaminergic-axonal-projections-increases-extracellular-dopamine-levels-and-regulates-spatial-working-memory-behaviors
#1
M Skirzewski, I Karavanova, A Shamir, L Erben, J Garcia-Olivares, J H Shin, D Vullhorst, V A Alvarez, S G Amara, A Buonanno
Genetic variants of Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its neuronal tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 are associated with risk for schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and dopamine (DA) dysfunction. To date, most ErbB4 studies have focused on GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex, particularly fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cells. However, NRG has also been shown to modulate DA levels, suggesting a role for ErbB4 signaling in dopaminergic neuron function...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724786/emergent-cortical-circuit-dynamics-contain-dense-interwoven-ensembles-of-spike-sequences
#2
Joseph B Dechery, Jason N MacLean
Temporal codes are theoretically powerful encoding schemes, but their precise form in neocortex remains unknown in part because of the large number of possible codes and the difficulty in disambiguating informative spikes from statistical noise. A biologically plausible and computationally powerful temporal coding scheme is the Hebbian assembly phase sequence (APS), which predicts reliable propagation of spikes between functionally related assemblies of neurons. Here, we sought to measure the inherent capacity of neocortical networks to produce reliable sequences of spikes, as would be predicted by an APS code...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717582/in-vivo-multiphoton-imaging-of-a-diverse-array-of-fluorophores-to-investigate-deep-neurovascular-structure
#3
David R Miller, Ahmed M Hassan, Jeremy W Jarrett, Flor A Medina, Evan P Perillo, Kristen Hagan, S M Shams Kazmi, Taylor A Clark, Colin T Sullender, Theresa A Jones, Boris V Zemelman, Andrew K Dunn
We perform high-resolution, non-invasive, in vivo deep-tissue imaging of the mouse neocortex using multiphoton microscopy with a high repetition rate optical parametric amplifier laser source tunable between λ=1,100 and 1,400 nm. By combining the high repetition rate (511 kHz) and high pulse energy (400 nJ) of our amplifier laser system, we demonstrate imaging of vasculature labeled with Texas Red and Indocyanine Green, and neurons expressing tdTomato and yellow fluorescent protein. We measure the blood flow speed of a single capillary at a depth of 1...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715131/transcriptome-analysis-suggests-a-role-for-the-differential-expression-of-cerebral-aquaporins-and-the-mapk-signalling-pathway-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
Mootaz M Salman, Mariam A Sheilabi, Dev Bhattacharyya, Philip Kitchen, Alex C Conner, Roslyn M Bill, M Nicola Woodroofe, Matthew T Conner, Alessandra P Princivalle
Epilepsies are common disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting up to 2% of the global population. Pharmaco-resistance is a major clinical challenge affecting about 30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Water homeostasis has been shown crucial for regulation of neuronal excitability. The control of water movement is achieved through a family of small integral membrane channel proteins called aquaporins (AQPs). Despite the fact that changes in water homeostasis occur in sclerotic hippocampi of people with TLE, the expression of AQPs in the epileptic brain is not fully characterised...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710326/cortical-influences-drive-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Andrew Eisen, Heiko Braak, Kelly Del Tredici, Roger Lemon, Albert C Ludolph, Matthew C Kiernan
The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705496/the-effect-of-cxcr2-inhibition-on-seizure-activity-in-the-pilocarpine-epilepsy-mouse-model
#6
Tao Xu, Xinyuan Yu, Teng Wang, Ying Liu, Xi Liu, Shu Ou, Yangmei Chen
C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) is one of the most well characterized chemokine receptors and is a potential target for treating brain pathologies involving inflammatory processes, including epilepsy. However, the role of CXCR2 in epilepsy has not been investigated, and whether CXCR2 modulates seizure activity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential role of CXCR2 in intractable TLE patients and in pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice. Here, through Western blotting and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry, we detected that CXCR2 protein expression was up-regulated (by nearly 50%) in the temporal neocortex of TLE patients and in the hippocampus and adjacent temporal cortex of pilocarpine mice model...
July 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703129/precise-inhibitory-microcircuit-assembly-of-developmentally-related-neocortical-interneurons-in-clusters
#7
Xin-Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Zhi Han, Khadeejah T Sultan, Kun Huang, Song-Hai Shi
GABA-ergic interneurons provide diverse inhibitions that are essential for the operation of neuronal circuits in the neocortex. However, the mechanisms that control the functional organization of neocortical interneurons remain largely unknown. Here we show that developmental origins influence fine-scale synapse formation and microcircuit assembly of neocortical interneurons. Spatially clustered neocortical interneurons originating from low-titre retrovirus-infected radial glial progenitors in the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area preferentially develop electrical, but not chemical, synapses with each other...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694481/mechanisms-underlying-neuro-inflammation-and-neurodevelopmental-toxicity-in-the-mouse-neocortex-following-prenatal-exposure-to-ethanol
#8
Munekazu Komada, Nao Hara, Satoko Kawachi, Kota Kawachi, Nao Kagawa, Tetsuji Nagao, Yayoi Ikeda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) constitute a wide range of disorders that arise from prenatal exposure to ethanol (EtOH). However, detailed reports regarding the adverse effects of prenatal EtOH exposure on neocortical morphology and its underlying pathogenic mechanisms are limited. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the anatomical abnormalities of neocortical development and their correlation with microglial properties and neuro-inflammation in a mouse model of FASD. We evaluated the development and maturation of the neocortex in ICR mice prenatally exposed to 25% (w/v) EtOH using histological and molecular analyses...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687613/valproic-acid-induces-aberrant-development-of-striatal-compartments-and-corticostriatal-pathways-in-a-mouse-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Hsiao-Ying Kuo, Fu-Chin Liu
The striatum comprises two neurochemical compartments: striosomes and the matrix. Striosomal and matrix compartments receive inputs from limbic-related and sensorimotor cortices, respectively. Here, we investigate the impact on the corticostriosomal pathway in the valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism spectrum disorder mouse model. VPA administration during the neurogenesis time windows of striosomes, but not the matrix, resulted in aberrant compartmentation [i.e., maternal VPA injections at embryonic day (E)12...
July 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685836/the-stability-of-the-transcriptome-during-the-estrous-cycle-in-four-regions-of-the-mouse-brain
#10
Lisa M DiCarlo, Cynthia Vied, Richard S Nowakowski
We analyzed the transcriptome of the C57BL/6J mouse hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum to determine estrous cycle-specific changes in these four brain regions. We found almost 16,000 genes are present in one or more of the brain areas but only 210 genes, ∼1.3%, are significantly changed as a result of the estrous cycle. The hippocampus has the largest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (82), followed by the neocortex (76), hypothalamus (63), and cerebellum (26). Most of these DEGs (186/210) are differentially expressed in only one of the four brain regions...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684399/loss-of-the-canonical-spindle-orientation-function-in-the-pins-lgn-homolog-ags3
#11
Mehdi Saadaoui, Daijiro Konno, Karine Loulier, Rosette Goiame, Vaibhav Jadhav, Marina Mapelli, Fumio Matsuzaki, Xavier Morin
In many cell types, mitotic spindle orientation relies on the canonical "LGN complex" composed of Pins/LGN, Mud/NuMA, and Gαi subunits. Membrane localization of this complex recruits motor force generators that pull on astral microtubules to orient the spindle. Drosophila Pins shares highly conserved functional domains with its two vertebrate homologs LGN and AGS3. Whereas the role of Pins and LGN in oriented divisions is extensively documented, involvement of AGS3 remains controversial. Here, we show that AGS3 is not required for planar divisions of neural progenitors in the mouse neocortex...
July 6, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683440/genetics-of-cerebellar-and-neocortical-expansion-in-anthropoid-primates-a-comparative-approach
#12
Peter W Harrison, Stephen H Montgomery
What adaptive changes in brain structure and function underpin the evolution of increased cognitive performance in humans and our close relatives? Identifying the genetic basis of brain evolution has become a major tool in answering this question. Numerous cases of positive selection, altered gene expression or gene duplication have been identified that may contribute to the evolution of the neocortex, which is widely assumed to play a predominant role in cognitive evolution. However, the components of the neocortex co-evolve with other functionally interdependent regions of the brain, most notably in the cerebellum...
July 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677231/development-of-deep-and-upper-neuronal-layers-in-the-domestic-cat-sheep-and-pig-neocortex
#13
M Glatzle, M Hoops, J Kauffold, J Seeger, S A Fietz
The neocortex plays a key role in cognition, volitional motor control and sensory perception and has undergone tremendous expansion during evolution. The mature neocortex consists of radially aligned neurons that are arranged in six layers. Layers II-VI are often split into two groups: deep and upper layers, both building up the so-called cortical plate during embryonic and foetal development. So far cortical neurogenesis, including the generation of deep and upper layers, has mostly been studied in laboratory rodents and primates...
July 4, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674781/spike-densities-of-the-amygdala-and-neocortex-reflect-progression-of-kindled-motor-seizures
#14
Yu-Lin Wang, Sheng-Fu Liang, Alvin W Y Su, Fu-Zen Shaw
Amygdala kindling is a common temporal lobe-like seizure model. In the present study, temporal and spectral analyses of the ictal period were investigated throughout amygdala kindling in response to different behavioral seizures. Right-side amygdala was kindled to induce epileptiform afterdischarges (ADs). ADs of both the frontal cortex and amygdala were analyzed. Powers of the low (0-9 Hz)- and high (12-30 Hz)-frequency bands in response to different behavioral seizures were calculated. Densities of upward and downward peaks of spikes, which reflected information of spike count and spike pattern, throughout kindle-induced ADs were calculated...
July 4, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674289/molecular-mechanism-underlying-abnormal-differentiation-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-the-developing-down-syndrome-brain
#15
Nobuhiro Kurabayashi, Kamon Sanada
 Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21. Individuals with DS commonly exhibit mental retardation, which is associated with abnormal brain development. In the neocortex of the DS brain, the density of neurons is markedly reduced, whereas that of astrocytes is increased. Similar to abnormalities seen in DS brains, mouse models of DS show deficits in brain development, and neural progenitor cells that give rise to neurons and glia show dysregulation in their differentiation. These suggest that the dysregulation of progenitor fate choices contributes to alterations in the numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the DS brain...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673997/endogenous-orienting-in-the-archer-fish
#16
William Saban, Liora Sekely, Raymond M Klein, Shai Gabay
The literature has long emphasized the neocortex's role in volitional processes. In this work, we examined endogenous orienting in an evolutionarily older species, the archer fish, which lacks neocortex-like cells. We used Posner's classic endogenous cuing task, in which a centrally presented, spatially informative cue is followed by a target. The fish responded to the target by shooting a stream of water at it. Interestingly, the fish demonstrated a human-like "volitional" facilitation effect: their reaction times to targets that appeared on the side indicated by the precue were faster than their reaction times to targets on the opposite side...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671120/neurovascular-specifications-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-alzheimer-like-brain-of-mice-affected-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-implications-for-future-therapies
#17
Dominik Michalski, Sarah Hofmann, Roman Pitsch, Jens Grosche, Wolfgang Härtig
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequent type of dementia, is a prototypical neurodegenerative disease, but shares with stroke certain common risk factors. Consequently, how vascular pathology may modulate AD pathogenesis has gained scientific attention. Therefore, aside from typical features of AD (e.g., amyloid-β, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cholinergic dysfunction), changes within the 'neurovascular unit' (NVU) are of particular interest. This study focused on cholinergic, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in association with the vasculature to explore the neurovascular complex of the AD brain affected by stroke...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669910/vascular-density-and-distribution-in-neocortex
#18
REVIEW
Franca Schmid, Matthew J P Barrett, Patrick Jenny, Bruno Weber
An amazingly wide range of complex behavior emerges from the cerebral cortex. Much of the information processing that leads to these behaviors is performed in neocortical circuits that span throughout the six layers of the cortex. Maintaining this circuit activity requires substantial quantities of oxygen and energy substrates, which are delivered by the complex yet well-organized and tightly-regulated vascular system. In this review, we provide a detailed characterization of the most relevant anatomical and functional features of the cortical vasculature...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666344/hippocampal-engagement-during-recall-depends-on-memory-content
#19
David A Ross, Patrick Sadil, D Merika Wilson, Rosemary A Cowell
The hippocampus is considered pivotal to recall, allowing retrieval of information not available in the immediate environment. In contrast, neocortex is thought to signal familiarity, contributing to recall only when called upon by the hippocampus. However, this view is not compatible with representational accounts of memory, which reject the mapping of cognitive processes onto brain regions. According to representational accounts, the hippocampus is not engaged by recall per se, rather it is engaged whenever hippocampal representations are required...
June 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663094/homeostatic-interplay-between-electrical-activity-and-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-developing-neocortex
#20
REVIEW
Oriane Blanquie, Werner Kilb, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
An intriguing feature of nervous system development in most animal species is that the initial number of generated neurons is higher than the number of neurons incorporated into mature circuits. A substantial portion of neurons is indeed eliminated via apoptosis during a short time window - in rodents the first two postnatal weeks. While it is well established that neurotrophic factors play a central role in controlling neuronal survival and apoptosis in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the situation is less clear in the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 27, 2017: Neuroscience
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