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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777952/the-opportunity-to-avoid-pain-may-paradoxically-increase-fear
#1
Christine M van Vliet, Ann Meulders, Linda M G Vancleef, Johan W S Vlaeyen
Fear-avoidance models propose that pain-related fear may spur avoidance behaviour leading to chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear elicits avoidance behaviour, which is typically aimed at reducing fear. We hypothesized that engaging in avoidance may (paradoxically) increase rather than decrease pain-related fear (i.e. bidirectionality hypothesis). In a between-subject design, participants (N=64) were randomly assigned to the avoidance group or the control group. Avoidance group participants were led to believe they could avoid full exposure to a painful heat stimulus by pressing the stop-button, while control group participants believed they were exposed to the full painful heat stimulus at all times...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777122/alcohol-facilitates-detection-of-concealed-identity-information
#2
Kristina Suchotzki, Matthias Gamer
The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a well-validated means to detect whether someone possesses certain (e.g., crime-relevant) information. The current study investigated whether alcohol intoxication during CIT administration influences reaction time (RT) CIT-effects. Two opposing predictions can be made. First, by decreasing attention to critical information, alcohol intoxication could diminish CIT-effects. Second, by hampering the inhibition of truthful responses, alcohol intoxication could increase CIT-effects...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775080/mindfulness-meditation-and-interprofessional-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#3
Diana J Kelm, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Becca L Gas, Monali Mohan, David A Cook, Darlene R Nelson, Roberto P Benzo
PROBLEM: Mindfulness training includes mindfulness meditation, which has been shown to improve both attention and self-awareness. Medical providers in the intensive care unit often deal with difficult situations with strong emotions, life-and-death decisions, and both interpersonal and interprofessional conflicts. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on healthcare providers during acute care tasks such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation remains unknown. Mindfulness meditation has the potential to improve provider well-being and reduce stress in individuals involved in resuscitation teams, which could then translate into better team communication and delivery of care under stress...
May 18, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774525/teaching-social-perception-skills-to-adolescents-with-autism-and-intellectual-disabilities-using-video-based-group-instruction
#4
Tiffany A Stauch, Joshua B Plavnick, Sudha Sankar, Annie C Gallagher
Few interventions focus on teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) that are consistently used during interactions with peers ( Carter et al., 2014). The present study evaluated the effects of video-based group instruction (VGI) on the acquisition of social perception skills of five adolescents with ASD or ID in a public school setting. Social perception involves observing affective behaviors of others, discriminating relevant environmental stimuli, and differentially reinforcing the affective behavior of another person...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773219/an-open-trial-of-bedtime-fading-for-sleep-disturbances-in-preschool-children-a-parent-group-education-approach
#5
Michele R Cooney, Michelle A Short, Michael Gradisar
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of bedtime fading to reduce sleep disturbances in preschool aged children by using a group parent education format. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design (pretreatment, treatment, post-treatment and two year follow-up). SETTING: Flinders University Child and Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants comprised 21 children (M age = 3.0 ± 0...
June 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772935/the-effects-of-literacy-interventions-on-single-word-reading-for-individuals-who-use-aided-aac-a-systematic-review
#6
Kelsey Mandak, Janice Light, Susannah Boyle
The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of instruction on single-word reading of individuals who use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). A systematic search identified nine single-case experimental design studies that involved 24 individuals who used aided AAC. Overall, the evidence indicated that instruction had positive effects on reading at the single-word level for individuals across ages and diagnostic categories (i.e., autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cerebral palsy (CP), Down syndrome, and intellectual disability)...
May 18, 2018: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772496/vibrotactile-feedback-alters-dynamics-of-static-postural-control-in-persons-with-parkinson-s-disease-but-not-older-adults-at-high-fall-risk
#7
Carleigh M High, Hannah F McHugh, Stephen C Mills, Shinichi Amano, Jane E Freund, Srikant Vallabhajosula
BACKGROUND: Aging and Parkinson's disease are often associated with impaired postural control. Providing extrinsic feedback via vibrotactile sensation could supplement intrinsic feedback to maintain postural control. RESEARCH QUESTION: We investigated the postural control response to vibrotactile feedback provided at the trunk during challenging stance conditions in older adults at high fall risk and individuals with Parkinson's disease compared to healthy older adults...
May 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772407/total-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-for-endometriosis-and-an-arteriovenous-malformation
#8
Emilie Schwartz, Emilie Faller, Chérif Youssef Akladios, Michel Greget, Catherine Roy, Arnaud Wattiez
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate a laparoscopic management of an arteriovenous malformation in a patient with deep pelvic endometriosis DESIGN: A step-by-step explanation of the surgery using video (instructive video). SETTING: Hautepierre Universitary Hospital of Strasbourg in France INTERVENTION: We describe the case of a 37 years old patient presenting deep pelvic endometriosis and an uterine arteriovenous malformation. It was during a tubal ligation in 2015, that the deep pelvic endometriosis was diagnosed...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771184/replication-of-an-experimental-study-investigating-the-efficacy-of-a-multisyllabic-word-reading-intervention-with-and-without-motivational-beliefs-training-for-struggling-readers
#9
Jessica R Toste, Philip Capin, Kelly J Williams, Eunsoo Cho, Sharon Vaughn
This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving multisyllabic word reading (MWR) skills among fourth- and fifth-grade struggling readers ( n = 109, 48.6% male), as well as the relative effects of an embedded motivational beliefs training component. This study was a closely aligned replication of our earlier work. The intervention was replicated with a three-condition design: MWR only, MWR with a motivational beliefs component, and business-as-usual control. Students were tutored in small groups for 40 lessons (four 40-min lessons each week)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770437/evaluation-of-video-self-instruction-for-implementing-paired-stimulus-preference-assessments
#10
Candice Hansard, Ellie Kazemi
We trained four undergraduate students who reported no prior experience implementing behavior-analytic procedures to conduct a paired-stimulus preference assessment using a video self-instruction package. The package was composed of several components from prior research (i.e., a voice-over script, written instructions, multiple video models per step, and instructions for the trainee to rehearse throughout the video presentation). We used a nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline-across-participants design and found that all participants accurately implemented the preference assessment with a simulated client after viewing the video once...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766036/simulation-based-airway-management-training-for-anesthesiologists-a-brief-review-of-its-essential-role-in-skills-training-for-clinical-competency
#11
Nobuyasu Komasawa, Benjamin W Berg
In clinical practice, failure of proper airway management can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Difficult airway management comprises a fundamental skill set for anesthesiologists and has long been recognized as one of the most challenging skills. Simulation-based training is an essential technique to establish and maintain technical and nontechnical skills for airway management. We review the evidence-based utility of simulation-based training for anesthesiologists to accquire technical and nontechnical airway mangement skills...
October 2017: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766035/using-the-teaching-perspectives-inventory-as-an-introduction-to-a-residents-as-teachers-curriculum
#12
Amy C Robertson, Leslie C Fowler, Amy Miller Juve
Objective: The Anesthesiology Milestone Project includes a milestone for assessing the teaching attributes of residents within the competency of Practice-based Learning and Improvement. We intend to develop a Residents-as-Teachers educational curriculum to assist our residents in successfully achieving this milestone. The goal of this study is to identify the specific teaching perspectives and intentions of our residents and to promote residents' comprehension of their own teaching philosophy...
October 2017: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762285/cone-beam-computed-tomography-guided-navigation-in-complex-osteotomies-improves-accuracy-at-all-competence-levels-a-study-assessing-accuracy-and-reproducibility-of-joint-sparing-bone-cuts
#13
Amir Sternheim, Aidin Kashigar, Michael Daly, Harley Chan, Jimmy Qiu, Robert Weersink, David Jaffray, Jonathan C Irish, Peter C Ferguson, Jay S Wunder
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided navigation system designed for osteotomies with joint-sparing bone cuts. METHODS: Eighteen surgeons participated in this study. First, 3 expert tumor surgeons resected bone tumors in 3 Sawbones tumor models identical to actual patient scenarios. They first performed these osteotomies without navigation and then performed them using a navigation system and 3-dimensional (3D) planning tools based on CBCT imaging...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760818/short-term-crossover-study-on-the-effect-of-orthogonalized-deep-grooved-posterior-artificial-teeth-on-the-masticatory-efficiency-of-complete-denture-wearers
#14
Yuki Hashimoto, Kyoko Sugimoto, Yuki Tanaka, Hikaru Sugimoto, Shogo Minagi
Background: Mastication has been regarded to play an important role in achieving quality daily life for the elderly. On the occlusal surface of posterior artificial teeth, parallel grooves of 1 mm depth and 1 mm width with an inter-groove distance of 2 mm have been found to significantly improve masticatory efficiency on a mechanical simulator. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the effect of the grooved design on masticatory efficiency in edentulous subjects using a short-term crossover trial was evaluated...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757085/short-videos-addressing-barriers-to-cooking-with-vegetables-in-young-adults-pilot-testing
#15
Monica Nour, Zilvia G Y Cheng, Jessica Lucy Farrow, Margaret Allman-Farinelli
OBJECTIVE: Digital platforms offer innovative opportunities for nutrition education to motivate young adults to improve eating behaviors and practices. This study aimed to pilot test short educational cooking videos for dissemination through a smartphone designed to address barriers to home cooking and vegetable consumption among young adults. METHOD: Instructional videos (1-3 min) were produced and acceptability and perceived effectiveness for reducing barriers was investigated...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753333/3d-treatment-planning-systems
#16
REVIEW
Cheng B Saw, Sicong Li
Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)...
July 2018: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752907/effectiveness-of-the-pilates-method-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-mechanical-neck-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Luciana de Araujo Cazotti, Anamaria Jones, Diego Roger-Silva, Luiza Helena Coutinho Ribeiro, Jamil Natour
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain, function, quality of life, and consumption of pain medication in patients with mechanical neck pain. DESIGN: The design was a randomized controlled trial, with a blinded assessor and intention-to-treat analysis. SETTING: The study took place in the outpatient clinic of the rheumatology department, referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four patients with chronic mechanical neck pain were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the Pilates group (PG) and control group (CG)...
May 9, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751162/recent-advances-in-dna-nanotechnology
#18
REVIEW
Pongphak Chidchob, Hanadi F Sleiman
DNA is a powerful guiding molecule to achieve the precise construction of arbitrary structures and high-resolution organization of functional materials. The combination of sequence programmability, rigidity and highly specific molecular recognition in this molecule has resulted in a wide range of exquisitely designed DNA frameworks. To date, the impressive potential of DNA nanomaterials has been demonstrated from fundamental research to technological advancements in materials science and biomedicine. This review presents a summary of some of the most recent developments in structural DNA nanotechnology regarding new assembly approaches and efforts in translating DNA nanomaterials into practical use...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751138/using-road-markings-as-a-continuous-cue-for-speed-choice
#19
Samuel G Charlton, Nicola J Starkey, Neha Malhotra
The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings)...
May 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750065/factors-associated-with-practicing-evidence-based-medicine-a-study-of-family-medicine-residents
#20
Justin Paulsen, Morhaf Al Achkar
Background: Evidence-based medicine (EBM) plays a critical part in ensuring that practitioners use the soundest available medical procedures while avoiding ineffective ones. As such, it plays a key role in medical residency education. However, little research has shown what factors influence residents' adoption of habits in, self-efficacy in, and skills of EBM. Materials and methods: This study gathered responses from a cross section of family medicine residents and new interns from 40 different residencies across the USA...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
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