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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458067/fluctuations-of-extracellular-glucose-and-lactate-in-the-mouse-primary-visual-cortex-during-visual-stimulation
#1
Alexandria Béland-Millar, Claude Messier
We measured the extracellular glucose and lactate in the primary visual cortex in the CD-1 mouse using electrochemical electrodes. To gain some additional information on brain metabolism, we examined the impact of systemic injections of lactate and fructose on the brain extracellular glucose and lactate changes observed during visual stimulation. We found that simple stimulation using a flashlight produced a decrease in visual cortex extracellular glucose and an increase in extracellular lactate. Similar results were observed following visual stimulation with an animated movie without soundtrack or the presentation of a novel object...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457651/progressive-recruitment-of-contralesional-cortico-reticulospinal-pathways-drives-motor-impairment-post-stroke
#2
Jacob G McPherson, Albert Chen, Michael D Ellis, Jun Yao, C J Heckman, Julius P A Dewald
KEY POINTS: Activation of the shoulder abductor muscles in the arm opposite a unilateral brain injury causes involuntary increases in elbow, wrist and finger flexion in the same arm, a phenomenon referred to as the flexion synergy. It has been proposed that flexion synergy expression is related to reduced output from ipsilesional motor cortex and corticospinal pathways. In this human subjects study, we provide evidence that the magnitude of flexion synergy expression is instead related to a progressive, task-dependent recruitment of contralesional cortex...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456496/how-do-acquired-political-identities-influence-our-neural-processing-toward-others-within-the-context-of-a-trust-game
#3
Chien-Te Wu, Yang-Teng Fan, Ye-Rong Du, Tien-Tun Yang, Ho-Ling Liu, Nai-Shing Yen, Shu-Heng Chen, Ray-May Hsung
Trust is essential for mutually beneficial human interactions in economic exchange and politics and people's social identities notably have dramatic effects on trust behaviors toward others. Previous literature concerning social identities generally suggests that people tend to show in-group favoritism toward members who share the same identity. However, how our brains process signals of identity while facing uncertain situations in interpersonal interactions remains largely unclear. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI experiment with 54 healthy adults who belonged to two identity groups of opposing political orientations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456495/structural-variation-of-chondroitin-sulfate-chains-contributes-to-the-molecular-heterogeneity-of-perineuronal-nets
#4
Shinji Miyata, Satomi Nadanaka, Michihiro Igarashi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Aggrecan, a chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan, forms lattice-like extracellular matrix structures called perineuronal nets (PNNs). Neocortical PNNs primarily ensheath parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons (parvalbumin, PV cells) late in brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that PNNs promote the maturation of PV cells by enhancing the incorporation of homeobox protein Otx2 and regulating experience-dependent neural plasticity. Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA), an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific plant lectin, binds to the CS chains of aggrecan and has been widely used to visualize PNNs...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456491/synaptic-e-i-balance-underlies-efficient-neural-coding
#5
REVIEW
Shanglin Zhou, Yuguo Yu
Both theoretical and experimental evidence indicate that synaptic excitation and inhibition in the cerebral cortex are well-balanced during the resting state and sensory processing. Here, we briefly summarize the evidence for how neural circuits are adjusted to achieve this balance. Then, we discuss how such excitatory and inhibitory balance shapes stimulus representation and information propagation, two basic functions of neural coding. We also point out the benefit of adopting such a balance during neural coding...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456186/neurons-generated-by-mouse-escs-with-hippocampal-or-cortical-identity-display-distinct-projection-patterns-when-co-transplanted-in-the-adult-brain
#6
Marco Terrigno, Irene Busti, Claudia Alia, Marta Pietrasanta, Ivan Arisi, Mara D'Onofrio, Matteo Caleo, Federico Cremisi
The capability of generating neural precursor cells with distinct types of regional identity in vitro has recently opened new opportunities for cell replacement in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By manipulating Wnt and BMP signaling, we steered the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward isocortical or hippocampal molecular identity. These two types of cells showed different degrees of axonal outgrowth and targeted different regions when co-transplanted in healthy or lesioned isocortex or in hippocampus...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455948/belief-delusion-hypnosis-and-the-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-study
#7
Max Coltheart, Rochelle Cox, Paul Sowman, Hannah Morgan, Amanda Barnier, Robyn Langdon, Emily Connaughton, Lina Teichmann, Nikolas Williams, Vince Polito
According to the Two-Factor theory of delusional belief (see e.g. Coltheart at al., 2011), there exists a cognitive system dedicated to the generation, evaluation, and acceptance or rejection of beliefs. Studies of the neuropsychology of delusion provide evidence that this system is neurally realized in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC). Furthermore, we have shown that convincing analogues of many specific delusional beliefs can be created in nonclinical subjects by hypnotic suggestion and we think of hypnosis as having the effect of temporarily interfering with the operation of the belief system, which allows acceptance of the delusional suggestions...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454511/musical-deficits-and-cortical-thickness-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#8
Ryosuke Fujito, Masayoshi Minese, Sanae Hatada, Naoto Kamimura, Shigeru Morinobu, Donna J Lang, William G Honer, Ken Sawada
Investigation of acquired amusia caused by brain damage suggested that cortical lesions of the right hemisphere contributed to musical deficits. We previously reported reduced musical ability in schizophrenia; these deficits were correlated with clinical manifestations such as cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms. However, the neural substrate underlying the musical disability in schizophrenia remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between musical deficits and cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia using structural MRI...
February 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454106/binocular-vision-adaptively-suppresses-delayed-monocular-signals
#9
Bruno Richard, Eva Chadnova, Daniel H Baker
A neutral density filter placed before one eye will produce a dichoptic imbalance in luminance, which attenuates responses to visual stimuli and lags neural signals from retina to cortex in the filtered eye. When stimuli are presented to both the filtered and unfiltered eye (i.e., binocularly), neural responses show little attenuation and no lag compared with their baseline counterpart. This suggests that binocular visual mechanisms must suppress the attenuated and delayed input from the filtered eye; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451499/characterising-the-frequency-response-of-impedance-changes-during-evoked-physiological-activity-in-the-rat-brain
#10
Mayo Faulkner, Sana Hannan, Kirill Y Aristovich, James Avery, David S Holder
<i>Objective</i>. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) can image impedance changes associated with evoked physiological activity in the cerebral cortex using an array of epicortical electrodes. An impedance change is observed as the externally applied current, normally confined to the extracellular space is admitted into the conducting intracellular space during neuronal depolarisation. The response is largest at DC and decreases at higher frequencies due to capacitative transfer of current across the membrane...
February 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450935/community-violence-exposure-correlates-with-smaller-gray-matter-volume-and-lower-iq-in-urban-adolescents
#11
Oisin Butler, Xiao-Fei Yang, Corinna Laube, Simone Kühn, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Adolescents' exposure to community violence is a significant public health issue in urban settings and has been associated with poorer cognitive performance and increased risk for psychiatric illnesses, including PTSD. However, no study to date has investigated the neural correlates of community violence exposure in adolescents. Sixty-five healthy adolescents (age = 14-18 years; 36 females, 29 males) from moderate- to high-crime neighborhoods in Los Angeles reported their violence exposure, parents' education level, and free/reduced school lunch status (socio-economic status, SES), and underwent structural neuroimaging and intelligence testing...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450539/retinothalamic-white-matter-abnormalities-in-amblyopia
#12
Brian Allen, Melanie A Schmitt, Burton J Kushner, Bas Rokers
Purpose: Amblyopia is associated with a broad array of perceptual and neural abnormalities in the visual system, particularly in untreated or unsuccessfully treated populations. Traditionally, it has been believed that the neural abnormalities are confined to the visual cortex and subcortex (e.g., lateral geniculate nucleus). Here, we investigate the presence of neuroanatomical abnormalities earlier in the visual stream, in the optic nerves and tracts, of participants with two predominant forms of amblyopia...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449446/improving-accuracy-of-simultaneously-reconstructed-activity-and-attenuation-maps-using-deep-learning
#13
Donghwi Hwang, Kyeong Yun Kim, Seung Kwan Kang, Seongho Seo, Jin Chul Paeng, Dong Soo Lee, Jae Sung Lee
Simultaneous reconstruction of activity and attenuation using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) augmented by time-of-flight (TOF) information is a promising method for positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction. However, it still suffers from several problems, including crosstalk artifacts, slow convergence speed, and noisy attenuation maps (μ-maps). In this work, we developed deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to overcome these MLAA limitations, and we verified their feasibility using a clinical brain PET data set...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449183/altered-resting-state-voxel-level-whole-brain-functional-connectivity-in-depressed-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Hansheng Wang, Huiyue Chen, Jiahui Wu, Li Tao, Ya Pang, Min Gu, Fajin Lv, Tianyou Luo, Oumei Cheng, Ke Sheng, Jin Luo, Yida Hu, Weidong Fang
BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis is still not very clear. Recently, degree centrality, a voxel-level whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, has provided the most promising way to explore the neural network mechanisms underlying depressed PD. METHODS: Degree centrality, voxel-wise image and clinical symptoms correlation and secondary seed-based FC analyses were performed in twenty-seven drug-naïve, early stage depressed PD patients, 27 non-depressed PD patients and 27 healthy controls (HCs) to reveal voxel-level whole-brain FC changes in depressed PD...
February 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448128/hubs-in-the-human-fetal-brain-network
#15
Marion I van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Moriah E Thomason
Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging...
February 6, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447377/behavioral-and-neural-indices-of-affective-coloring-for-neutral-social-stimuli
#16
Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447256/modulation-of-neural-circuits-underlying-temporal-production-by-facial-expressions-of-pain
#17
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446971/preserved-neural-event-segmentation-in-healthy-older-adults
#18
Christopher A Kurby, Jeffrey M Zacks
An important feature of action understanding is that comprehenders segment the perceptual stream into events. Event segmentation dynamically engages a network of brain regions that likely play a role in how events are encoded. Here, in a sample of older adults, we assessed the relationship between changes in brain dynamics during movie watching and event understanding performance. Forty healthy older adults and a comparison sample of 12 younger adults passively viewed short movies of everyday activities while their brain activity was measured with fMRI...
February 15, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446965/associations-between-coherent-neural-activity-in-the-brain-s-value-system-during-antismoking-messages-and-reductions-in-smoking
#19
Nicole Cooper, Steven Tompson, Matthew B O'Donnell, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett, Emily B Falk
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death and illness. One common strategy for reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking and other health risk behaviors is the use of graphic warning labels (GWLs). This has led to widespread interest from the perspective of health psychology in understanding the mechanisms of GWL effectiveness. Here we investigated differences in how the brain responds to negative, graphic warning label-inspired antismoking ads and neutral control ads, and we probed how this response related to future behavior...
February 15, 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#20
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
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