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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235461/oxytocin-enhances-observational-fear-in-mice
#1
Marc T Pisansky, Leah R Hanson, Irving I Gottesman, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Empathy is fundamental to human relations, but its neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the involvement of oxytocin in the capacity of mice to display emotional state-matching, an empathy-like behavior. When exposed to a familiar conspecific demonstrator in distress, an observer mouse becomes fearful, as indicated by a tendency to freeze and subsequent efforts to escape. Both intranasal oxytocin administration and chemogenetic stimulation of oxytocin neurons render males sensitive to the distress of an unfamiliar mouse...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235190/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-extended-amygdala
#2
Rachael M Tillman, Melissa D Stockbridge, Brendon M Nacewicz, Salvatore Torrisi, Andrew S Fox, Jason F Smith, Alexander J Shackman
The central extended amygdala (EAc)-including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce)-plays a critical role in triggering fear and anxiety and is implicated in the development of a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Although it is widely believed that these disorders reflect the coordinated activity of distributed neural circuits, the functional architecture of the EAc network and the degree to which the BST and the Ce show distinct patterns of functional connectivity is unclear...
December 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235036/expression-of-dha-metabolizing-enzyme-alox15-is-regulated-by-selective-histone-acetylation-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#3
Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Claire Poh-Ee Bon, Yee-Kong Ng, Deron R Herr, Jui-Sheng Wu, Teng-Nan Lin, Wei-Yi Ong
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in neural membranes of the CNS, and recent studies have shown a role of DHA metabolism by 15-lipoxygenase-1 (Alox15) in prefrontal cortex resolvin D1 formation, hippocampo-prefrontal cortical long-term-potentiation, spatial working memory, and anti-nociception/anxiety. In this study, we elucidated epigenetic regulation of Alox15 via histone modifications in neuron-like cells. Treatment of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate significantly increased Alox15 mRNA expression...
December 12, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234958/the-relationship-between-putamen-sma-functional-connectivity-and-sensorimotor-abnormality-in-esrd-patients
#4
Dun Ding, Peng Li, Xue-Ying Ma, Wang-Huan Dun, Shi-Feng Yang, Shao-Hui Ma, Hong-Juan Liu, Ming Zhang
The basal ganglia (BG) are composed of several nuclei involved in neural processing associated with integration of sensory and motor information. Recent neuroimaging studies implicated its key role in control of voluntary motor function. As the sensorimotor abnormality is common among the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the abnormal structure and functional connectivity patterns of BG in ESRD patients. Twenty-nine ESRD and twenty-nine age and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to compare the volume of the subsets in the BG (e...
December 12, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234817/neural-plasticity-and-its-initiating-conditions-in-tinnitus
#5
REVIEW
L E Roberts
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Deafferentation caused by cochlear pathology (which can be hidden from the audiogram) activates forms of neural plasticity in auditory pathways, generating tinnitus and its associated conditions including hyperacusis. This article discusses tinnitus mechanisms and suggests how these mechanisms may relate to those involved in normal auditory information processing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research findings from animal models of tinnitus and from electromagnetic imaging of tinnitus patients are reviewed which pertain to the role of deafferentation and neural plasticity in tinnitus and hyperacusis...
December 12, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234275/insulin-modulates-neural-activity-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-anterior-piriform-cortex
#6
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#7
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232484/juvenile-social-experience-and-differential-age-related-changes-in-the-dendritic-morphologies-of-subareas-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-in-rats
#8
B T Himmler, R Mychasiuk, A Nakahashi, S M Himmler, S M Pellis, B Kolb
Juvenile social interactions have been shown to influence the dendritic complexity of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. In particular, social play induces pruning of the cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas interacting with multiple partners, whether those interactions involve play or not, increases the complexity of cells in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC). Previous studies suggest that these changes differ in their stability during adulthood. In the present study, rats were reared in groups of either four (quads) or two (pairs) and the brains of the rats from each rearing condition were then harvested at 60 days (i...
December 12, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230808/dopamine-drives-left-hemispheric-lateralization-of-neural-networks-during-human-speech
#9
Stefan Fuertinger, Joel C Zinn, Ashwini D Sharan, Farid Hamzei-Sichani, Kristina Simonyan
Although the concept of left-hemispheric lateralization of neural processes during speech production has been known since the times of Broca, its physiological underpinnings still remain elusive. We sought to assess the modulatory influences of a major neurotransmitter, dopamine, on hemispheric lateralization during real-life speaking using a multimodal analysis of functional MRI, intracranial EEG recordings, and large-scale neural population simulations based on diffusion-weighted MRI. We demonstrate that speech-induced phasic dopamine release into the dorsal striatum and speech motor cortex exerts direct modulation of neuronal activity in these regions and drives left-hemispheric lateralization of speech production network...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230561/neurophysiological-variability-masks-differences-in-functional-neuroanatomical-networks-and-their-effectiveness-to-modulate-response-inhibition-between-children-and-adults
#10
Benjamin Bodmer, Moritz Mückschel, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Executive functions are well-known to undergo developmental changes from childhood to adulthood. Considerable efforts have been made to elucidate the affected system neurophysiological mechanisms. But while it is well-known that developmental changes affect intra-individual variability, this potential bias has largely been neglected when investigating the neurophysiology underlying developmental differences between children and adults. We hypothesize that due to differences in intra-individual variability of neural processes between children and adults, reliable group differences will only be evident after accounting for intra-individual variability in neurophysiological processes...
December 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230053/stress-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-zika-virus-associated-microcephaly
#11
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lluís Cordón-Barris, Christian Alfano, Catherine Creppe, Thérèse Couderc, Giovanni Morelli, Nicolas Thelen, Michelle America, Bettina Bessières, Férechté Encha-Razavi, Maryse Bonnière, Ikuo K Suzuki, Marie Flamand, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Marc Thiry, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230011/pairing-sound-with-vagus-nerve-stimulation-modulates-cortical-synchrony-and-phase-coherence-in-tinnitus-an-exploratory-retrospective-study
#12
Sven Vanneste, Jeffrey Martin, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Recent research has shown that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with tones or with rehabilitative training can help patients to achieve reductions in tinnitus perception or to expedite motor rehabilitation after suffering an ischemic stroke. The rationale behind this treatment is that VNS paired with experience can drive neural plasticity in a controlled and therapeutic direction. Since previous studies observed that gamma activity in the auditory cortex is correlated with tinnitus loudness, we assessed resting-state source-localized EEG before and after one to three months of VNS-tone pairing in chronic tinnitus patients...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228949/a-mathematical-model-for-histamine-synthesis-release-and-control-in-varicosities
#13
Janet Best, H F Nijhout, Srimal Samaranayake, Parastoo Hashemi, Michael Reed
BACKGROUND: Histamine (HA), a small molecule that is synthesized from the amino acid histidine, plays an important role in the immune system where it is associated with allergies, inflammation, and T-cell regulation. In the brain, histamine is stored in mast cells and other non-neuronal cells and also acts as a neurotransmitter. The histamine neuron cell bodies are in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus of the hypothalamus and these neurons send projections throughout the central nervous system (CNS), in particular to the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia, hippocampus, thalamus, retina, and spinal cord...
December 12, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228630/transplantation-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-overexpressing-sdf-1%C3%AE-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#14
Monica Chau, Todd C Deveau, Mingke Song, Zheng Z Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability while clinical treatments are limited. The adult brain possesses endogenous regenerative activities that may benefit tissue repair after stroke. Trophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) are upregulated in the ischemic brain, which promote endogenous regeneration. The regenerative response, however, is normally insufficient. Transplantation of exogenous cells has been explored as regenerative therapies. One promising cell type for transplantation is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells which are cells genetically reprogrammed from adult somatic cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228378/neural-mechanisms-mediating-degrees-of-strategic-uncertainty
#15
Rosemarie Nagel, Andrea Brovelli, Frank Heinemann, Giorgio Coricelli
In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of fMRI with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228119/rostro-caudal-connectional-heterogeneity-of-the-dorsal-part-of-the-macaque-prefrontal-area-46
#16
Elena Borra, Carolina Giulia Ferroni, Marzio Gerbella, Valentina Giorgetti, Chiara Mangiaracina, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
Based on neural tracer injections we found evidence for 3 connectionally distinct sectors of the dorsal part of the macaque prefrontal area 46 (46d), located at different rostro-caudal levels. Specifically, a rostral sector displayed an almost exclusive and extensive intraprefrontal connectivity and extraprefrontal connections limited to superior temporal areas and the caudal cingulate area 31. Conversely, both a middle and a caudal sector were characterized by robust, topographically organized connections with parietal and frontal sensorimotor areas...
December 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227227/reward-system-activation-in-response-to-alcohol-advertisements-predicts-college-drinking
#17
Andrea L Courtney, Kristina M Rapuano, James D Sargent, Todd F Heatherton, William M Kelley
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess whether activation of the brain's reward system in response to alcohol advertisements is associated with college drinking. Previous research has established a relationship between exposure to alcohol marketing and underage drinking. Within other appetitive domains, the relationship between cue exposure and behavioral enactment is known to rely on activation of the brain's reward system. However, the relationship between neural activation to alcohol advertisements and alcohol consumption has not been studied in a nondisordered population...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226482/using-facial-muscular-movements-to-understand-young-children-s-emotion-regulation-and-concurrent-neural-activation
#18
Adam S Grabell, Theodore J Huppert, Frank A Fishburn, Yanwei Li, Hannah M Jones, Aimee E Wilett, Lisa M Bemis, Susan B Perlman
Individual differences in young children's frustration responses set the stage for myriad developmental outcomes and represent an area of intense empirical interest. Emotion regulation is hypothesized to comprise the interplay of complex behaviors, such as facial expressions, and activation of concurrent underlying neural systems. At present, however, the literature has mostly examined children's observed emotion regulation behaviors and assumed underlying brain activation through separate investigations, resulting in theoretical gaps in our understanding of how children regulate emotion in vivo...
December 11, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226175/longitudinal-transcranial-measurement-of-functional-activation-in-the-rat-brain-by-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#19
Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Tanja Dragojević, Clara Castellvi, Turgut Durduran, Carles Justicia
Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225336/psychiatric-polygenic-risk-associates-with-cortical-morphology-and-functional-organization-in-aging
#20
Annie Lee, Mojun Shen, Anqi Qiu
Common brain abnormalities in cortical morphology and functional organization are observed in psychiatric disorders and aging, reflecting shared genetic influences. This preliminary study aimed to examine the contribution of a polygenetic risk for psychiatric disorders (PRScross) to aging brain and to identify molecular mechanisms through the use of multimodal brain images, genotypes, and transcriptome data. We showed age-related cortical thinning in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and superior temporal gyrus and alterations in the functional connectivity between bilateral IFC and between right IFC and right inferior parietal lobe as a function of PRScross...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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