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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326020/pyramidal-neurons-are-not-generalizable-building-blocks-of-cortical-networks
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer I Luebke
A key challenge in cortical neuroscience is to gain a comprehensive understanding of how pyramidal neuron heterogeneity across different areas and species underlies the functional specialization of individual neurons, networks, and areas. Comparative studies have been important in this endeavor, providing data relevant to the question of which of the many inherent properties of individual pyramidal neurons are necessary and sufficient for species-specific network and areal function. In this mini review, the importance of pyramidal neuron structural properties for signaling are outlined, followed by a summary of our recent work comparing the structural features of mouse (C57/BL6 strain) and rhesus monkey layer 3 (L3) pyramidal neurons in primary visual and frontal association cortices and their implications for neuronal and areal function...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320843/distinct-actions-of-voltage-activated-ca-2-channel-block-on-spontaneous-release-at-excitatory-and-inhibitory-central-synapses
#2
Timur Tsintsadze, Courtney L Williams, Dennis Weingarten, Henrique von Gersdorff, Stephen M Smith
At chemical synapses, voltage-activated calcium channels (VACCs) mediate Ca(2+) influx to trigger action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release. However, the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) regulates spontaneous transmission have not been fully determined. We have shown that VACCs are a major trigger of spontaneous release at neocortical inhibitory synapses but not at excitatory synapses suggesting fundamental differences in spontaneous neurotransmission at GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses. Recently, VACC blockers were reported to reduce spontaneous release of glutamate and it was proposed that there was conservation of underlying mechanisms of neurotransmission at excitatory and inhibitory synapses...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320268/neonatal-proinflammatory-stress-induces-accumulation-of-corticosterone-and-interleukin-6-in-the-hippocampus-of-juvenile-rats-potential-mechanism-of-synaptic-plasticity-impairments
#3
M V Onufriev, S V Freiman, D I Peregud, I V Kudryashova, A O Tishkina, M Yu Stepanichev, N V Gulyaeva
Infectious diseases in early postnatal ontogenesis can induce neuroinflammation, disrupt normal central nervous system development, and contribute to pathogenesis of cerebral pathologies in adults. To study long-term consequences of such early stress, we induced neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) by injecting bacterial lipopolysaccharide into rat pups on postnatal days 3 and 5 and then assessed the levels of corticosterone, proinflammatory cytokines and their mRNAs, and neurotrophins and their mRNAs in the hippocampus and neocortex of the one-month-old animals...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318904/dual-memory-neural-networks-for-modeling-cognitive-activities-of-humans-via-wearable-sensors
#4
Sang-Woo Lee, Chung-Yeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Kwak, Jung-Woo Ha, Jeonghee Kim, Byoung-Tak Zhang
Wearable devices, such as smart glasses and watches, allow for continuous recording of everyday life in a real world over an extended period of time or lifelong. This possibility helps better understand the cognitive behavior of humans in real life as well as build human-aware intelligent agents for practical purposes. However, modeling the human cognitive activity from wearable-sensor data stream is challenging because learning new information often results in loss of previously acquired information, causing a problem known as catastrophic forgetting...
February 20, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317912/the-soft-mechanical-signature-of-glial-scars-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Emad Moeendarbary, Isabell P Weber, Graham K Sheridan, David E Koser, Sara Soleman, Barbara Haenzi, Elizabeth J Bradbury, James Fawcett, Kristian Franze
Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299814/functional-neuroanatomical-associations-of-working-memory-in-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Christopher Kobylecki, Cathleen Haense, Jennifer M Harris, Cheryl L Stopford, Shailendra H Segobin, Matthew Jones, Anna M T Richardson, Alexander Gerhard, José Anton-Rodriguez, Jennifer C Thompson, Karl Herholz, Julie S Snowden
OBJECTIVE: To characterize metabolic correlates of working memory impairment in clinically defined subtypes of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. BACKGROUND: Established models of working memory suggest a key role for frontal lobe function, yet the association in Alzheimer's disease between working memory impairment and visuospatial and language symptoms suggests that temporoparietal neocortical dysfunction may be responsible. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with predominantly early-onset Alzheimer's disease were clinically classified into groups with predominantly amnestic, multidomain or visual deficits...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299779/the-related-neuronal-endosomal-proteins-neep21-nsg1-and-p19-nsg2-have-divergent-expression-profiles-in-vivo
#7
Kelly Barford, Chan Choo Yap, Noelle D Dwyer, Bettina Winckler
Endosomal maturation and transport constitutes a complex trafficking system present in all cell types. Neurons have adapted their endosomal system to meet their unique and complex needs. These adaptations include repurposing existing proteins to diversify endocytosis and trafficking, as well as preferential expression of certain regulators more highly in neurons than other cell types. These neuronal regulators include the family of Neuron-Specific Gene family members (Nsg), NEEP21 (Nsg1), and P19 (Nsg2). NEEP21/Nsg1 plays a role in the trafficking of multiple receptors, including the cell adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM, the neurotransmitter receptor GluA2, and β-APP...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295292/differential-neuronal-and-glial-expression-of-nuclear-factor-i-proteins-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-adult-mice
#8
Kok-Siong Chen, Lachlan Harris, Jonathan W C Lim, Tracey J Harvey, Michael Piper, Richard M Gronostajski, Linda J Richards, Jens Bunt
The Nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of NFIA, NFIB or NFIX results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB and NFIX is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of each NFI protein shows a distinct laminar pattern in the adult mouse neocortex and that their cell type-specific expression differs depending on the family member...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290150/extracellular-matrix-modulation-is-driven-by-experience-dependent-plasticity-during-stroke-recovery
#9
Miriana Jlenia Quattromani, Mathilde Pruvost, Carla Guerreiro, Fredrik Backlund, Elisabet Englund, Anders Aspberg, Tomasz Jaworski, Jakob Hakon, Karsten Ruscher, Leszek Kaczmarek, Denis Vivien, Tadeusz Wieloch
Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289377/loss-of-saltation-and-presynaptic-action-potential-failure-in-demyelinated-axons
#10
Mustafa S Hamada, Marko A Popovic, Maarten H P Kole
In cortical pyramidal neurons the presynaptic terminals controlling transmitter release are located along unmyelinated axon collaterals, far from the original action potential (AP) initiation site, the axon initial segment (AIS). Once initiated, APs will need to reliably propagate over long distances and regions of geometrical inhomogeneity like branch points (BPs) to rapidly depolarize the presynaptic terminals and confer temporally precise synaptic transmission. While axon pathologies such as demyelinating diseases are well established to impede the fidelity of AP propagation along internodes, to which extent myelin loss affects propagation along BPs and axon collaterals is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279988/entorhinal-cortex-antemortem-cortical-thickness-and-postmortem-neurofibrillary-tangles-and-amyloid-pathology
#11
A A Thaker, B D Weinberg, W P Dillon, C P Hess, H J Cabral, D A Fleischman, S E Leurgans, D A Bennett, B T Hyman, M S Albert, R J Killiany, B Fischl, A M Dale, R S Desikan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The entorhinal cortex, a critical gateway between the neocortex and hippocampus, is one of the earliest regions affected by Alzheimer disease-associated neurofibrillary tangle pathology. Although our prior work has automatically delineated an MR imaging-based measure of the entorhinal cortex, whether antemortem entorhinal cortex thickness is associated with postmortem tangle burden within the entorhinal cortex is still unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between antemortem MRI measures of entorhinal cortex thickness and postmortem neuropathological measures...
March 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279812/astrocytic-modulation-of-neuronal-excitability-through-k-spatial-buffering
#12
REVIEW
Alba Bellot-Saez, Orsolya Kékesi, John W Morley, Yossi Buskila
The human brain contains two major cell populations, neurons and glia. While neurons are electrically excitable and capable of discharging short voltage pulses known as action potentials, glial cells are not. However, astrocytes, the prevailing subtype of glia in the cortex, are highly connected and can modulate the excitability of neurons by changing the concentration of potassium ions in the extracellular environment, a process called K(+) clearance. During the past decade, astrocytes have been the focus of much research, mainly due to their close association with synapses and their modulatory impact on neuronal activity...
March 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276653/the-building-of-the-neocortex-with-non-hyperpolarizing-neurotransmitters
#13
REVIEW
M Ascenzi, G Bony
The development of the neocortex requires the synergic action of several secreted molecules to achieve the right amount of proliferation, differentiation and migration of neural cells. Neurons are well known to release neurotransmitters (NTs) in adult and a growing body of evidences describes the presence of NTs already in the embryonic brain, long before the generation of synapses. NTs are classified as inhibitory or excitatory based on the physiological responses of the target neuron. However, this view is challenged by the fact that glycine and GABA NTs are excitatory during development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276603/ucp2-regulates-embryonic-neurogenesis-via-ros-mediated-yap-alternation-in-the-developing-neocortex
#14
Fen Ji, Tianjin Shen, Wenzheng Zou, Jianwei Jiao
Mitochondrial metabolism is a fundamental process in tissue development. How this process play functions in embryonic neurogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates the embryonic neurogenesis by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect the proliferation of progenitors. In the embryonic brains of UCP2 knockdown or condition knockout mice, the proliferation of progenitors is significantly increased, while the differentiation of progenitors is reduced...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268428/estimation-of-resting-state-effective-connectivity-in-epilepsy-using-direct-directed-transfer-function
#15
Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton
There has been an increasing demand among neuroscientists to understand the complex network of functionally connected neural assemblies in the human brain. For this purpose, computational EEG research is widely used by researchers due to its remarkable advantage in providing high temporal resolution, and ease of analysis across different frequency bands. Here we analyzed Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals of electrodes placed on frontal-parietal neocortex brain region of 8 pediatric epileptic patients. In order to evaluate the directed causal relationship among different brain regions, we employed a Granger causality based multivariate connectivity estimator named direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF) to identify signal propagations among the selected set of electrode in the frequency range 1-50Hz...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265099/neonatal-cx26-removal-impairs-neocortical-development-and-leads-to-elevated-anxiety
#16
Xin Su, Jing-Jing Chen, Lin-Yun Liu, Qian Huang, Li-Zhao Zhang, Xiao-Yang Li, Xiang-Nan He, Wenlian Lu, Shan Sun, Huawei Li, Yong-Chun Yu
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neocortical circuit formation and animal behavior. Here, we report that neonatal electrical coupling between neocortical excitatory neurons is critical for proper neuronal development, synapse formation, and animal behavior...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263415/very-low-concentrations-of-ethanol-suppress-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-visual-cortex
#17
Lucas Luong, Nicholas M Bannon, Andrew Redenti, Marina Chistiakova, Maxim Volgushev
Ethanol is one of the most commonly used substances in the world. Behavioral effects of alcohol are well described, however cellular mechanisms of its action are poorly understood. There is an apparent contradiction between measurable behavioral changes produced by low concentrations of ethanol, and lack of evidence of synaptic changes at these concentrations. Further, effects of ethanol on synaptic transmission in the neocortex are poorly understood. Here we set to determine effects of ethanol on excitatory synaptic transmission in the neocortex...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261127/the-theory-of-localist-representation-and-of-a-purely-abstract-cognitive-system-the-evidence-from-cortical-columns-category-cells-and-multisensory-neurons
#18
Asim Roy
The debate about representation in the brain and the nature of the cognitive system has been going on for decades now. This paper examines the neurophysiological evidence, primarily from single cell recordings, to get a better perspective on both the issues. After an initial review of some basic concepts, the paper reviews the data from single cell recordings - in cortical columns and of category-selective and multisensory neurons. In neuroscience, columns in the neocortex (cortical columns) are understood to be a basic functional/computational unit...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260633/plasticity-of-hippocampal-memories-in-humans
#19
REVIEW
Aidan J Horner, Christian F Doeller
The human hippocampus is a brain region that supports episodic and spatial memory. Recent experiments have drawn on animal research and computational modelling to reveal how the unique computations and representations of the hippocampus support episodic and spatial memory. Invasive electrophysiological recordings and non-invasive functional brain imaging have provided evidence for the rapid formation of hippocampal representations, as well as the ability of the hippocampus to both pattern-separate and pattern-complete input from the neocortex...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260189/behavioral-pieces-of-neuroethological-puzzles
#20
Kenneth C Catania
In this review, I give a first-person account of surprising insights that have come from the behavioral dimension of neuroethological studies in my laboratory. These studies include the early attempts to understand the function of the nose in star-nosed moles and to explore its representation in the neocortex. This led to the discovery of a somatosensory fovea that parallels the visual fovea of primates in several ways. Subsequent experiments to investigate the assumed superiority of star-nosed moles to their relatives when locating food led to the unexpected discovery of stereo olfaction in common moles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
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