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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447047/replacement-of-threonine-55-with-glycine-decreases-the-reduction-rate-of-ostrx20-by-glutathione
#1
Mitra Roodgar-Nashta, Azar Shahpiri
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductase proteins with two redox-active Cys residues in a conserved active site (WCG/PPC) that regulate numerous target proteins via thiol/disulfide exchanges in the cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The isoforms OsTrx23 with a typical active site (WCGPC) and OsTrx20 with an atypical active site (WCTPC) are two Trx h- type isoforms in rice that were previously found to be reduced by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and GSH/Grx system, respectively. In the present work the reduction of mutants G41TOsTrx23, T55GOsTrx20, K48DOsTrx20 and T55G-K48D OsTrx20 as well as wild types OsTrx23 and OsTrx20 were tested in the reaction containing either NADPH/NTR or glutathione (GSH)...
March 2017: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445781/mitochondrial-ros-control-of-cancer
#2
REVIEW
María Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, Ulrike Begley, Thomas J Begley, J Andrés Melendez
Mitochondria serve a primary role in energy maintenance but also function to govern levels of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS). ROS have long been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis and are now considered to be integral to the regulation of diverse signaling networks that drive proliferation, tumor cell survival and malignant progression. mROS can damage DNA, activate oncogenes, block the function of tumor suppressors and drive migratory signaling. The mitochondrion's oxidant scavenging systems including SOD2, Grx2, GPrx, Trx and TrxR are key of the cellular redox tone...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444333/a-non-classical-member-of-the-protein-disulfide-isomerase-family-pdi7-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-localizes-to-the-cis-golgi-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-membranes
#3
Christen Y L Yuen, Pengfei Wang, Byung-Ho Kang, Kristie Matsumoto, David A Christopher
Members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-C subfamily are chimeric proteins containing the thioredoxin (Trx) domain of PDIs, and the conserved N- and C-terminal Pfam domains of Erv41p/Erv46p-type cargo receptors. They are unique to plants and chromalveolates. The Arabidopsis genome encodes three PDI-C isoforms: PDI7, PDI12, and PDI13. Here we demonstrate that PDI7 is a 65-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein expressed throughout many Arabidopsis tissues. Using a PDI7-specific antibody, we show through immunoelectron microscopy that PDI7 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes in wild-type root tip cells, and was also detected in vesicles...
April 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443683/redox-signaling-mediated-by-the-thioredoxin-and-glutathione-systems-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Xiaoyuan Ren, Lili Zou, Xu Zhang, Vasco Branco, Jun Wang, Cristina Carvalho, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
SIGNIFICANCE: The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems play important roles in maintaining the redox balance in the brain, a tissue that is prone to oxidative stress due to its high energy demand. These two disulfide reductase systems are active in various areas of the brain, and are considered to be the critical antioxidant systems in the central nervous system (CNS). Various neuronal disorders have been characterized to have imbalanced redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: In addition to their detrimental effects, recent studies have highlighted that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) act as critical signaling molecules by modifying thiols in proteins...
April 26, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#5
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427799/assessing-cumulative-acute-toxicity-of-chemoradiotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-with-or-without-induction-chemotherapy
#6
Bhartesh A Shah, Muhammad M Qureshi, Jennifer M Logue, Timothy P Cooley, Ken S Zaner, Scharukh Jalisi, Minh Tam Truong
BACKGROUND: To compare cumulative acute toxicity in head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone (CCRT) versus induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by CCRT (I/CCRT). METHODS: 77 patients underwent definitive CCRT (30 I/CCRT and 47 CCRT). Toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Using the TAME adverse event reporting system, short-term toxicity (T) scores were generated for IC (TIC), CCRT (TCCRT), total treatment duration (TRx), post-treatment period (TPT) and an overall score (Toverall) from treatment start to post treatment period...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423690/preimplantation-factor-pif-protects-cultured-embryos-against-oxidative-stress-relevance-for-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-rpl-therapy
#7
Lindsay F Goodale, Soren Hayrabedran, Krassimira Todorova, Roumen Roussev, Sivakumar Ramu, Christopher Stamatkin, Carolyn B Coulam, Eytan R Barnea, Robert O Gilbert
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects 2-3% of couples. Despite a detailed work-up, the etiology is frequently undefined, leading to non-targeted therapy. Viable embryos and placentae express PreImplantation Factor (PIF). Maternal circulating PIF regulates systemic immunity and reduces circulating natural killer cells cytotoxicity in RPL patients. PIF promotes singly cultured embryos' development while anti-PIF antibody abrogates it. RPL serum induced embryo toxicity is negated by PIF. We report that PIF rescues delayed embryo development caused by <3 kDa RPL serum fraction likely by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422068/a-low-cost-bluetooth-low-energy-transceiver-for-wireless-sensor-network-applications-with-a-front-end-receiver-matching-network-reusing-power-amplifier-load-inductor
#8
Zhen Liang, Bin Li, Mo Huang, Yanqi Zheng, Hui Ye, Ken Xu, Fangming Deng
In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414055/dihydromyricetin-attenuated-ang-ii-induced-cardiac-fibroblasts-proliferation-related-to-inhibitory-of-oxidative-stress
#9
Qiuyi Song, Lulu Liu, Jin Yu, Jingyao Zhang, Mengting Xu, Linlin Sun, Huiqin Luo, Zhaosong Feng, Guoliang Meng
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is one of the most important flavonoids in vine tea, which showed several pharmacological effects. However, information about the potential role of DMY on angiotensin II (Ang II) induced cardiac fibroblasts proliferation remains unknown. In the present study, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with different concentrations of DMY (0- 320μM) for 4h, or DMY (80μM) for different time (0-24h), followed by Ang II (100nM) stimulation for 24h, Then number of cardiac fibroblasts and content of hydroxyproline was measured...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411237/physical-interaction-between-human-ribonucleotide-reductase-large-subunit-and-thioredoxin-increases-colorectal-cancer-malignancy
#10
Meng Lou, Qian Liu, Guoping Ren, Jiling Zeng, Xueping Xiang, Yongfeng Ding, Qinghui Lin, Tingting Zhong, Xia Liu, Lijun Zhu, Hongyan Qi, Jing Shen, Haoran Li, Jimin Shao
Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis by catalyzing the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. During each enzymatic turnover, reduction of the active site disulfide in the catalytic large subunit is performed by a pair of shuttle cysteine residues in its C-terminal tail. Thioredoxin (Trx) and Glutaredoxin (Grx) are ubiquitous redox proteins, catalyzing thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Here, immunohistochemical examination of clinical colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens revealed that human thioredoxin1 (hTrx1), but not human glutaredoxin1 (hGrx1), was upregulated along with human RR large subunit (RRM1) in cancer tissues, and the expression levels of both proteins were correlated with cancer malignancy stage...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410843/left-ventricular-hypertrophy-does-not-prevent-heart-failure-in-experimental-hypertension
#11
H Hernán Gómez Llambí, G Cao, M Donato, D Suárez, G Ottaviano, A Müller, B Buchholz, R Gelpi, M Otero-Losada, J Milei
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to hypertension has been accepted to prevent heart failure (HF) while paradoxically increasing cardiovascular morbi-mortality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether antihypertensive treatment inhibits LVH, restores beta-adrenergic response and affects myocardial oxidative metabolism. METHODS: Ninety spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were distributed into groups and treated (mg/kg, p.o...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406025/biogenic-nanoselenium-particles-effectively-attenuate-oxidative-stress-induced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-injury-by-activating-the-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#12
Deguang Song, Yuanzhi Cheng, Xiaoxiao Li, Fengqin Wang, Zeqing Lu, Xiao Xiao, Yizhen Wang
In the present study, a new form of selenium nanoparticle (biogenic nanoselenium (BNS) particles) was synthesized using bacteria. The protection of BNS particles against oxidative stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and the inherent mechanisms of this process were investigated, and selenomethionine (SeMet) and chemically synthesized nanoselenium (Nano-Se) particles were used for comparison. Characterization of BNS particles revealed that they were monodispersed and homogeneous spheres, with an average size of 139...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391184/thioredoxin-1-modulates-apoptosis-induced-by-bioactive-compounds-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#13
Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, David Hevia, Juan C Mayo, Pedro Gonzalez-Menendez, Lucia Coppo, Jun Lu, Arne Holmgren, Rosa M Sainz
Accumulating evidence suggests that natural bioactive compounds, alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, could be used as potential therapies to fight cancer. In this study, we employed four natural bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and silibinin) and studied their role in redox control and ability to promote apoptosis in androgen sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Here is shown that curcumin and resveratrol promote ROS production and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3...
March 31, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375144/is-dimerization-a-common-feature-in-thioredoxins-the-case-of-thioredoxin-from-litopenaeus-vannamei
#14
Adam A Campos-Acevedo, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Javier Pérez, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera
The quaternary structure of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx) has been debated. For bacterial Trx, there is no question regarding its monomeric state. In humans and other eukaryotes, the presence of a cysteine residue at the crystallographic symmetry axis points to the relevance of dimer formation in solution and in vivo. Crystallographic data for shrimp thioredoxin (LvTrx) obtained under different redox conditions reveal a dimeric arrangement mediated by a disulfide bond through residue Cys73 and other hydrophobic interactions located in the crystallographic interface, as reported for human Trx...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373561/structural-basis-of-ph-dependent-client-binding-by-erp44-a-key-regulator-of-protein-secretion-at-the-er-golgi-interface
#15
Satoshi Watanabe, Manami Harayama, Shingo Kanemura, Roberto Sitia, Kenji Inaba
ERp44 retrieves some endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident enzymes and immature oligomers of secretory proteins from the Golgi. Association of ERp44 with its clients is regulated by pH-dependent mechanisms, but the molecular details are not fully understood. Here we report high-resolution crystal structures of human ERp44 at neutral and weakly acidic pH. These structures reveal key regions in the C-terminal tail (C tail) missing in the original crystal structure, including a regulatory histidine-rich region and a subsequent extended loop...
April 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362814/atypical-protein-disulfide-isomerases-pdi-comparison-of-the-molecular-and-catalytic-properties-of-poplar-pdi-a-and-pdi-m-with-pdi-l1a
#16
Benjamin Selles, Flavien Zannini, Jérémy Couturier, Jean-Pierre Jacquot, Nicolas Rouhier
Protein disulfide isomerases are overwhelmingly multi-modular redox catalysts able to perform the formation, reduction or isomerisation of disulfide bonds. We present here the biochemical characterization of three different poplar PDI isoforms. PDI-A is characterized by a single catalytic Trx module, the so-called a domain, whereas PDI-L1a and PDI-M display an a-b-b'-a' and a°-a-b organisation respectively. Their activities have been tested in vitro using purified recombinant proteins and a series of model substrates as insulin, NADPH thioredoxin reductase, NADP malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), peroxiredoxins or RNase A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358192/iron-binding-properties-of-recombinant-class-a-protein-disulfide-isomerase-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
William Remelli, Stefano Santabarbara, Donatella Carbonera, Francesco Bonomi, Aldo Ceriotti, Anna Paola Casazza
The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family comprises a wide set of enzymes mainly involved in thiol-disulfide exchange reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum. Class A PDIs (PDI-A) constitute the smallest members of the family, consisting of a single thioredoxin (TRX) module without any additional domains. To date, their catalytic activity and cellular function are still poorly understood. To gain insight into the role of higher-plant class A PDIs, the biochemical properties of rAtPDI-A, the recombinant form of Arabidopsis thaliana PDI-A, have been investigated...
April 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345125/new-clues-in-the-malignant-progression-of-glioblastoma-can-the-thioredoxin-system-play-a-role
#18
Fatih Erdi, Bulent Kaya, Hasan Esen, Yasar Karatas, Sıddıka Findik, Fatih Keskin, Bahadır Feyzioglu, Erdal Kalkan
AIM: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the expression of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in primary and secondary glioblastoma samples. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surgically resected human glioblastoma samples from 40 patients who underwent surgery at our institute were extracted from their histopathological specimens and divided into three groups. Ten histopathologically regular cerebral tissue, which acquired from the non-neoplastic portion of the specimens were assigned as the control group...
February 21, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322443/all-trans-retinoic-acid-ameliorates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-via-suppression-of-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-expression
#19
Hiroki Shimizu, Toshiaki Tsubota, Keita Kanki, Goshi Shiota
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the effector factor of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Accumulating evidence suggests that retinoic acids (RAs), derivatives of vitamin A, contribute to prevention of liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis, however, regulatory mechanisms of RAs still remain exclusive. To elucidate RA signaling pathway, we previously performed a genome-wide screening of RA-responsive genes by in silico analysis of RA-response elements, and identified 26 RA-responsive genes...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296345/a-cleavable-self-assembling-tag-strategy-for-preparing-proteins-and-peptides-with-an-authentic-n-terminus
#20
Qing Zhao, Bihong Zhou, Xianxing Gao, Lei Xing, Xu Wang, Zhanglin Lin
Recombinant protein expression and purification remains a central need for biotechnology. Herein, we report a streamlined protein and peptide purification strategy using short self-assembling peptides and a C-terminal cleavage intein. In this strategy, the fusion protein is first expressed as an aggregate induced by the self-assembling peptide. Upon simple separation, the target protein or peptide with an authentic N-terminus is then released in the solution by intein-mediated cleavage. Different combinations of four self-assembling peptides (ELK16, L6 KD, FK and FR) with three inteins (Sce VMA, Mtu ΔI-CM and Ssp DnaB) were explored...
March 15, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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