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Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xiang Li, Mengbing Huang, Lihua Yang, Ningning Guo, Xiaoyan Yang, Zhimin Zhang, Ming Bai, Lu Ge, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Morphine is one kind of opioid, which is currently the most effective widely utilized pain relieving pharmaceutical. Long-term administration of morphine leads to dependence and addiction. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an important redox regulating protein and works as a neurotrophic cofactor. Our previous study showed that geranylgeranylaceton, an inducer of Trx-1 protected mice from rewarding effects induced by morphine. However, whether overexpression of Trx-1 can block morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice is still unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Irina Belaya, Masataka Suwa, Tao Chen, Rashid Giniatullin, Katja M Kanninen, Mustafa Atalay, Shuzo Kumagai
The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Sara Tengattini, Francesca Rinaldi, Luciano Piubelli, Tom Kupfer, Benjamin Peters, Teodora Bavaro, Enrica Calleri, Gabriella Massolini, Caterina Temporini
One of the most popular enzymes used for the in vitro cleavage of fusion proteins is enterokinase (EK, E.C. EK cleaves with high specificity after the sequence Asp4 -Lys (DDDDK), which allows the fusion protein to preserve its native amino acid terminus without any additional unwanted cleavage residue from the recognition sequence. However, the complete removal of EK after protein cleavage is a critical step to ensure protein identity and stability. As enzyme immobilization increases stability and reusability of the biocatalyst while reducing operating costs and sample contamination, in this work we report the covalent immobilization of recombinant EK (rEK) on monolithic chromatographic supports with different binding chemistries for the development of a rEK-chromatographic-bioreactor...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Xuanyi Che, Qingxia Zhao, Di Li
To explore whether thioredoin-2 (Trx-2) is involved in the development of cataract and to study the effect of Trx-2 on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human lens epithelial cells.
 Methods: A total of 10 volunteers (removing the lens due totraumatism) and 30 patients received phacoemulsification (age more than 60 years) were selected. The expression of Trx-2 protein in lens epithelial cells from cataract patients and volunteers were detected by the immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) method...
March 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Hyun-A Seong, Ravi Manoharan, Hyunjung Ha
Smad proteins have been implicated in metabolic processes, but little is known about how they regulate metabolism. Because Smad 2, 3, 4, and 7 have previously been shown to interact with murine protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38), an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related kinase that has been implicated in obesity-associated metabolic defects, we investigated whether Smad proteins regulate metabolic processes via MPK38. Smads2/3/4 increased, but Smad7 decreased, MPK38-mediated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1)/transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/p53 signaling...
April 27, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Hidetaka Shima, Kumiko Kida, Shoko Adachi, Akimitsu Yamada, Sadatoshi Sugae, Kazutaka Narui, Yohei Miyagi, Mayuko Nishi, Akihide Ryo, Soichiro Murata, Hideki Taniguchi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Takashi Ishikawa, Itaru Endo
PURPOSE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase1 (ALDH1) is widely accepted as a stem cell marker for normal breast as well as in breast cancer. Although the clinical impact of ALDH1 was observed in our previous study, we do not know how ALDH1 affects stem cell features resulting in worsening of prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to explore ALDH1-related gene and its function on cancer stem cell (CSC). METHODS: In five cases of ALDH1-positive triple-negative breast cancer, mRNA expression profile was compared between ALDH1-positive and ALDH1-negative cells by Affymetrix microarray analysis after microdissection...
April 24, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Zhu-Jie Cao, Yan-Jin Feng, Dan Li, Jin Wang, Hai-Yan Huo, Xu-Mei Zhang, Xiang-Ying Jiao
Diabetes can cause a significant increase in the expression of thioredoxin (Trx)-interacting protein (TXNIP), which binds to Trx and inhibits its activity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of TXNIP on proliferation of rat INS-1 islet β cells and the underlying mechanism. TXNIP overexpressing adenovirus vectors (Ad-TXNIP-GFP and Ad-TXNIPc247s-GFP) were constructed and used to infect INS-1 cells. Ad-TXNIPc247s-GFP vector carries a mutant C247S TXNIP gene, and its expression product (TXNIPc247s) cannot attach and inhibit Trx activity...
April 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Jun Du, Yuanyuan Wei, Yao Zhao, Fengmin Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Wei Zheng, Qun Luo, Ming Wang, Fuyi Wang
Thioredoxin (Trx) is an important enzyme in the redox signaling pathway and is usually overexpressed in tumor cells. We demonstrate herein that the photoactive platinum(IV) anticancer complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)2 (Py)2 ] (1) can bind to His, Glu, and Gln residues of Trx upon the irradiation of blue light. More importantly, complex 1 can also induce the oxidation of Met, Trp, and the Cys catalytic sites to form disulfide bonds by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photoactivation. These eventually lead to inhibition of activity of Trx enzyme and the Trx system and further increase in the cellular ROS level...
April 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Li Lu, Qianyi Lu, Wei Chen, Jingwen Li, Chunxia Li, Zhi Zheng
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms underlying the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D3 ) on diabetes-induced retinal vascular damage and retinal vascular endothelial cell apoptosis. Methods: Diabetic and control rats were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D3 or vehicle for 6 months. Additionally, human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) were incubated in normal or high-glucose medium with or without vitamin D3 . Morphological changes in retinal tissues and retinal vascular permeability were examined, and cellular apoptosis was detected by fluorescence staining...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Yafei Duan, Jiasong Zhang, Yun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Dalin Xiong
The acute toxicity of nitrite on the mucosal morphology and oxidative stress response was investigated in the intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei after the exposure of 20 mg/L nitrite for 72 hr. The duration of nitrite stress influenced the shrimp survival, and the cumulative mortality rate was 36.7% at 72 hr. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stain showed that nitrite stress damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue. Specifically, nitrite stress increased the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (O2 - generation capacity), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and malondialdehyde (MDA)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Devendran A Sadasivam, Der-Hwa Huang
Polycomb group (PcG) repressors confer epigenetically heritable silencing on key regulatory genes through histone H3 trimethylation on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). How the silencing state withstands antagonistic activities from co-expressed trithorax group (trxG) activators is unclear. Using overexpression of Trx H3K4 methylase to perturb the silenced state, we find a dynamic process triggered in a stepwise fashion to neutralize the inductive impacts from excess Trx. Shortly after Trx overexpression, there are global increases in H3K4 trimethylation and RNA polymerase II phosphorylation, marking active transcription...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Shuo Yu, Min Wang, Xingjun Guo, Renyi Qin
BACKGROUND Inflammation plays an important role in initiation and development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Curcumin exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in many diseases, including acute pancreatitis. However, the specific molecular mechanisms are not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Intra-biliopancreatic duct injection of taurocholate was used to establish an animal model of SAP. Curcumin was administrated to animals as pre-treatments. Concentrations of cytokines in serum and ascites were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 16, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Elisabeth J M Huijbers, Judy R van Beijnum, Chung T Lê, Sofya Langman, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska, Kevin H Mayo, Arjan W Griffioen
The induction of an antibody response against self-antigens requires a conjugate vaccine technology, where the self-antigen is conjugated to a foreign protein sequence, and the co-application of a potent adjuvant. The choice of this foreign sequence is crucial as a very strong antibody response towards it may compromise the anti-self immune response. Here, we aimed to optimize the conjugate design for application of vaccination against the tumor vasculature, using two different approaches. First, the immunogenicity of the previously employed bacterial thioredoxin (TRX) was reduced by using a truncated from (TRXtr)...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
Huiwen Ren, Xiangbo Meng, Jian Yin, Jingyan Sun, Qingfeng Huang, Zhuming Yin
BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) plays an important role in defensing the skin flap ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP) is the major component of Ganoderma lucidum, which possesses potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activity. Our study aims to determine whether GLPP could attenuate the skin flap ischemia-reperfusion injury and investigate possible mechanisms involved. METHODS: The dermoprotective effect and mechanisms were assessed by an in vivo mouse ischemia-reperfusion flap model and an in vitro epithelial skin cell hypoxia/reoxygenation model...
March 29, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Yongxu Sun, Jun Wang
Organic acids acts as an growth promoter and antimicrobial agent in aquaculture. The present study investigated the effects of a natural organic acid - succinic acid (SA) on the growth, digestive enzymes, immune response and resistance to ammonia stress of Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimps were firstly fed with diets containing different levels of SA: 0% (Control), 0.25% (SA1), 0.50% (SA2), and 1.0% (SA3) (w/w) for 56 days, followed by an acute ammonia stress for 48 h. The results indicated that dietary of SA improved the growth of shrimp, and increased the survival rate of shrimp after ammonia stress for 48 h...
April 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Haeyeon Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Pyoung-Joong Kim, Eun-Ji Won, Young-Mi Lee
To investigate oxidative stress responses to cadmium and lead, the freshwater water flea Daphnia magna was exposed to Cd and Pb for 48 h. Following treatment with sub-lethal concentrations, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as modulation of multiple biomarker, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) contents, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, antioxidant enzyme - coding genes (three GST isoforms, glutaredoxin [GRx], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and thioredoxin [TRx]), and stress-response proteins (heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70] and Hsp90) were examined...
April 3, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Matthew P Johnson
The photosynthetic chloroplast thylakoid membrane of higher plants is a complex three-dimensional structure that is morphologically dynamic on a timescale of just a few minutes. The membrane dynamics are driven by the phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) by the STN7 kinase, which controls the size of the stacked grana region relative to the unstacked stromal lamellae region. Here, I hypothesise that the functional significance of these membrane dynamics is in controlling the partition of electrons between photosynthetic linear and cyclic electron transfer (LET and CET), which determines the ratio of NADPH/ATP produced...
April 5, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Mengnan Chen, Jianshe Zhang, Xiaoze Xie, Changwen Wu
Thioredoxin(Trx)with a redox-active disulfide/dithiol in the active site, is an ubiquitous disulfide reductase majorly responsible for maintaining the balance of reactive oxygen species. In this study, the complete thioredoxin-like protein 1 (designated as LcTrx) was cloned from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea through rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of LcTrx was 1295 bp in length containing a 131 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) ,a 3'UTR of 294bp with a poly (A) tail, and an 870 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 289 amino acids...
March 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Sophie Kneeshaw, Steven H Spoel
The addition of nitric oxide to cysteine moieties of proteins results in the formation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO) that have emerged as important posttranslational signaling cues in a wide variety of eukaryotic processes. While formation of protein-SNO is largely nonenzymatic, the conserved family of Thioredoxin (TRX) enzymes are capable of selectively reducing protein-SNO. Consequently, TRX enzymes are thought to provide reversibility and specificity to protein-SNO signaling networks. Here, we describe an in vitro methodology based on enzymatic oxidoreductase and biotin-switch techniques, allowing for the detection of protein-SNO targets of TRX enzymes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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