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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146443/differential-responses-of-a-thioredoxin-like-protein-gene-to-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-challenge-in-the-noble-scallop-chlamys-nobilis-with-different-total-carotenoids-content
#1
Hongkuan Zhang, Dewei Cheng, Hongxing Liu, Huaiping Zheng
Being lack of specific immune system, both enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants play crucial roles in immune of invertebrates. In the present study, in order to investigate immune roles of enzyme (thioredoxin, TRX) and antioxidants (carotenoids), Golden scallops with golden shell and golden muscle rich in carotenoids content and Brown scallops with brown shell and white muscle less carotenoids content of the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis were challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 48 h. Firstly, a cDNA of TRX protein gene from the scallop (named as CnTRX) was cloned and characterized...
November 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145191/antioxidants-maintain-cellular-redox-homeostasis-by-elimination-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#2
Long He, Ting He, Shabnam Farrar, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living cells as normal cellular metabolic byproduct. Under excessive stress conditions, cells will produce numerous ROS, and the living organisms eventually evolve series of response mechanisms to adapt to the ROS exposure as well as utilize it as the signaling molecules. ROS molecules would trigger oxidative stress in a feedback mechanism involving many biological processes, such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Growing evidences have suggested that ROS play a critical role as the signaling molecules throughout the entire cell death pathway...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135962/design-recombinant-fusion-expression-and-biological-evaluation-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-analogue-as-novel-antimicrobial-agent
#3
Chunlan Xu, Yu Guo, Xiangjin Qiao, Xiaoya Shang, Weining Niu, Mingliang Jin
Antimicrobial peptides represent an emerging category of therapeutic agents with remarkable structural and functional diversity. Modified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (VIP analogue 8 with amino acid sequence "FTANYTRLRRQLAVRRYLAAILGRR") without haemolytic activity and cytotoxicity displayed enhanced antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922 than parent VIP even in the presence of 180 mM NaCl or 50 mM MgCl₂, or in the range of pH 4-10...
November 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122608/thioredoxin-albumin-fusion-protein-prevents-copper-enhanced-zinc-induced-neurotoxicity-via-its-antioxidative-activity
#4
Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Mikako Shimoda, Victor T G Chuang, Kento Nishida, Masahiro Kawahara, Tatsuhiro Ishida, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama, Yu Ishima
Zinc (Zn) is a co-factor for a vast number of enzymes, and functions as a regulator for immune mechanism and protein synthesis. However, excessive Zn release induced in pathological situations such as stroke or transient global ischemia is toxic. Previously, we demonstrated that the interaction of Zn and copper (Cu) is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various metal ions induced neuronal death...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115830/gastrodin-and-isorhynchophylline-synergistically-inhibit-mpp-induced-oxidative-stress-in-sh-sy5y-cells-by-targeting-erk1-2-and-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathways-involvement-of-nrf2-nuclear-translocation
#5
Qiang Li, Chengu Niu, Xiaojie Zhang, Miaoxian Dong
The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is multifactorial event. Combination therapies might be more effective in controlling the disease. Thus, the studies reported were designed to test the hypothesis that gastrodin (GAS)-induced de novo synthesis of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and isorhynchophylline (IRN) inhibition of Nrf2 nuclear export contribute to their additive or synergistic neuroprotective effect. Here, we have demonstrated that the combination of GAS and IRN (GAS/IRN) protects SH-SY5Y cells against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity in a synergistic manner...
November 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113061/effects-of-marine-oils-digested-with-human-fluids-on-cellular-viability-and-stress-protein-expression-in-human-intestinal-caco-2-cells
#6
Cecilia Tullberg, Gerd Vegarud, Ingrid Undeland, Nathalie Scheers
In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0-90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0...
November 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111118/hsp90-and-thioredoxin-thioredoxin-reductase-enable-the-catalytic-activity-of-clostridial-neurotoxins-inside-nerve-terminals
#7
Marco Pirazzini, Domenico Azarnia Tehran, Giulia Zanetti, Ornella Rossetto, Cesare Montecucco
Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active...
October 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100157/triclosan-induced-transcriptional-and-biochemical-alterations-in-the-freshwater-green-algae-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
Chang-Gui Pan, Feng-Jiao Peng, Wen-Jun Shi, Li-Xin Hu, Xiao-Dong Wei, Guang-Guo Ying
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent widely used in personal care products (PCPs). We investigated the effects of TCS (20μg/L, 100μg/L and 500μg/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by measuring the algal growth, chlorophyll content, lipid peroxidation, and transcription of the antioxidant-related genes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), plastid terminal oxidase 2 (PTOX) and thioredoxin (TRX)) as well as biochemical alterations...
October 31, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080907/m-type-thioredoxins-are-involved-in-the-xanthophyll-cycle-and-proton-motive-force-to-alter-npq-under-low-light-conditions-in-arabidopsis
#9
Qingen Da, Ting Sun, Menglong Wang, Honglei Jin, Mengshu Li, Dongru Feng, Jinfa Wang, Hong-Bin Wang, Bing Liu
M-type thioredoxins are required to regulate zeaxanthin epoxidase activity and to maintain the steady-state level of the proton motive force, thereby influencing NPQ properties under low-light conditions in Arabidopsis. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) helps protect photosynthetic organisms from photooxidative damage via the non-radiative dissipation of energy as heat. Energy-dependent quenching (qE) is a major constituent of NPQ. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of qE is not well understood...
October 28, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079703/thioredoxin-1-overexpression-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-preserves-the-counterregulatory-response-to-hypoglycemia-during-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-male-rats
#10
Chunxue Zhou, Vanessa H Routh
We previously showed that the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), prevented hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) and impaired activation of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons by low glucose after recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) in non-diabetic rats. However, NAC does not normalize glucose sensing by VMH GI neurons when RH occurs during diabetes. We hypothesized that recruiting the thioredoxin (Trx) antioxidant defense system would prevent HAAF and normalize glucose sensing after RH in diabetes...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078290/ntrc-dependent-redox-balance-of-2-cys-peroxiredoxins-is-needed-for-optimal-function-of-the-photosynthetic-apparatus
#11
Juan Manuel Pérez-Ruiz, Belén Naranjo, Valle Ojeda, Manuel Guinea, Francisco Javier Cejudo
Thiol-dependent redox regulation allows the rapid adaptation of chloroplast function to unpredictable changes in light intensity. Traditionally, it has been considered that chloroplast redox regulation relies on photosynthetically reduced ferredoxin (Fd), thioredoxins (Trxs), and an Fd-dependent Trx reductase (FTR), the Fd-FTR-Trxs system, which links redox regulation to light. More recently, a plastid-localized NADPH-dependent Trx reductase (NTR) with a joint Trx domain, termed NTRC, was identified. NTRC efficiently reduces 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), thus having antioxidant function, but also participates in redox regulation of metabolic pathways previously established to be regulated by Trxs...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066324/functional-analysis-by-rnai-of-an-glutaredoxin-gene-in-helicoverpa-armigera
#12
Zhong-Jian Shen, Song-Dou Zhang, Yan-Jun Liu, Xiao-Ming Liu, Zhen Li, Qing-Wen Zhang, Xiao-Xia Liu
Glutaredoxins play crucial roles in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis via scavenging of excess reactive oxygen species. In this study, a glutaredoxin domain-containing cysteine-rich gene from Helicoverpa armigera, named HaGdccr, was characterized. Sequence analysis revealed that it contains a glutaredoxin domain and a conserved cysteine and shares high sequence identity with other insect genes. HaGdccr mRNA expression was highest in molting larvae of the 3rd instar and was mainly detected in the central nervous system of larvae and the wings of adults...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066278/structural-aspects-of-protein-kinase-ask1-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Tomas Obsil, Veronika Obsilova
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, also known as MAP3K5), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family, activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in response to various stressors. ASK1 activity is tightly regulated through phosphorylation and interaction with various binding partners. However, the mechanistic details underlying the ASK1 regulation are still not fully understood. This review focuses on recent advances in structural studies of protein kinase ASK1 and on the insights they provide into its mechanism of regulation...
October 16, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059554/regulation-by-s-nitrosylation-of-the-calvin-benson-cycle-fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase-in-pisum-sativum
#14
Antonio Jesús Serrato, María C Romero-Puertas, Alfonso Lázaro-Payo, Mariam Sahrawy
Redox regulation is of great importance in chloroplasts. Many chloroplast enzymes, such as those belonging to the Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC), have conserved regulatory cysteines which form inhibitory disulphide bridges when physiological conditions become unfavourable. Amongst these enzymes, cFBP1, the CBC fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) isoform, is well known to be redox activated by thioredoxin f through the reduction of a disulphide bridge involving Cys153 and Cys173. Moreover, data obtained during recent years point to S-nitrosylation as another redox post-translational modification putatively regulating an increasing number of plant enzymes, including cFBP1...
October 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054699/silymarin-attenuated-paraquat-induced-cytotoxicity-in-macrophage-by-regulating-trx-txnip-complex-inhibiting-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-apoptosis
#15
Zhenning Liu, Mingli Sun, Yu Wang, Lichun Zhang, Hang Zhao, Min Zhao
Oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in paraquat-induced cytotoxicity. Silymarin can exert a potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect in various pathophysiological processes. The aim of this current study is to explore the protective effect and potential mechanism of silymarin in paraquat-induced macrophage injury. Cells were pretreated with different doses of silymarin for 3h before exposure to paraquat. At 24h after exposure to paraquat, the paraquat-induced cytotoxicity to macrophage was measured via the MTT assay and LDH release...
October 17, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045742/white-leaf-and-panicle-2-encoding-a-pep-associated-protein-is-required-for-chloroplast-biogenesis-under-heat-stress-in-rice
#16
Yusong Lv, Gaoneng Shao, Jiehua Qiu, Guiai Jiao, Zhonghua Sheng, Lihong Xie, Yawen Wu, Shaoqing Tang, Xiangjin Wei, Peisong Hu
The plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) plays an important role in the transcription machinery of mature chloroplasts, yet details of its function remain elusive in rice. Here, we identified a novel PEP-associated protein (PAP), WLP2, based on its two allelic white leaf and panicle mutants, wlp2s and wlp2w. The two mutants were albino lethal at high temperatures and showed decreased chlorophyll accumulation, abnormal chloroplast ultrastructure, and attenuated photosynthetic activity. Map-based cloning suggested that WLP2 encodes a putative pfkB-type carbohydrate kinase family protein, which is homologous to fructokinase-like 1 (AtFLN1) in Arabidopsis...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033913/biochemical-function-molecular-structure-and-evolution-of-an-atypical-thioredoxin-reductase-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris
#17
Odile Valette, Tam T T Tran, Christine Cavazza, Elodie Caudeville, Gaël Brasseur, Alain Dolla, Emmanuel Talla, Laetitia Pieulle
Thioredoxin reductase (TR) regulates the intracellular redox environment by reducing thioredoxin (Trx). In anaerobes, recent findings indicate that the Trx redox network is implicated in the global redox regulation of metabolism but also actively participates in protecting cells against O2. In the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH), there is an intriguing redundancy of the Trx system which includes a classical system using NADPH as electron source, a non-canonical system using NADH and an isolated TR (DvTRi)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027449/-soluble-expression-purification-and-structural-analysis-of-the-bhlh-transcription-factor-bmsage-of-bombyx-mori
#18
Huawei He, Shuguang Wei, Yejing Wang, Lina Liu, Zhenzhen Li, Peng Zhao, Huaipu Chang, Ping Zhao
Basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor plays an important role in biological processes. Bmsage is a class of bHLH transcription factor highly expressed in the silk gland of Bombyx mori, which is not only involved in the developmental regulation of the silk gland cells at the embryonic period, but also plays a crucial regulatory role during the synthesis of silk protein. However, currently, much of the property and structure of Bmsage is still remained unknown. To study the property, structure and biological role of Bmsage, we constructed several prokaryotic expression vectors of Bmsage fused with NusA, MBP, SUMO, Trx and His tags, respectively, then screened and determined the best soluble expression vector and condition of Bmsage in Escherichia coli combining with the induction temperature and IPTG concentration, and further purified the recombinant Bmsage by Ni-column affinity chromatography according to the established expression condition and characterized its secondary structure using circular dichroism spectra...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022519/effects-of-methionine-hydroxy-analogue-supplementation-on-the-expression-of-antioxidant-related-genes-of-acute-heat-stress-exposed-broilers
#19
E Gasparino, A P Del Vesco, A S Khatlab, V Zancanela, D O Grieser, S C C Silva
We evaluated the effects of heat stress (HS) and methionine supplementation on biological markers of stress and expression of the genes for superoxide dismutase (SOD), thioredoxin (TRx), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRxR1) and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) in broilers aged 1 to 21 or 22 to 42 days. The broilers were divided into two treatments, one with the recommended level of methionine supplementation (MS, supplementation of dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (dl-HMTBA)) and one without methionine supplementation (MD)...
October 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988146/recombinant-production-of-the-insecticidal-scorpion-toxin-bj%C3%AE-it-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Hongbo Li, Yuxian Xia
Scorpion long-chain insect neurotoxins have important potential application value in agricultural pest control. The difficulty of obtaining natural toxins is the major obstacle preventing analyses of their insecticidal activity against more agricultural insect pests. Here we cloned the insect neurotoxin BjαIT gene into the pET32 expression vector and expressed the resulting thioredoxin (Trx)-BjαIT fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Soluble Trx-BjαIT was expressed at a high level when induced at 18 °C with 0...
October 4, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
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