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neural cortex

Denis Pélisson, Ouazna Habchi, Muriel T N Panouillères, Charles Hernoux, Alessandro Farnè
How movements are continuously adapted to physiological and environmental changes is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. While many studies have elucidated the mechanisms which underlie short-term sensorimotor adaptation (∼10-30 min), how these motor memories are maintained over longer-term (>3-5 days) -and thanks to which neural systems-is virtually unknown. Here, we examine in healthy human participants whether the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is causally involved in the induction and/or the retention of saccadic eye movements' adaptation...
June 19, 2018: NeuroImage
Yong-Ku Kim, Meysam Amidfar, Eunsoo Won
The heterogeneity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms indicates that multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlie the pathophysiology of the condition. However, no generally accepted PTSD biomarkers in clinical practice currently exist. The sequential responses to recurrent and chronic stress by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) system are considered to play a significant role in the onset and progression of PTSD. Decreased activity of the HPA axis and parasympathetic nervous system, along with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system, have been observed in PTSD, which may lead to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines...
June 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Brooke N Dulka, Richa Koul-Tiwari, J Alex Grizzell, Marquinta L Harvey, Subimal Datta, Matthew A Cooper
Stress is a well-known risk factor for psychopathology and rodent models of social defeat have strong face, etiological, construct and predictive validity for these conditions. Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive and territorial, but after an acute social defeat experience they become submissive and no longer defend their home territory, even from a smaller, non-aggressive intruder. This defeat-induced change in social behavior is called conditioned defeat (CD). We have shown that dominant hamsters show increased neural activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) following social defeat stress and exhibit a reduced CD response at social interaction testing compared to subordinates...
June 22, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Thomas Pfeiffer, Stefanie Poll, Stephane Bancelin, Julie Angibaud, Vvg Krishna Inavalli, Kevin Keppler, Manuel Mittag, Martin Fuhrmann, U Valentin Nägerl
Rewiring neural circuits by the formation and elimination of synapses is thought to be a key cellular mechanism of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Dendritic spines are the postsynaptic structural component of excitatory synapses, and their experience-dependent plasticity has been extensively studied in mouse superficial cortex using two-photon microscopy in vivo. By contrast, very little is known about spine plasticity in the hippocampus, which is the archetypical memory center of the brain, mostly because it is difficult to visualize dendritic spines in this deeply embedded structure with sufficient spatial resolution...
June 22, 2018: ELife
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Jiachen Liu, Yifeng Zhou, Tzvetomir Tzvetanov
Anisometropic amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system. There is evidence that the neural deficits spread across visual areas, from the primary cortex up to higher brain areas, including motion coding structures such as MT. Here, we used bistable plaid motion to investigate changes in the underlying mechanisms of motion integration and segmentation and, thus, help us to unravel in more detail deficits in the amblyopic visual motion system. Our results showed that (1) amblyopes globally exhibited normal bistable perception in all viewing conditions compared to the control group and (2) decreased contrast led to a stronger increase in percept switches and decreased percept durations in the control group, while the amblyopic group exhibited no such changes...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yuko Hakamata, Shinya Mizukami, Shotaro Komi, Eisuke Sato, Yoshiya Moriguchi, Yuki Motomura, Kazushi Maruo, Shuhei Izawa, Yoshiharu Kim, Takashi Hanakawa, Yusuke Inoue, Hirokuni Tagaya
INTRODUCTION: Attentional bias modification (ABM) alleviates anxiety by moderating biased attentional processing toward threat; however, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. We examined how ABM changes functional connectivity (FC) and functional network measures, leading to anxiety reduction. METHODS: Fifty-four healthy anxious individuals received either ABM or sham training for 1 month in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Anxious traits, attentional control, and attentional bias were assessed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Elizabeth L Stegemöller, Patricia Izbicki, Paul Hibbing
Although there is a growing interest in using music to improve movement performance in various populations, there remains a need to better understand how music influences motor cortical activity. Listening to music is tightly linked to neural processes within the motor cortex and can modulate motor cortical activity in healthy young adult (HYAs). There is limited evidence regarding how moving to music modulates motor cortical activity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of moving to music on motor cortical activity in HYAs...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mari Kaneko, Satoshi Fujita, Noriyoshi Shimizu, Mitsuru Motoyoshi, Masayuki Kobayashi
During orthodontic treatment, binding teeth, may change the topographically organized representation of teeth in the cerebral cortex. To test the hypothesis that experimental tooth movement (ETM) changes the somatotopy of an individual tooth arrangement in the somatosensory cortex, we examined the spatiotemporal features of cortical excitatory propagation in response to mechanical stimulation of the maxillary incisor or molar using optical imaging in late adolescent rats without or with ETM. The ETM models consisted of 1d, 3d, and 7d ETM in which a closed-coil spring was ligated between the maxillary first molar and incisors...
June 18, 2018: Brain Research
Pauline Popp, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Thomas Stephan, Rainer Bögle, Maximilian Habs, Peter Henningsen, Regina Feuerecker, Marianne Dieterich
Objective: Functional dizziness syndromes are among the most common diagnoses made in patients with chronic dizziness, but their underlying neural characteristics are largely unknown. The aim of this neuroimaging study was to analyze the disease-specific brain changes in patients with phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods: We measured brain morphology, task response, and functional connectivity in 44 patients with PPV and 44 healthy controls. Results: The analyses revealed a relative structural increase in regions of the prefrontal cortex and the associated thalamic projection zones as well as in the primary motor cortex...
June 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Laura J de Schipper, Anne Hafkemeijer, Jeroen van der Grond, Johan Marinus, Johanna M L Henselmans, Jacobus J van Hilten
Background: Functional imaging methods, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, reflect changes in neural connectivity and may help to assess the widespread consequences of disease-specific network changes in Parkinson's disease. In this study we used a relatively new graph analysis approach in functional imaging: eigenvector centrality mapping. This model-free method, applied to all voxels in the brain, identifies prominent regions in the brain network hierarchy and detects localized differences between patient populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Valentin Senft, Terrence C Stewart, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith, Bernd J Kröger
Background: Parkinson's disease affects many motor processes including speech. Besides drug treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) has developed as an effective therapy. Goal: We present a neural model that simulates a syllable repetition task and evaluate its performance when varying the level of dopamine in the striatum, and the level of activity reduction in the STN or GPi. Method: The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) is used to build a model of syllable sequencing through a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
V M Vostrikov, N A Uranova
AIM: Oligodendrocyte abnormalities are thought to be one of the key cellular pathologies involved in disturbances of neuronal connectivity in schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The density of oligodendrocytes in layer III of the prefrontal cortex, BA10, in schizophrenia (n=20) was compared to controls (n=20) using optical dissector method. MANCOVA was applied for group comparisons. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The density of oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in each sublayers of layer III (≤20% p≤0...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Yalda Mohsenzadeh, Sheng Qin, Radoslaw M Cichy, Dimitrios Pantazis
Human visual recognition activates a dense network of overlapping feedforward and recurrent neuronal processes, making it hard to disentangle processing in the feedforward from the feedback direction. Here, we used ultra-rapid serial visual presentation to suppress sustained activity that blurs the boundaries of processing steps, enabling us to resolve two distinct stages of processing with MEG multivariate pattern classification. The first processing stage was the rapid activation cascade of the bottom-up sweep, which terminated early as visual stimuli were presented at progressively faster rates...
June 21, 2018: ELife
Shi-Jin Chen, Dong Chen, Yu-Fang Shi, Jun Liu, Song Han, Wei Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of tetramethylpyrazine(TMP) nitrone in proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). METHODS: We separated and cultivated the original generation of NSCs from cerebral cortex of 14 days rat embryo, and the phenotype characteristics of the third-generation NSCs was tested by immunofluorescence. The experiment was divided into control group, β-mercaptoethanol positive control group, tetramethylpyrazine nitrone group and tetramethylpyrazine nitrone + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid(EGTA) group ( n =4)...
February 8, 2018: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
Shuzhi Zhao, Yangding Li, Min Li, Ruonan Wang, Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoqi Lu, Dahua Yu, Likun Yang, Kai Yuan
Studying the neural correlates of craving to smoke is of great importance to improve treatment outcomes in smoking addiction. According to previous studies, the critical roles of striatum and frontal brain regions had been revealed in addiction. However, few studies focused on the hub of brain regions in the 12 h abstinence induced craving in young smokers. Thirty-one young male smokers were enrolled in the present study. A within-subject experiment design was carried out to compare functional connectivity density between 12-h smoking abstinence and smoking satiety conditions during resting state in young adult smokers by using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM)...
June 20, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bidhan Lamichhane, Mark A McDaniel, Emily R Waldum, Todd S Braver
The capability to remember and execute intentions in the future - termed prospective memory (PM) - may be of special significance for older adults to enable successful completion of important activities of daily living. Despite the importance of this cognitive function, mixed findings have been obtained regarding age-related decline in PM, and, currently, there is limited understanding of potential contributing mechanisms. In the current study, older (N=41) and younger adults (N=47) underwent task-functional MRI during performance of PM conditions that encouraged either spontaneous retrieval (Focal) or sustained attentional monitoring (Non-focal) to detect PM targets...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Minji Bang, Hae-Jeong Park, Chongwon Pae, Kyoungri Park, Eun Lee, Seung-Koo Lee, Suk Kyoon An
BACKGROUND: In the tradition of phenomenology, minimal selfdisturbance has been suggested as a manifestation of the core pathogenesis of schizophrenia; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Here, in line with the concept of "cognitive dysmetria," we investigated the cerebro-cerebellar default mode network (DMN) connectivity and its association with pre-reflective minimal selfdisturbance in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES)...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Giacomo Rizzolatti, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro, Fausto Caruana, Pietro Avanzini
In this review, we discuss first the anatomical and lesion studies that allowed the localization of fundamental functions in the cerebral cortex of primates including humans. Subsequently, we argue that the years from the end of the Second World War until the end of the last century represented the "golden age" of system neuroscience. In this period, the mechanisms-not only the localization-underlying sensory, and in particular visual functions were described, followed by those underlying cognitive functions and housed in temporal, parietal, and premotor areas...
June 20, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Mackenna Hill, Estefania Rios, Shyam Kumar Sudhakar, Douglas Roossien, Ciara Maria Caldwell, Dawen Cai, Omar Ahmed, Scott Lempka, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Neural recording is important for a wide variety of clinical applications. Until recently, recording from the surface of the brain, even when using micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) arrays, was not thought to enable recording from individual neurons. Recent results suggest that when the surface electrode contact size is sufficiently small, it may be possible to record single neurons from the brain's surface. In this study, we use computational techniques to investigate the ability of surface electrodes to record the activity of single neurons...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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