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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682758/dissociation-of-frontal-midline-delta-theta-and-posterior-alpha-oscillations-a-mobile-eeg-study
#1
Mingli Liang, Michael J Starrett, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous reports have demonstrated low-frequency oscillations during navigation using invasive recordings in the hippocampus of both rats and human patients. Given evidence, in some cases, of low-frequency synchronization between midline cortex and hippocampus, it is also possible that low-frequency movement-related oscillations manifest in healthy human neocortex. However, this possibility remains largely unexplored, in part due to the difficulties of coupling free ambulation and effective scalp EEG recordings...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674592/synaptic-transmission-from-subplate-neurons-controls-radial-migration-of-neocortical-neurons
#2
Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama, Mayumi Okamoto, Kentaro Endo, Minori Oshima, Noe Kaneko, Kei Yura, Haruo Okado, Takaki Miyata, Nobuaki Maeda
The neocortex exhibits a six-layered structure that is formed by radial migration of excitatory neurons, for which the multipolar-to-bipolar transition of immature migrating multipolar neurons is required. Here, we report that subplate neurons, one of the first neuron types born in the neocortex, manage the multipolar-to-bipolar transition of migrating neurons. By histochemical, imaging, and microarray analyses on the mouse embryonic cortex, we found that subplate neurons extend neurites toward the ventricular side of the subplate and form transient glutamatergic synapses on the multipolar neurons just below the subplate...
April 20, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668850/altered-neocortical-gene-expression-brain-overgrowth-and-functional-over-connectivity-in-chd8-haploinsufficient-mice
#3
Philipp Suetterlin, Shaun Hurley, Conor Mohan, Kimberley L H Riegman, Marco Pagani, Angela Caruso, Jacob Ellegood, Alberto Galbusera, Ivan Crespo-Enriquez, Caterina Michetti, Yohan Yee, Robert Ellingford, Olivier Brock, Alessio Delogu, Philippa Francis-West, Jason P Lerch, Maria Luisa Scattoni, Alessandro Gozzi, Cathy Fernandes, M Albert Basson
Truncating CHD8 mutations are amongst the highest confidence risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified to date. Here, we report that Chd8 heterozygous mice display increased brain size, motor delay, hypertelorism, pronounced hypoactivity, and anomalous responses to social stimuli. Whereas gene expression in the neocortex is only mildly affected at midgestation, over 600 genes are differentially expressed in the early postnatal neocortex. Genes involved in cell adhesion and axon guidance are particularly prominent amongst the downregulated transcripts...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663134/profound-seasonal-changes-in-brain-size-and-architecture-in-the-common-shrew
#4
Javier Lázaro, Moritz Hertel, Chet C Sherwood, Marion Muturi, Dina K N Dechmann
The seasonal changes in brain size of some shrews represent the most drastic reversible transformation in the mammalian central nervous system known to date. Brain mass decreases 10-26% from summer to winter and regrows 9-16% in spring, but the underlying structural changes at the cellular level are not yet understood. Here, we describe the volumetric differences in brain structures between seasons and sexes of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) in detail, confirming that changes in different brain regions vary in the magnitude of change...
April 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661832/kinase-activity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-is-required-for-odor-memory-consolidation
#5
Michelle T Tong, Tae-Young P Kim, Thomas A Cleland
Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)-a process that is closely associated with BDNF signaling. We sought to elucidate the role of neurotrophin signaling within the OB on odor memory consolidation. Male mice were trained on odor-reward associative discriminations after bilateral infusion of the kinase inhibitor K252a, or vehicle control, into the OB...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652580/methods-for-assessment-of-memory-reactivation
#6
Shizhao Liu, Andres D Grosmark, Zhe Chen
It has been suggested that reactivation of previously acquired experiences or stored information in declarative memories in the hippocampus and neocortex contributes to memory consolidation and learning. Understanding memory consolidation depends crucially on the development of robust statistical methods for assessing memory reactivation. To date, several statistical methods have seen established for assessing memory reactivation based on bursts of ensemble neural spike activity during offline states. Using population-decoding methods, we propose a new statistical metric, the weighted distance correlation, to assess hippocampal memory reactivation (i...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624358/toxicity-of-beta-amyloid-protein-during-aging-influence-of-synaptosomal-energy-metabolism
#7
(no author information available yet)
Background: Recent evidence suggests that early neurodegenerative events associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) probably begin in the synaptic terminal, where it has been reported a large accumulation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ), one of the main factors described in the development of AD. We analyzed the influence of energy metabolism on the toxic effects of Aβ during aging on synaptosomes from neocortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to inhibitors of glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism and we evaluated the protective effects of some antioxidant compounds...
2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623428/frontal-cortical-control-of-posterior-sensory-and-association-cortices-through-the-claustrum
#8
Michael G White, Brian N Mathur
The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter nucleus that is richly interconnected with the neocortex. This structure subserves top-down executive functions that require frontal cortical control of posterior cortical regions. However, functional anatomical support for the claustrum allowing for long-range intercortical communication is lacking. To test this, we performed a channelrhodopsin-assisted long-circuit mapping strategy in mouse brain slices. We find that anterior cingulate cortex input to the claustrum is transiently amplified by claustrum neurons that, in turn, project to parietal association cortex or to primary and secondary visual cortices...
April 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614377/neural-representations-of-time-linked-memory
#9
Maryna Pilkiw, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
Many cognitive processes, such episodic memory and decision making, rely on the ability to form associations between two events that occur separately in time. The formation of such temporal associations depends on neural representations of three types of information: what has been presented (trace holding), what will follow (temporal expectation), and when the following event will occur (explicit timing). The present review seeks to link these representations with firing patterns of single neurons recorded while rodents and non-human primates associate stimuli, outcomes, and motor responses over time intervals...
March 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599439/fiber-optic-implant-for-simultaneous-fluorescence-based-calcium-recordings-and-bold-fmri-in-mice
#10
Felix Schlegel, Yaroslav Sych, Aileen Schroeter, Jillian Stobart, Bruno Weber, Fritjof Helmchen, Markus Rudin
Despite the growing popularity of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), understanding of its underlying principles is still limited. This protocol describes a technique for simultaneous measurement of neural activity using fluorescent calcium indicators together with the corresponding hemodynamic BOLD fMRI response in the mouse brain. Our early work using small-molecule fluorophores in rats gave encouraging results but was limited to acute measurements using synthetic dyes. Our latest procedure combines fMRI with optical detection of cell-type-specific virally delivered GCaMP6, a genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI)...
May 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592843/phosphorylated-%C3%AE-synuclein-accumulations-and-lewy-body-like-pathology-distributed-in-parkinson-disease-related-brain-areas-of-aged-rhesus-monkeys-treated-with-mptp
#11
Baihui Huang, Shihao Wu, Zhengbo Wang, Longjiao Ge, Joshua D Rizak, Jing Wu, Jiali Li, Lin Xu, Longbao Lv, Yong Yin, Xintian Hu, Hao Li
Phosphorylation of α-synuclein at serine 129 (P-Ser 129 α-syn) is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy bodies (LBs) formation. However, there is no clear evidence indicates the quantitative relation of P-Ser 129 α-syn accumulation and dopaminergic cell loss, LBs pathology and the affected brain areas in PD monkeys. Here, pathological changes in the substantia nigra (SN) and PD related brain areas were measured in aged monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) utilizing a modeling-recovery-remodeling strategy...
March 25, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588229/microstructural-imaging-of-human-neocortex-in-vivo
#12
Luke J Edwards, Evgeniya Kirilina, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf
The neocortex of the human brain is the seat of higher brain function. Modern imaging techniques, chief among them magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allow non-invasive imaging of this important structure. Knowledge of the microstructure of the neocortex has classically come from post-mortem histological studies of human tissue, and extrapolations from invasive animal studies. From these studies, we know that the scale of important neocortical structure spans six orders of magnitude, ranging from the size of axonal diameters (microns), to the size of cortical areas responsible for integrating sensory information (centimetres)...
March 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587143/a-golgi-lipid-signaling-pathway-controls-apical-golgi-distribution-and-cell-polarity-during-neurogenesis
#13
Zhigang Xie, Seong Kwon Hur, Liang Zhao, Charles S Abrams, Vytas A Bankaitis
Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) stimulate PtdIns-4-P synthesis and signaling in eukaryotic cells, but to what biological outcomes such signaling circuits are coupled remains unclear. Herein, we show that two highly related StART-like PITPs, PITPNA and PITPNB, act in a redundant fashion to support development of the embryonic mammalian neocortex. PITPNA/PITPNB do so by driving PtdIns-4-P-dependent recruitment of GOLPH3, and likely ceramide transfer protein (CERT), to Golgi membranes with GOLPH3 recruitment serving to promote MYO18A- and F-actin-directed loading of the Golgi network to apical processes of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581380/effects-of-ageing-on-cortical-neural-dynamics-and-local-sleep-homeostasis-in-mice
#14
Laura E McKillop, Simon P Fisher, Nanyi Cui, Stuart N Peirson, Russell G Foster, Keith A Wafford, Vladyslav V Vyazovskiy
Healthy ageing is associated with marked effects on sleep, including its daily amount and architecture, as well as the specific electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations. Neither the neurophysiological underpinnings, nor the biological significance of these changes are understood, and crucially the question remains whether ageing is associated with reduced sleep need or a diminished capacity to generate sufficient sleep. Here we tested the hypothesis that ageing may affect local cortical networks, disrupting the capacity to generate and sustain sleep oscillations, and with it the local homeostatic response to sleep loss...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572516/time-dependent-memory-transformation-along-the-hippocampal-anterior-posterior-axis
#15
Lisa C Dandolo, Lars Schwabe
With time, memories undergo a neural reorganization that is linked to a transformation of detailed, episodic into more semantic, gist-like memory. Traditionally, this reorganization is thought to involve a redistribution of memory from the hippocampus to neocortical areas. Here we report a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, along its anterior-posterior axis, that is related to the transformation of detailed memories into gist-like representations. We show that mnemonic representations in the anterior hippocampus are highly distinct and that anterior hippocampal activity is associated with detailed memory but decreases over time...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570898/novel-connectivity-map-normalization-procedure-for-improved-quantitative-investigation-of-structural-thalamic-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#16
Brendan G Santyr, Jonathan C Lau, Seyed M Mirsattari, Jorge G Burneo, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, David A Steven, Andrew G Parrent, Keith MacDougall, Ali R Khan
BACKGROUND: Connectivity studies targeting the thalamus have revealed patterns of atrophy and deafferentiation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The thalamus can be parcellated using probabilistic tractography to demonstrate regions of cortical connectivity; however, sensitivity to smaller or less connected regions is low. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate thalamic structural connectivity in a wider range of cortical and limbic structures in TLE patients using a novel connectivity map normalization procedure...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566357/solving-constraint-satisfaction-problems-with-distributed-neocortical-like-neuronal-networks
#17
Ueli Rutishauser, Jean-Jacques Slotine, Rodney J Douglas
Finding actions that satisfy the constraints imposed by both external inputs and internal representations is central to decision making. We demonstrate that some important classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) can be solved by networks composed of homogeneous cooperative-competitive modules that have connectivity similar to motifs observed in the superficial layers of neocortex. The winner-take-all modules are sparsely coupled by programming neurons that embed the constraints onto the otherwise homogeneous modular computational substrate...
March 22, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564992/the-neuropathological-study-of-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-in-the-temporal-lobe-of-schizophrenia-patients
#18
Tomoyasu Marui, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Hirotaka Sekiguchi, Chikako Habuchi, Hiroshige Fujishiro, Kenichi Oshima, Kazuhiro Niizato, Shotaro Hayashida, Katsuhisa Masaki, Junichi Kira, Norio Ozaki
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies based on the neuroimaging analysis, genomic analysis and transcriptome analysis of the postmortem brain suggest that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is related to myelin-oligodendrocyte abnormalities. However, no serious neuropathological investigation of this protein in the schizophrenic brain has yet been performed. In this study, to confirm the change in neuropathological findings due to the pathogenesis of this disease, we observed the expression of myelin-oligodendrocyte directly in the brain tissue of schizophrenia patients...
March 22, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563063/early-postnatal-development-of-the-visual-cortex-in-mice-with-retinal-degeneration
#19
D Himmelhan, O Rawashdeh, H H A Oelschläger
This study characterizes the early postnatal development of the visual neocortex in C3H/HeNRj mice. These mice are homozygous for the Pde6brd1 mutation, which causes retinal degeneration starting from postnatal day 7 (P7). To monitor the development of the visual cortex between P3 and P28 we used eight antigens known to be expressed at different developmental stages (Nestin, tau3, β3- Tubulin, Calbindin, Doublecortin, MAP2, Parvalbumin and NeuN). Using semiquantitative analysis we traced the expression and localization of different developmental markers throughout the layers of the visual cortex...
March 18, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562171/species-specific-mechanisms-of-neuron-subtype-specification-reveal-evolutionary-plasticity-of-amniote-brain-development
#20
Tadashi Nomura, Wataru Yamashita, Hitoshi Gotoh, Katsuhiko Ono
Highly ordered brain architectures in vertebrates consist of multiple neuron subtypes with specific neuronal connections. However, the origin of and evolutionary changes in neuron specification mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that regulatory mechanisms of neuron subtype specification are divergent in developing amniote brains. In the mammalian neocortex, the transcription factors (TFs) Ctip2 and Satb2 are differentially expressed in layer-specific neurons. In contrast, these TFs are co-localized in reptilian and avian dorsal pallial neurons...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
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