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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449116/the-iconography-of-mourning-and-its-neural-correlates-a-functional-neuroimaging-study
#1
Karin Labek, Samantha Berger, Anna Buchheim, Julia Bosch, Jennifer Spohrs, Lisa Dommes, Petra Beschoner, Julia C Stingl, Roberto Viviani
The present functional neuroimaging study focuses on the iconography of mourning. A culture-specific pattern of body postures of mourning individuals, mostly suggesting withdrawal, emerged from a survey of visual material. When used in different combinations in stylized drawings in our neuroimaging study, this material activated cortical areas commonly seen in studies of social cognition (temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus, and inferior temporal lobe), empathy for pain (somatosensory cortex), and loss (precuneus, middle/posterior cingular gyrus)...
April 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448504/impaired-sense-of-agency-in-functional-movement-disorders-an-fmri-study
#2
Fatta B Nahab, Prantik Kundu, Carine Maurer, Qian Shen, Mark Hallett
The sense of agency (SA) is an established framework that refers to our ability to exert and perceive control over our own actions. Having an intact SA provides the basis for the human perception of voluntariness, while impairments in SA are hypothesized to lead to the perception of movements being involuntary that may be seen many neurological or psychiatric disorders. Individuals with functional movement disorders (FMD) experience a lack of control over their movements, yet these movements appear voluntary by physiology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#3
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448253/a-map-of-abstract-relational-knowledge-in-the-human-hippocampal-entorhinal-cortex
#4
Mona M Garvert, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy Ej Behrens
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446874/age-related-differences-in-reorganization-of-functional-connectivity-for-a-dual-task-with-increasing-postural-destabilization
#5
Cheng-Ya Huang, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
The aged brain may not make good use of central resources, so dual task performance may be degraded. From the brain connectome perspective, this study investigated dual task deficits of older adults that lead to task failure of a suprapostural motor task with increasing postural destabilization. Twelve younger (mean age: 25.3 years) and 12 older (mean age: 65.8 years) adults executed a designated force-matching task from a level-surface or a stabilometer board. Force-matching error, stance sway, and event-related potential (ERP) in the preparatory period were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446867/response-properties-of-motor-equivalence-neurons-of-the-primate-premotor-cortex
#6
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To study the response properties of cells that could participate in eye-hand coordination we trained two macaque monkeys to perform center-out saccades and pointing movements with their right or left forelimb toward visual targets presented on a video display. We analyzed the phasic movement related discharges of neurons of the periarcuate cortex that fire before and during saccades and movements of the hand whether accompanied by movements of the other effector or not. Because such cells could encode an abstract form of the desired displacement vector without regard to the effector that would execute the movement we refer to such cells as motor equivalence neurons (Meq)...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446773/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-hmgb1-monoclonal-antibody-on-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#7
Li Fu, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tadashi Yoshino, Hideo Takahashi, Shuji Mori, Masahiro Nishibori
Inflammatory processes in brain tissue have been described in human epilepsy of various etiologies and in experimental models of seizures. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is now recognized as representative of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In the present study, we focused on whether anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment could relieve status epilepticus- triggered BBB breakdown and inflammation response in addition to the seizure behavior itself. Pilocarpine and methyl-scopolamine were used to establish the acute seizure model...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446588/hierarchical-differences-in-population-coding-within-auditory-cortex
#8
Joshua David Downer, Mamiko Niwa, Mitchell L Sutter
Most models of auditory cortical (AC) population coding have focused on primary auditory cortex (A1). Thus, our understanding of how neural coding for sounds progresses along the cortical hierarchy remains obscure. To illuminate this, we recorded from AC fields, A1 and middle-lateral belt (ML) of rhesus macaques. We presented amplitude-modulated (AM) noise during both passive listening and while the animals performed an AM detection task ("Active" condition). In both fields, neurons exhibit monotonic AM-depth tuning, with A1 neurons mostly exhibiting increasing rate-depth functions and ML neurons ~evenly distributed between increasing and decreasing functions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446254/functional-neuroimaging-of-sex-differences-in-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-depression
#9
K D Young, J Bodurka, W C Drevets
BACKGROUND: Females are more likely than males to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used fMRI to compare the neural correlates of autobiographical memory (AM) recall between males and females diagnosed with MDD. AM overgenerality is a persistent cognitive deficit in MDD, the magnitude of which is correlated with depressive severity only in females. Delineating the neurobiological correlates of this deficit may elucidate the nature of sex-differences in the diathesis for developing MDD...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446047/effect-of-chronic-restraint-stress-on-inhibitory-gating-in-the-auditory-cortex-of-rats
#10
Lanlan Ma, Wai Li, Sibin Li, Xuejiao Wang, Ling Qin
A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously...
April 26, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445740/right-brain-left-brain-in-depressive-disorders-clinical-and-theoretical-implications-of-behavioral-electrophysiological-and-neuroimaging-findings
#11
REVIEW
Gerard E Bruder, Jonathan W Stewart, Patrick J McGrath
The right and left side of the brain are asymmetric in anatomy and function. We review electrophysiological (EEG and event-related potential), behavioral (dichotic and visual perceptual asymmetry), and neuroimaging (PET, MRI, NIRS) evidence of right-left asymmetry in depressive disorders. Recent electrophysiological and fMRI studies of emotional processing have provided new evidence of altered laterality in depressive disorders. EEG alpha asymmetry and neuroimaging findings at rest and during cognitive or emotional tasks are consistent with reduced left prefrontal activity in depressed patients, which may impair downregulation of amygdala response to negative emotional information...
April 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445695/neural-correlates-of-evoked-phantom-limb-sensations
#12
J Andoh, M Diers, C Milde, C Köppe, D Kleinböhl, H Flor
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444633/distributed-representations-of-action-sequences-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-a-recurrent-neural-network-approach
#13
Danesh Shahnazian, Clay B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks...
April 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#14
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443011/the-lateral-occipito-temporal-cortex-is-involved-in-the-mental-manipulation-of-body-part-imagery
#15
Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Yumi Oboshi, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Yoshio Minabe, Yasuomi Ouchi
The lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), including the extrastriate body area, is known to be involved in the perception of body parts. Although still controversial, recent studies have demonstrated the role of the LOTC in higher-level body-related cognition in humans. This study consisted of two experiments (E1 and E2). The first (E1) was an exploratory experiment to find the neural correlate of the mental manipulation of body part imagery, in which brain cerebral glucose metabolic rates and the performance of mental rotation of the hand were measured in 100 subjects who exhibited a range of symptoms of cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443001/functional-sub-circuits-of-the-olfactory-system-viewed-from-the-olfactory-bulb-and-the-olfactory-tubercle
#16
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
Understanding of the olfactory neural circuits has progressed beyond analysis of how odor information from the external environment is processed in the brain. While spatially-organized sub-circuits were found to exist up to the olfactory bulb (OB), the arrangement in the olfactory cortex (OC), especially in its representative piriform cortex (PC), appears diffuse and dispersed. An emerging view is that the activity of OC neurons may not simply encode odor identity but rather encode plastic odor information such as odor value...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442404/meta-analytic-investigations-of-common-and-distinct-grey-matter-alterations-in-youths-and-adults-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Xinyu Hu, Mingying Du, Lizhou Chen, Lei Li, Ming Zhou, Lianqing Zhang, Qi Liu, Lu Lu, Kunal Mreedha, Xiaoqi Huang, Qiyong Gong
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with onset generally in childhood. OCD-youths differ from OCD-adults with regard to gender distribution, comorbidity patterns and treatment options. However, little is known about the neural correlate differences underpin those two populations. The current meta-analysis summarizes voxel based morphometry findings to elucidate whether differences of neural correlates exist between these two populations. Both OCD-youths and OCD-adults demonstrated greater striatal volume and smaller prefrontal grey matter volume (GMV)...
April 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442356/unbiased-stereological-analysis-of-the-fate-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-and-effect-of-reference-memory-training
#18
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the grey and white matter of the adult brain. Here, we used unbiased systematic stereological analysis to determine the total number of OPCs in the neocortex and corpus callosum of the adult mouse. We found that the ratio of OPCs to neurons is of 1: 10 in the adult neocortex...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442352/the-effect-of-regulatory-mode-on-procrastination-bi-stable-parahippocampus-connectivity-with-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-anterior-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Chenyan Zhang, Yan Ni, Tingyong Feng
Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441460/how-embarrassing-the-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-processing-social-norm-violations
#20
Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam, Henk van Steenbergen, Tanja Kreuk, Nic J A van der Wee, P Michiel Westenberg
Social norms are important for human social interactions, and violations of these norms are evaluated partly on the intention of the actor. Here, we describe the revised Social Norm Processing Task (SNPT-R), a paradigm enabling the study of behavioral and neural responses to intended and unintended social norm violations among both adults and adolescents. We investigated how participants (adolescents and adults, n = 87) rate intentional and unintentional social norm violations with respect to inappropriateness and embarrassment, and we examined the brain activation patterns underlying the processing of these transgressions in an independent sample of 21 adults using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
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