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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036908/propofol-induces-apoptosis-of-neurons-but-not-astrocytes-oligodendrocytes-or-neural-stem-cells-in-the-neonatal-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Yasheng Yan, Shigang Qiao, Chika Kikuchi, Ivan Zaja, Sarah Logan, Congshan Jiang, Thiago Arzua, Xiaowen Bai
It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining...
October 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#2
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036532/behavioral-pattern-separation-and-its-link-to-the-neural-mechanisms-of-fear-generalization
#3
Iris Lange, Liesbet Goossens, Stijn Michielse, Jindra Bakker, Shmuel Lissek, Silvia Papalini, Simone Verhagen, Nicole Leibold, Machteld Marcelis, Marieke Wichers, Ritsaert Lieverse, Jim van Os, Therese van Amelsvoort, Koen Schruers
Fear generalization is a prominent feature of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. It is defined as enhanced fear responding to a stimulus that bears similarities, but is not identical to a threatening stimulus. Pattern separation, a hippocampal-dependent process, is critical for stimulus discrimination; it transforms similar experiences or events into non-overlapping representations. The current study is the first in humans to investigate the extent to which fear generalization relies on behavioral pattern separation abilities...
September 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036432/copb2-is-essential-for-embryogenesis-and-hypomorphic-mutations-cause-human-microcephaly
#4
Andrew DiStasio, Ashley Driver, Kristen Sund, Milene Donlin, Ranjith M Muraleedharan, Shabnam Pooya, Beth Kline-Fath, Kenneth M Kaufman, Cynthia A Prows, Elizabeth Schorry, Biplab DasGupta, Rolf W Stottmann
Primary microcephaly is a congenital brain malformation characterized by a head circumference less than three standard deviations below the mean for age and sex and results in moderate to severe mental deficiencies and decreased lifespan. We recently studied two children with primary microcephaly in an otherwise unaffected family. Exome sequencing identified an autosomal recessive mutation leading to an amino acid substitution in a WD40 domain of the highly conserved Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Beta 2 (COPB2)...
September 19, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035203/developing-a-nonstationary-computational-framework-with-application-to-modeling-dynamic-modulations-in-neural-spiking-responses
#5
Amir Akbarian, Kaiser Niknam, Mohammadbagher Parsa, Kelsey Clark, Behrad Noudoost, Neda Nategh
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to develop a computational model that incorporates the functional effects of modulatory covariates (such as context, task, or behavior), which dynamically alter the relationship between the stimulus and the neural response. METHODS: We develop a general computational approach along with an efficient estimation procedure in the widely used generalized linear model (GLM) framework to characterize such nonstationary dynamics in spiking response and spatiotemporal characteristics of a neuron at the level of individual trials...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034318/mediodorsal-thalamic-neurons-mirror-the-activity-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-responding-to-movement-and-reinforcement-during-a-dynamic-dnmtp-task
#6
Rikki L A Miller, Miranda J Francoeur, Brett M Gibson, Robert G Mair
The mediodorsal nucleus (MD) interacts with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to support learning and adaptive decision-making. MD receives driver (layer 5) and modulatory (layer 6) projections from PFC and is the main source of driver thalamic projections to middle cortical layers of PFC. Little is known about the activity of MD neurons and their influence on PFC during decision-making. We recorded MD neurons in rats performing a dynamic delayed nonmatching to position (dDNMTP) task and compared results to a previous study of mPFC with the same task (Onos et al...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034316/large-scale-network-coupling-with-the-fusiform-cortex-facilitates-future-social-motivation
#7
Amanda V Utevsky, David V Smith, Jacob S Young, Scott A Huettel
Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions, have become central objects of study in neuroscience because of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action. Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN), two networks associated with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds in advance of behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034079/adaptation-in-the-visual-cortex-a-case-for-probing-neuronal-populations-with-natural-stimuli
#8
REVIEW
Michoel Snow, Ruben Coen-Cagli, Odelia Schwartz
The perception of, and neural responses to, sensory stimuli in the present are influenced by what has been observed in the past-a phenomenon known as adaptation. We focus on adaptation in visual cortical neurons as a paradigmatic example. We review recent work that represents two shifts in the way we study adaptation, namely (i) going beyond single neurons to study adaptation in populations of neurons and (ii) going beyond simple stimuli to study adaptation to natural stimuli. We suggest that efforts in these two directions, through a closer integration of experimental and modeling approaches, will enable a more complete understanding of cortical processing in natural environments...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033825/acute-stress-affects-the-expression-of-hippocampal-mu-oscillations-in-an-age-dependent-manner
#9
Samir Takillah, Jérémie Naudé, Steve Didienne, Claude Sebban, Brigitte Decros, Esther Schenker, Michael Spedding, Alexandre Mourot, Jean Mariani, Philippe Faure
Anxiolytic drugs are widely used in the elderly, a population particularly sensitive to stress. Stress, aging and anxiolytics all affect low-frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) independently, but the interactions between these factors remain unclear. Here, we compared the effects of stress (elevated platform, EP) and anxiolytics (diazepam, DZP) on extracellular field potentials (EFP) in the PFC, parietal cortex and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral parts) of adult (8 months) and aged (18 months) Wistar rats...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#10
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033784/top-down-control-of-visual-attention-by-the-prefrontal-cortex-functional-specialization-and-long-range-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Sofia Paneri, Georgia G Gregoriou
The ability to select information that is relevant to current behavioral goals is the hallmark of voluntary attention and an essential part of our cognition. Attention tasks are a prime example to study at the neuronal level, how task related information can be selectively processed in the brain while irrelevant information is filtered out. Whereas, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms of visual attention at the single neuron and population level in the visual cortices, considerably less work has been devoted to deciphering the distinct contribution of higher-order brain areas, which are known to be critical for the employment of attention...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033782/neural-correlates-of-direct-access-trading-in-a-real-stock-market-an-fmri-investigation
#12
GianMario Raggetti, Maria G Ceravolo, Lucrezia Fattobene, Cinzia Di Dio
Background: While financial decision making has been barely explored, no study has previously investigated the neural correlates of individual decisions made by professional traders involved in real stock market negotiations, using their own financial resources. Aim: We sought to detect how different brain areas are modulated by factors like age, expertise, psychological profile (speculative risk seeking or aversion) and, eventually, size and type (Buy/Sell) of stock negotiations, made through Direct Access Trading (DAT) platforms...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033331/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-facilitates-associative-learning-and-alters-functional-connectivity-in-the-primate-brain
#13
Matthew R Krause, Theodoros P Zanos, Bennett A Csorba, Praveen K Pilly, Jaehoon Choe, Matthew E Phillips, Abhishek Datta, Christopher C Pack
There has been growing interest in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique purported to modulate neural activity via weak, externally applied electric fields. Although some promising preliminary data have been reported for applications ranging from stroke rehabilitation to cognitive enhancement, little is known about how tDCS affects the human brain, and some studies have concluded that it may have no effect at all. Here, we describe a macaque model of tDCS that allows us to simultaneously examine the effects of tDCS on brain activity and behavior...
October 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032323/neural-activity-during-traumatic-film-viewing-is-linked-to-endogenous-estradiol-and-hormonal-contraception
#14
Stephan F Miedl, Melanie Wegerer, Hubert Kerschbaum, Jens Blechert, Frank H Wilhelm
Women are at higher risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and recent research has highlighted a modulating role of female sex hormones for cognitive and emotional processes potentially underlying PTSD symptoms. However, studies combining fMRI recordings of brain activity during trauma film viewing with assessment of female sex hormones are missing. The trauma film paradigm - a widely used experimental analogue for trauma exposure - confronts healthy participants with traumatic film clips and thus allows studying peritraumatic processing under laboratory conditions...
October 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031852/inhibition-of-cdk5-rejuvenates-inhibitory-circuits-and-restores-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-adult-visual-cortex
#15
Yue Li, Laijian Wang, Xinxin Zhang, Mengyao Huang, Sitong Li, Xinxing Wang, Lin Chen, Bin Jiang, Yupeng Yang
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) acts as an essential modulator for neural development and neurological disorders. Here we show that Cdk5 plays a pivotal role in modulating GABAergic signaling and the maturation of visual system. In adult mouse primary visual cortex, Cdk5 formed complex with the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase GAD67, but not with GAD65. In addition to enhancement in the surface level of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, inhibition of Cdk5 reduced the protein levels of GADs and Otx2, while leaving intact the expression of vesicular GABA transporter and subunits of GABAA or AMPA receptors...
October 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031533/structural-changes-in-brain-morphology-induced-by-brief-periods-of-repetitive-sensory-stimulation
#16
T Schmidt-Wilcke, N Wulms, S Heba, B Pleger, N A Puts, B Glaubitz, T Kalisch, M Tegenthoff, H R Dinse
There is a growing interest in identifying the neural mechanisms by which the human brain allows for improving performance. Tactile perceptual measurements, e.g. two-point discrimination (2ptD), can be used to investigate neural mechanisms of perception as well as perceptual improvement. Improvement can be induced in a practice-independent manner, e.g. in the tactile domain through repetitive somatosensory stimulation (rSS). With respect to tactile perception, the role of cortical excitability and activation within the somatosensory cortex has been investigated extensively...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031463/changes-in-brain-activity-during-action-observation-and-motor-imagery-their-relationship-with-motor-learning
#17
Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kazuyuki Kanosue
Many studies have demonstrated that training utilizing action observation and/or motor imagery improves motor performance. These two techniques are widely used in sports and in the rehabilitation of movement-related disorders. Motor imagery has also been used for brain-machine/computer interfaces (BMI/BCI). During both action observation and motor imagery, motor-related regions such as the premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule are activated. This is common to actual execution and are involved with the underlying mechanisms of motor learning without execution...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030557/heading-representations-in-primates-are-compressed-by-saccades
#18
Frank Bremmer, Jan Churan, Markus Lappe
Perceptual illusions help to understand how sensory signals are decoded in the brain. Here we report that the opposite approach is also applicable, i.e., results from decoding neural activity from monkey extrastriate visual cortex correctly predict a hitherto unknown perceptual illusion in humans. We record neural activity from monkey medial superior temporal (MST) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) area during presentation of self-motion stimuli and concurrent reflexive eye movements. A heading-decoder performs veridically during slow eye movements...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029071/visual-cortex-limits-pop-out-in-the-superior-colliculus-of-awake-mice
#19
Mehran Ahmadlou, Azadeh Tafreshiha, J Alexander Heimel
We detect objects more readily if they differ from their surroundings in motion, color, or texture. This increased saliency is thought to be related to increased responses in the visual cortex. The superior colliculus is another brain area involved in vision and especially in directing gaze and attention. In this study, we show that differences in texture orientation also increase responses in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus that receive retinal and cortical input. We found that gratings evoke more neural response when surrounded by orthogonal gratings than when surrounded by parallel gratings, particularly in the awake mouse...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028974/temporal-dynamics-of-human-frontal-and-cingulate-neural-activity-during-conflict-and-cognitive-control
#20
Eleonora Bartoli, Christopher R Conner, Cihan M Kadipasaoglu, Sudha Yellapantula, Matthew J Rollo, Cameron S Carter, Nitin Tandon
Cognitive control refers to the ability to produce flexible, goal-oriented behavior in the face of changing task demands and conflicting response tendencies. A classic cognitive control experiment is the Stroop-color naming task, which requires participants to name the color in which a word is written while inhibiting the tendency to read the word. By comparing stimuli with conflicting word-color associations to congruent ones, control processes over response tendencies can be isolated. We assessed the spatial specificity and temporal dynamics in the theta and gamma bands for regions engaged in detecting and resolving conflict in a cohort of 13 patients using a combination of high-resolution surface and depth recordings...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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