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Parismita Kalita, Harish Shukla, Rohit Shukla, Timir Tripathi
The thiol-disulfide redox metabolism in platyhelminth parasites depends entirely on a single selenocysteine (Sec) containing flavoenzyme, thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) that links the classical thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems. In the present study, we investigated the catalytic and structural properties of different variants of Fasciola gigantica TGR to understand the role of Sec. The recombinant full-length Sec containing TGR (FgTGRsec), TGR without Sec (FgTGR) and TGRsec without the N-terminal glutaredoxin (Grx) domain (∆NTD-FgTGRsec) were purified to homogeneity...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Jiasong Zhang, Qingsong Liu, Xian Ding
The shrimp intestine barrier serves as the first line of the host defense against pathogen infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria, which known as endotoxin and induce the intestine inflammation. In this study, the acute toxicity effects of LPS injection on the morphology, digestive enzymes and immunological responses of intestine from Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. HE stain showed that LPS injection damaged the intestine connective and epithelium tissue...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chang-Biao Chi, YaJun Tang, Jiahai Zhang, Ya-Nan Dai, Mohnad Abdalla, Yuxing Chen, Cong-Zhao Zhou
The yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae monothiol glutaredoxin Grx3 plays a key role in cellular defense against oxidative stress and more importantly, cooperates with BolA-like iron repressor of activation protein Fra2 to regulate the localization of the iron-sensing transcription factor Aft2. The interplay among Grx3, Fra2 and Aft2 responsible for the regulation of iron homeostasis has not been clearly described. Here we solved the crystal structures of the Trx domain (Grx3Trx ) and Grx domain (Grx3Grx ) of Grx3 in addition to the solution structure of Fra2...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yilin Zhao, Lijie Ma, Ruixuan Wang, Tingting Chen, Xueying Liu, Faguang Jin
The protecting effects of 3,5,4'-tri-O-acetylresveratrol (AC-Res) on seawater inhalation-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by interfering with the activation of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) pathway were evaluated. Seawater inhalation-induced ARDS was assessed by magnitude of pulmonary edema and lung inflammation. Oxidative stress was tested by T-SOD activity and MDA content in lungs and cells. Besides, Trx-1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Txnip expression were measured to explore how seawater induced oxidative stress and the mechanism by which AC-Res attenuated seawater inhalation-induced ARDS...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Byung-Woo Lee, Byung-Suk Jeon, Byung-Il Yoon
Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a potent therapeutic agent against a variety of diseases because of its actions as an antioxidant and regulator of apoptosis. N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), commonly known as acetaminophen, generates excessive oxidative stress and triggers hepatocyte cell death, exemplified by regulated necrosis. In the present study, we investigated whether APAP-induced liver injury in a mouse model is associated with "necroptosis," and if pretreatment with recombinant Trx-1 prevents the hepatic injury caused by APAP overdose...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Ayano Mochizuki, Arata Saso, Qingci Zhao, Satoshi Kubo, Noritaka Nishida, Ichio Shimada
To understand how intracellular proteins respond to oxidative stresses, the redox status of the target protein, as well as the intracellular redox potential ( EGSH ), which is defined by the concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione, should be observed simultaneously within living cells. In this study, we developed a method that can monitor the redox status of thioredoxin (Trx) and EGSH by direct NMR observation of Trx and glutathione within living cells. Unlike the midpoint potential of Trx measured in vitro (∼ -300 mV), the intracellular Trx exhibited the redox transition at EGSH between -250 and -200 mV, the range known to trigger the oxidative stress-mediated signalings...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Sanaz Nasoohi, Saifudeen Ismael, Tauheed Ishrat
Neurological diseases, including acute attacks (e.g., ischemic stroke) and chronic neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), have always been one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. These debilitating diseases represent an enormous disease burden, not only in terms of health suffering but also in economic costs. Although the clinical presentations differ for these diseases, a growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in brain tissue significantly contribute to their pathology...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Yachun Han, Xiaoxuan Xu, Chengyuan Tang, Peng Gao, Xianghui Chen, Xiaofen Xiong, Ming Yang, Shikun Yang, Xuejing Zhu, Shuguang Yuan, Fuyou Liu, Li Xiao, Yashpal S Kanwar, Lin Sun
NLRP3/IL-1β activation via thioredoxin (TRX)/thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) following mitochondria ROS (mtROS) overproduction plays a key role in inflammation. However, the involvement of this process in tubular damage in the kidneys of patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that mtROS overproduction is accompanied by decreases in TRX expression and TXNIP up-regulation. In addition, we discovered that mtROS overproduction is also associated with increases in NLRP3/IL-1β and TGF-β expression in the kidneys of patients with DN and db/db mice...
February 15, 2018: Redox Biology
Lihua Yang, Yinli Guo, Mengbin Huang, Xiaoli Wu, Xiang Li, Guobing Chen, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant abused around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that METH causes brain damage. However, there are very few reports on METH-induced demyelination. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays the roles in protecting neurons from various stresses. However, whether Trx-1 resists demyelination induced by METH has not been reported. In this study, we found that METH-induced thin myelin sheaths in spinal cord, whereas Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice restored the myelin sheaths thickness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hiroshi Hoshikawa, Kazuyo Kamitori, Kanako Indo, Terushige Mori, Mizuna Kamata, Tomoko Takahashi, Masaaki Tokuda
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of one rare sugar, D-allose, on normal human cells and cutaneous tissue, and to investigate the radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing potential of D-allose in an in vivo model of head and neck cancer. Results indicated that D-allose did not inhibit the growth of normal human fibroblasts TIG-1 cells, and no apoptotic changes were observed after D-allose and D-glucose treatment. The mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in TIG-1 cells after D-allose treatment increased by 2-fold (50...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Kumuda C Das, Venkatesh Kundumani-Sridharan, Jaganathan Subramani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the roles of oxidant stress and redox perturbations in hypertension have been the subject of several reviews, role of thioredoxin (Trx), a major cellular redox protein in age-related hypertension remains inadequately reviewed. The purpose of this review is to bring readers up-to-date with current understanding of the role of thioredoxin in age-related hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Age-related hypertension is a major underlying cause of several cardiovascular disorders, and therefore, intensive management of blood pressure is indicated in most patients with cardiovascular complications...
February 14, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Tao Su, Meiru Si, Yunfeng Zhao, Yan Liu, Shumin Yao, Chengchuan Che, Can Chen
Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) that belonged to the cysteine-based peroxidases has long been identified in numerous bacteria, but the information on the physiological and biochemical functions of PrxQ remain largely lacking in Corynebacterium glutamicum. To better systematically understand PrxQ, we reported that PrxQ from model and important industrial organism C. glutamicum, encoded by the gene ncgl2403 annotated as a putative PrxQ, played important roles in adverse stress resistance. The lack of C. glutamicum prxQ gene resulted in enhanced cell sensitivity, increased ROS accumulation, and elevated protein carbonylation levels under adverse stress conditions...
2018: PloS One
Kayo Horie, Tetuo Mikami, Tsutomu Yoshida, Yuichi Sato, Isao Okayasu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory bowel disease, and patients with long-standing UC are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer as a typical case of the organ-specific chronic inflammation-carcinoma sequence. Interactions between epithelial and stromal cells and alterations in a variety of stromal microenvironments have been demonstrated to have important roles in the carcinogenesis of UC-associated carcinoma. Therefore, the identification of proteins in the inflammatory microenvironment is important not only in the epithelium, however also in the stroma of UC inflammatory foci...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Mahendra Pal Singh, Anil Kumar Chauhan, Sun Chul Kang
The present study assessed the possible therapeutic potential of a natural flavonoid morin hydrate (MH), against cisplatin (CP) induced toxicity in HEK-293 cells and mice kidney. Herein, we observed that exposure of HEK-293 cells to CP (20 μM, 24 h) reduced the cell viability, and increased the intracellular ROS generation, nuclear DNA damage, Ca++ release, and accumulation of acidic vacuoles. Concomitantly, acute exposure of CP (30 mg/kg, 72 h) to male ICR mice induced histopathological changes in kidney tissue, and alterations in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yanfang Ouyang, Yi Peng, Jing Li, Arne Holmgren, Jun Lu
The thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems possess a variety of biological activities in mammalian cells, including the defense against oxidative stress, regulation of DNA synthesis, the cell cycle and the mediation of apoptosis. The thioredoxin system, comprised of NADPH, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and thioredoxin (Trx), exerts its activities via a disulfide-dithiol exchange reaction. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins; the thiols and selenols in the active site of these enzymes confer the thioredoxin system to work as soft bases, which have a high affinity with soft acids, including numerous metal ions...
February 7, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Tamilselvam Rajavel, Pandian Packiyaraj, Venkatesan Suryanarayanan, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Kandasamy Ruckmani, Kasi Pandima Devi
β-Sitosterol (BS), a major bioactive constituent present in plants and vegetables has shown potent anticancer effect against many human cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remain elusive on NSCLC cancers. We found that BS significantly inhibited the growth of A549 cells without harming normal human lung and PBMC cells. Further, BS treatment triggered apoptosis via ROS mediated mitochondrial dysregulation as evidenced by caspase-3 & 9 activation, Annexin-V/PI positive cells, PARP inactivation, loss of MMP, Bcl-2-Bax ratio alteration and cytochrome c release...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhigui Zuo, Peili Zhang, Feiyan Lin, Wenjing Shang, Ruichun Bi, Fengying Lu, Jianbo Wu, Lei Jiang
We previously reported a novel positive feedback loop between thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and S100P, which promotes the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the roles of Trx-1 and S100P in CRC epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and their underlying mechanisms. We observed that knockdown of Trx-1 or S100P in SW620 cells inhibited EMT, whereas overexpression of Trx-1 or S100P in SW480 cells promoted EMT...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Céline Lafaye, Inge Van Molle, Veronica Tamu Dufe, Khadija Wahni, Ariane Boudier, Pierre Leroy, Jean-François Collet, Joris Messens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Garry W Buchko, Stephen N Hewitt, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Peter J Myler
Thioredoxins are small ubiquitous proteins that participate in a diverse variety of redox reactions via the reversible oxidation of two cysteine thiol groups in a structurally conserved active site. Here, the NMR solution structures of a reduced and oxidized thioredoxin from Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ec-Trx, ECH_0218), the etiological agent responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis, are described. The overall topology of the calculated structures is similar in both redox states and is similar to those of other thioredoxins: a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet (β1-β3-β2-β4-β5) surrounded by four α-helices...
January 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Camille V Goemans, François Beaufay, Khadija Wahni, Inge Van Molle, Joris Messens, Jean François Collet
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are antioxidant proteins that are conserved among all species. These proteins have been extensively studied and perform reducing reactions on a broad range of substrates. Here, we identified Caulobacter crescentus Trx1 (CCNA_03653; CcTrx1) as an oxidoreductase that is involved in the cell cycle progression of this model bacterium and is required to sustain life. Intriguingly, the abundance of CcTrx1 varies throughout the C. crescentus cell cycle: while the expression of CcTrx1 is induced in stalked cells, right before DNA replication initiation, CcTrx1 is actively degraded by the ClpXP protease in predivisional cells...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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