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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227861/novel-gene-function-and-regulation-in-neocortex-expansion
#1
REVIEW
Michael Heide, Katherine R Long, Wieland B Huttner
The expansion of the neocortex during human evolution is due to changes in our genome that result in increased and prolonged proliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells during neocortex development. Three principal types of such genomic changes can be distinguished, first, novel gene regulation in human, second, novel function in human of genes existing in both human and non-human species, and third, novel, human-specific genes. The latter comprise both, increases in the copy number of genes existing also in non-human species, and the emergence of genes giving rise to unique, human-specific gene products...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#2
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
December 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223682/neocortical-origin-and-progression-of-gray-matter-atrophy-in-nonamnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jeffrey S Phillips, Fulvio Da Re, Laynie Dratch, Sharon X Xie, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Carlo Ferrarese, Edward B Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218544/the-molecular-pathway-regulating-bergmann-glia-and-folia-generation-in-the-cerebellum
#4
REVIEW
Alan W Leung, James Y H Li
Evolution of complex behaviors in higher vertebrates and primates require the development of sophisticated neuronal circuitry and the expansion of brain surface area to accommodate the vast number of neuronal and glial populations. To achieve these goals, the neocortex in primates and the cerebellum in amniotes have developed specialized types of basal progenitors to aid the folding of their cortices. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia constitute such a basal progenitor population, having a distinctive morphology and playing a critical role in cerebellar corticogenesis...
December 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#5
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217680/non-newly-generated-immature-neurons-in-the-sheep-brain-are-not-restricted-to-cerebral-cortex
#6
Matteo Piumatti, Ottavia Palazzo, Chiara La Rosa, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Federico Luzzati, Frederic Lévy, Luca Bonfanti
A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally, then remaining in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals are found also in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes, to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215308/the-importance-of-small-polar-radiometabolites-in-molecular-neuroimaging-a-pet-study-with-11c-cimbi-36-labeled-in-two-positions
#7
Annette Johansen, Hanne D Hansen, Claus Svarer, Szabolcs Lehel, Sebastian Leth-Petersen, Jesper L Kristensen, Nic Gillings, Gitte M Knudsen
[11C]Cimbi-36, a 5-HT2A receptor agonist PET radioligand, contains three methoxy groups amenable to [11C]-labeling. In pigs, [11C]Cimbi-36 yields a polar (M1) and a less polar (M2) radiometabolite fraction, while changing the labeling to [11C]Cimbi-36_5 yields only the M1 fraction. We investigate whether changing the labeling position of [11C]Cimbi-36 eliminates M2 in humans, and if this changes the signal-to-background ratio. Six healthy volunteers each underwent two dynamic PET scans; after injection of [11C]Cimbi-36, both the M1 and M2 fraction appeared in plasma, whereas only the M1 appeared after [11C]Cimbi-36_5 injection...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211992/fluctuation-analysis-in-nonstationary-conditions-single-ca2-channel-current-in-pyramidal-neurons
#8
Christian Scheppach, Hugh P C Robinson
Fluctuation analysis is a method that allows measurement of the single-channel current of ion channels even when it is too small to be resolved directly with the patch-clamp technique. This is the case for voltage-gated calcium channels. They are present in all mammalian central neurons, controlling presynaptic release of transmitter, postsynaptic signaling, and synaptic integration. The amplitudes of their single-channel currents in a physiological concentration of extracellular calcium, however, are small and not well determined...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210884/discrepancy-between-cerebral-structure-and-cognitive-functioning-a-review
#9
Michael Nahm, David Rousseau, Bruce Greyson
Neuroscientists typically assume that human mental functions are generated by the brain and that its structural elements, including the different cell layers and tissues that form the neocortex, play specific roles in this complex process. Different functional units are thought to complement one another to create an integrated self-awareness or episodic memory. Still, findings that pertain to brain dysplasia and brain lesions indicate that in some individuals there is a considerable discrepancy between the cerebral structures and cognitive functioning...
December 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207268/cortical-processing-how-mice-predict-the-visual-effects-of-locomotion
#10
Marina Fridman, Leopoldo Petreanu
New research identifies a frontal area in the mouse neocortex that sends predictions of locomotion-coupled visual flow to visual cortex. The findings support predictive coding theories of cortical processing.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205151/towards-deep-learning-with-segregated-dendrites
#11
Jordan Guerguiev, Timothy P Lillicrap, Blake A Richards
Deep learning has led to significant advances in artificial intelligence, in part, by adopting strategies motivated by neurophysiology. However, it is unclear whether deep learning could occur in the real brain. Here, we show that a deep learning algorithm that utilizes multi-compartment neurons might help us to understand how the neocortex optimizes cost functions. Like neocortical pyramidal neurons, neurons in our model receive sensory information and higher-order feedback in electrotonically segregated compartments...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203896/proteomic-analysis-of-postsynaptic-proteins-in-regions-of-the-human-neocortex
#12
Marcia Roy, Oksana Sorokina, Nathan Skene, Clémence Simonnet, Francesca Mazzo, Ruud Zwart, Emanuele Sher, Colin Smith, J Douglas Armstrong, Seth G N Grant
The postsynaptic proteome of excitatory synapses comprises ~1,000 highly conserved proteins that control the behavioral repertoire, and mutations disrupting their function cause >130 brain diseases. Here, we document the composition of postsynaptic proteomes in human neocortical regions and integrate it with genetic, functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography imaging, and behavioral data. Neocortical regions show signatures of expression of individual proteins, protein complexes, biochemical and metabolic pathways...
December 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203280/reduced-post-stroke-glial-scarring-in-the-infant-primate-brain-reflects-age-related-differences-in-the-regulation-of-astrogliosis
#13
Leon Teo, Anthony G Boghdadi, Mitchell de Souza, James A Bourne
Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide. Surviving patients often suffer permanent neurological impairments, and spontaneous recovery rarely occurs. However, observations that early-life brain injuries, including strokes, elicit less severe long-term functional impairments, compared to adults, continue to intrigue. While much research has focussed on neuronal changes and plasticity, less is known regarding the regulation of astrogliosis and glial scar formation after a stroke at different stages of life...
December 1, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196808/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-from-the-olfactory-bulb-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#14
REVIEW
María Graciela Cersosimo
Olfactory limbic structures, like the amygdala, the entorhinal, and the piriform cortices, are closely involved in cognitive processes. Thus, besides olfactory dysfunctions, it is conceivable that the compromise of these structures can lead to cognitive impairment. The olfactory bulb is affected by alpha-synuclein pathology in almost all cases of both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The clinical distinction between these disorders relies on the timing in the appearance of dementia in relationship to motor symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193520/physiological-significance-of-multipolar-cells-generated-from-neural-stem-cells-and-progenitors-for-the-establishment-of-neocortical-cytoarchitecture
#15
REVIEW
Ken-Ichi Mizutani
Neurogenesis encompasses an entire set of events that leads to the generation of newborn neurons from neural stem cells and more committed progenitor cells, including cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation and integration into circuits. In particular, the precise control of neuronal migration and morphological changes is essential for the development of the neocortex. Postmitotic cells within the intermediate zone have been found to transiently assume a characteristic "multipolar" morphology, after which a multipolar-to-bipolar transition occurs before the cells enter the cortical plate; however, the importance of this multipolar phase in the establishment of mature cortical cytoarchitecture and the precise genetic control of this phase remains largely unknown...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186594/resection-of-temporal-neocortex-during-multiple-hippocampal-transections-for-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-does-not-affect-seizure-or-memory-outcome
#16
Fady Girgis, Madeline E Greil, Philip S Fastenau, Jennifer Sweet, Hans Lüders, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Multiple hippocampal transection (MHT) is a surgical treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with improved postoperative neuropsychological outcomes compared with lobectomy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resection of the amygdala and anterior temporal neocortex during MHT affects postoperative seizure/memory outcome. METHODS: Seventeen patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging and stereo-electroencephalogram-proven drug-resistant dominant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were treated with MHT...
December 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181526/cortical-structures-associated-with-human-blood-pressure-control
#17
Nuria Lacuey, Johnson P Hampson, Wanchat Theeranaew, Bilal Zonjy, Ajay Vithala, Norma J Hupp, Kenneth A Loparo, Jonathan P Miller, Samden D Lhatoo
Importance: A better understanding of the role of cortical structures in blood pressure control may help us understand cardiovascular collapse that may lead to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Objective: To identify cortical control sites for human blood pressure regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patients with intractable epilepsy undergoing intracranial electrode implantation as a prelude to epilepsy surgery in the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center were potential candidates for this study...
November 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178354/hyperexcitability-of-the-network-contributes-to-synchronization-processes-in-the-human-epileptic-neocortex
#18
Kinga Tóth, Katharina T Hofer, Ágnes Kandrács, László Entz, Attila Bagó, Loránd Erőss, Zsófia Jordán, Gábor Nagy, András Sólyom, Dániel Fabó, István Ulbert, Lucia Wittner
Interictal activity is a hallmark in epilepsy diagnostics and is linked to neuronal hypersynchrony. Little is known about perturbations in human epileptic neocortical microcircuits, and their role in generating pathological synchronies. To explore hyperexcitability of the human epileptic network, and its contribution to convulsive activity, we investigated an in vitro model of synchronous burst activity spontaneously occurring in postoperative tissue slices derived from patients with or without preoperative clinical and electrographic manifestations of epileptic activity...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175952/modulation-of-ether-%C3%A3-go-go-related-gene-erg-current-governs-intrinsic-persistent-activity-in-rodent-neocortical-pyramidal-cells
#19
Edward D Cui, Ben W Strowbridge
While cholinergic receptor activation has long been known to dramatically enhance the excitability of cortical neurons, the cellular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. We used intracellular recordings in rat (both sexes) neocortical brain slices to assess the ionic mechanisms supporting persistent firing modes triggered by depolarizing stimuli following cholinergic receptor activation. We found multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a component of the underlying hyperexcitability associated with persistent firing reflects a reduction in the standing (leak) K+ current mediated by Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (ERG) channels...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175494/unfolding-the-hippocampus-an-intrinsic-coordinate-system-for-subfield-segmentations-and-quantitative-mapping
#20
Jordan DeKraker, Kayla M Ferko, Jonathan C Lau, Stefan Kӧhler, Ali R Khan
The hippocampus, like the neocortex, has a morphological structure that is complex and variable in its folding pattern, especially in the hippocampal head. The current study presents a computational method to unfold hippocampal grey matter, with a particular focus on the hippocampal head where complexity is highest due to medial curving of the structure and the variable presence of digitations. This unfolding was performed on segmentations from high-resolution, T2-weighted 7T MRI data from 12 healthy participants and one surgical patient with epilepsy whose resected hippocampal tissue was used for histological validation...
November 23, 2017: NeuroImage
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