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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679735/age-dependent-effects-of-brain-stimulation-on-network-centrality
#1
Daria Antonenko, Till Nierhaus, Marcus Meinzer, Kristin Prehn, Axel Thielscher, Bernd Ittermann, Agnes Flöel
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that advanced age may mediate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain function. However, studies directly comparing neural tDCS effects between young and older adults are scarce and limited to task-related imaging paradigms. Resting-state (rs-) fMRI, that is independent of age-related differences in performance, is well suited to investigate age-associated differential neural tDCS effects. Three "online" tDCS conditions (anodal, cathodal, sham) were compared in a cross-over, within-subject design, in 30 young and 30 older adults...
April 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#2
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679646/chronic-methamphetamine-exposure-attenuates-neural-activation-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-associated-brain-regions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#3
Jason S Jacobskind, Zachary J Rosinger, Tiffany Gonzalez, Kristen L Zuloaga, Damian G Zuloaga
Sex differences in methamphetamine (MA) abuse and consequences of MA have been reported with females showing an increased addiction phenotype and withdrawal symptoms. One mechanism through which these effects might occur is via sex-specific alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, mice were administered MA (5 mg/kg) or saline for 10 consecutive days. During early withdrawal, anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in the open field, light/dark box, and elevated plus maze...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678757/ultra-coarse-single-glance-human-face-detection-in-a-dynamic-visual-stream
#4
Genevieve L Quek, Joan Liu-Shuang, Valérie Goffaux, Bruno Rossion
Effective human interaction depends on our ability to rapidly detect faces in dynamic visual environments. Here we asked how basic units of visual information (spatial frequencies, or SF) contribute to this fundamental brain function. Human observers viewed initially blurry, unrecognizable natural object images presented at a fast 12 Hz rate and parametrically increasing in SF content over the course of 1 min. By inserting highly variable natural face images as every 8th stimulus we captured an objective neural index of face detection in participants' electroencephalogram (EEG) at exactly 1...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678369/impaired-corticomuscular-and-interhemispheric-cortical-beta-oscillation-coupling-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#5
Malcolm Proudfoot, Freek van Ede, Andrew Quinn, Giles L Colclough, Joanne Wuu, Kevin Talbot, Michael Benatar, Mark W Woolrich, Anna C Nobre, Martin R Turner
OBJECTIVES: The neural activity of the primary motor cortex is variably synchronised with contralateral peripheral electromyographic signals, which is thought to facilitate long-range communication through the motor system. Such corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is typically observed in the beta-band (15-30 Hz) range during steady force production. We aimed to measure pathological alteration to CMC resulting from ALS. METHODS: CMC was appraised during a forearm grip task in 17 ALS patients contrasted against age-matched healthy controls...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676484/structural-and-metabolic-brain-correlates-of-apathy-in-huntington-s-disease
#6
Saul Martínez-Horta, Jesús Perez-Perez, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Andrea Horta-Barba, Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Beatriz Gomez-Anson, Gloria Andrea Lozano-Martinez, Diego Alfonso Lopez-Mora, Valle Camacho, Alejandro Fernández-León, Ignasi Carrió, Jaime Kulisevsky
BACKGROUND: Apathy is the most prevalent and characteristic neuropsychiatric feature of Huntington's disease. Congruent with the main early pathological changes, apathy is primarily associated with subcortical damage in frontal-striatal circuits. However, little is known about its precise subserving mechanisms and the contribution of regions other than the basal ganglia. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to define the neural correlates of apathy in Huntington's disease based on gray matter volume and PET/CT of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose metabolism...
April 20, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675956/clonidine-modulates-the-activity-of-the-subthalamic-supplementary-motor-loop-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-study-combining-dbs-and-eeg-recordings-in-parkinsonian-patients
#7
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674950/decoding-speech-with-integrated-hybrid-signals-recorded-from-the-human-ventral-motor-cortex
#8
Kenji Ibayashi, Naoto Kunii, Takeshi Matsuo, Yohei Ishishita, Seijiro Shimada, Kensuke Kawai, Nobuhito Saito
Restoration of speech communication for locked-in patients by means of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) is currently an important area of active research. Among the neural signals obtained from intracranial recordings, single/multi-unit activity (SUA/MUA), local field potential (LFP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are good candidates for an input signal for BCIs. However, the question of which signal or which combination of the three signal modalities is best suited for decoding speech production remains unverified...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674416/altered-white-matter-microstructure-in-the-corpus-callosum-and-its-cerebral-interhemispheric-tracts-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-diffusion-tensor-imaging-analysis
#9
C Xue, L Shi, S C N Hui, D Wang, T P Lam, C-B Ip, B K W Ng, J C Y Cheng, W C W Chu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neural system was one of the important contributors to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; additionally, the morphology of corpus callosum interconnecting both hemispheres of the brain was found to be altered morphologically. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the microstructural changes of the corpus callosum and its interhemispheric white matter fiber tracts interconnecting both cerebral hemispheres in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging...
April 19, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673625/abnormal-target-detection-and-novelty-processing-neural-response-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#10
Pilar M Sanjuan, Chloe Andrews, Eric D Claus
Attention impairments are common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of these impairments remains elusive. Attention impairment may arise as the result of either excessive response to task-irrelevant stimuli or reduced response to task-relevant information. To test the association between PTSD and response to task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli, we used a 3-tone novelty auditory oddball task (AOD). We hypothesized that participants with PTSD relative to trauma controls would have less response during novelty processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as less response in the dlPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex during target detection...
April 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673483/training-humans-to-categorize-monkey-calls-auditory-feature-and-category-selective-neural-tuning-changes
#11
Xiong Jiang, Mark A Chevillet, Josef P Rauschecker, Maximilian Riesenhuber
Grouping auditory stimuli into common categories is essential for a variety of auditory tasks, including speech recognition. We trained human participants to categorize auditory stimuli from a large novel set of morphed monkey vocalizations. Using fMRI-rapid adaptation (fMRI-RA) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) techniques, we gained evidence that categorization training results in two distinct sets of changes: sharpened tuning to monkey call features (without explicit category representation) in left auditory cortex and category selectivity for different types of calls in lateral prefrontal cortex...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670648/stimulating-the-healthy-brain-to-investigate-neural-correlates-of-motor-preparation-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Cécilia Neige, Hugo Massé-Alarie, Catherine Mercier
Objective: Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques can be used to selectively increase or decrease the excitability of a cortical region, providing a unique opportunity to assess the causal contribution of that region to the process being assessed. The objective of this paper is to systematically examine studies investigating changes in reaction time induced by noninvasive brain stimulation in healthy participants during movement preparation. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Web of science databases...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670514/effects-of-tdcs-on-bimanual-motor-skills-a-brief-review
#13
REVIEW
Nils H Pixa, Bettina Pollok
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670506/dexterous-control-of-seven-functional-hand-movements-using-cortically-controlled-transcutaneous-muscle-stimulation-in-a-person-with-tetraplegia
#14
Samuel C Colachis, Marcie A Bockbrader, Mingming Zhang, David A Friedenberg, Nicholas V Annetta, Michael A Schwemmer, Nicholas D Skomrock, Walter J Mysiw, Ali R Rezai, Herbert S Bresler, Gaurav Sharma
Individuals with tetraplegia identify restoration of hand function as a critical, unmet need to regain their independence and improve quality of life. Brain-Computer Interface (BCI)-controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) technology addresses this need by reconnecting the brain with paralyzed limbs to restore function. In this study, we quantified performance of an intuitive, cortically-controlled, transcutaneous FES system on standardized object manipulation tasks from the Grasp and Release Test (GRT)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670166/the-salience-of-self-not-social-pain-is-encoded-by-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-and-insula
#15
Irene Perini, Per A Gustafsson, J Paul Hamilton, Robin Kämpe, Maria Zetterqvist, Markus Heilig
The human neural correlates of social rejection have attracted significant research interest, but remain subject to vigorous debate. Specifically, it has been proposed that a matrix of brain regions overlapping with the classical pain matrix, and including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AI) is critical for processing of social rejection. The present study expands on this conceptualization, by showing that these areas are involved in processing of self-relevant social evaluation, irrespective of valence...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670138/differential-medial-temporal-lobe-and-parietal-cortical-contributions-to-real-world-autobiographical-episodic-and-autobiographical-semantic-memory
#16
Thackery I Brown, Jesse Rissman, Tiffany E Chow, Melina R Uncapher, Anthony D Wagner
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670106/olfactory-inputs-modulate-respiration-related-rhythmic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-freezing-behavior
#17
Andrew H Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Larry S Zweifel, Wenqin Luo, Minghong Ma
Respiration and airflow through the nasal cavity are known to be correlated with rhythmic neural activity in the central nervous system. Here we show in rodents that during conditioned fear-induced freezing behavior, mice breathe at a steady rate (~4 Hz), which is correlated with a predominant 4-Hz oscillation in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC), a structure critical for expression of conditioned fear behaviors. We demonstrate anatomical and functional connections between the olfactory pathway and plPFC via circuit tracing and optogenetics...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668904/a-whole-brain-longitudinal-study-in-the-yac128-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease-shows-distinct-trajectories-of-neurochemical-structural-connectivity-and-volumetric-changes
#18
Lorena I Petrella, João M Castelhano, Mario Ribeiro, José V Sereno, Sónia I Gonçalves, Mário N Laço, Michael R Hayden, Ana C Rego, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder causing cognitive and motor impairments, evolving to death within 15-20 years after symptom onset. We previously established a mouse model with the entire human HD gene containing 128 CAG repeats (YAC128) which accurately recapitulates the natural history of the human disease. Defined time points in this natural history enable the understanding of longitudinal trajectories from the neurochemical and structural points of view using non-invasive high-resolution multimodal imaging...
April 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668846/movement-decomposition-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#19
Naama Kadmon Harpaz, David Ungarish, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Tamar Flash
A complex action can be described as the composition of a set of elementary movements. While both kinematic and dynamic elements have been proposed to compose complex actions, the structure of movement decomposition and its neural representation remain unknown. Here, we examined movement decomposition by modeling the temporal dynamics of neural populations in the primary motor cortex of macaque monkeys performing forelimb reaching movements. Using a hidden Markov model, we found that global transitions in the neural population activity are associated with a consistent segmentation of the behavioral output into acceleration and deceleration epochs with directional selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668391/the-reflective-mind-examining-individual-differences-in-susceptibility-to-base-rate-neglect-with-fmri
#20
Oshin Vartanian, Erin L Beatty, Ingrid Smith, Kristen Blackler, Quan Lam, Sarah Forbes, Wim De Neys
Performance on heuristics and biases tasks has been shown to be susceptible to bias. In turn, susceptibility to bias varies as a function of individual differences in cognitive abilities (e.g., intelligence) and thinking styles (e.g., propensity for reflection). Using a classic task (i.e., lawyer-engineer problem), we conducted two experiments to examine the differential contributions of cognitive abilities versus thinking styles to performance. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT)-a well-established measure of reflective thinking-predicted performance on conflict problems (where base rates and intuition point in opposite directions), whereas STM predicted performance on nonconflict problems...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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