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Eva-Maria Kurz, Guilherme Wood, Silvia Erika Kober, Walter Schippinger, Gerald Pichler, Gernot Müller-Putz, Günther Bauernfeind
BACKGROUND: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). AIM: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect. METHODS: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task...
June 14, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Hans H de Boer, George J R Maat, D Aji Kadarmo, Putut T Widodo, Ate D Kloosterman, Arnoud J Kal
In disaster victim identification (DVI), DNA profiling is considered to be one of the most reliable and efficient means to identify bodies or separated body parts. This requires a post mortem DNA sample, and an ante mortem DNA sample of the presumed victim or their biological relative(s). Usually the collection of an adequate ante mortem sample is technically simple, but the acquisition of a good quality post mortem sample under unfavourable DVI circumstances is complicated due to the variable degree of preservation of the human remains and the high risk of DNA (cross) contamination...
June 4, 2018: Forensic Science International
Linda M Geven, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Merel Kindt, Bruno Verschuere
From a cognitive perspective, lying can be regarded as a complex cognitive process requiring the interplay of several executive functions. Meta-analytic research on 114 studies encompassing 3,307 participants (Suchotzki, Verschuere, Van Bockstaele, Ben-Shakhar, & Crombez, ) suggests that computerized paradigms can reliably assess the cognitive burden of lying, with large reaction time differences between lying and truth telling. These studies, however, lack a key ingredient of real-life deception, namely self-initiated behavior...
June 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Marta Vazquez-Vilar, Diego Orzaez, Nicola Patron
Synthetic Biology is defined as the application of engineering principles to biology. It aims to increase the speed, ease and predictability with which desirable changes and novel traits can be conferred to living cells. The initial steps in this process aim to simplify the encoding of new instructions in DNA by establishing low-level programming languages for biology. Together with advances in the laboratory that allow multiple DNA molecules to be efficiently assembled together into a desired order in a single step, this approach has simplified the design and assembly of multigene constructs and has even facilitated the automated construction of synthetic chromosomes...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Mitsuo Ishida, Munehisa Kaneda, Aki Akamine, Masahito Sakakibara
Attentional bias (sensitization) for negative information was estimated using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We used a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm that comprised a small diamond standard stimulus (66.7%), a large diamond target stimulus (16.7%), and deviant word stimuli (16.7%) written in Kanji. Furthermore, half the deviant words were negative emotional words (e.g., destruction or scream) and the others half were neutral words (e.g., structure or range). Healthy participants (N = 26) were instructed to press a button after the target appeared while ignoring the other stimuli...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
A D Iordan, S Dolcos, F Dolcos
Emotional distraction may come from the external world and from our mind, as internal distraction. Although external emotional distraction has been extensively investigated, less is known about the mechanisms associated with the impact of internal emotional distraction on cognitive performance, and those involved in coping with such distraction. These issues were investigated using a working memory task with emotional distraction, where recollected unpleasant autobiographical memories served as internal emotional distraction...
June 14, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Lucas Saldanha da Rosa, Andressa Cargnelutti Follak, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi, Rachel de Oliveira Rocha, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck Soares
PURPOSE: To examine the influence of phosphoric acid containing chlorhexidine on the dentin bond stability of a universal and a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty sound bovine incisors were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10) according to: phosphoric acid (37% phosphoric acid [CTR] or 37% phosphoric acid with 2% chlorhexidine [CHX]); adhesive (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]or Adper Single Bond 2 [SB2]); and water storage time (24 h and 6 months)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Ginger R Fisher, Jeffrey T Olimpo, Thomas M McCabe, Ryan S Pevey
Evidence indicates that students who participate in scientific research during their undergraduate experience are more likely to pursue careers in the STEM disciplines and to develop increased scientific reasoning and literacy skills. One avenue to increase student engagement in research is via their enrollment in course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs), where they are able to conduct authentic research as part of the laboratory curriculum. The information presented herein provides an example of a CURE which was developed and implemented in an introductory cell and molecular biology course at the University of Northern Colorado...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Sally G Hoskins, Alan J Gottesman
Many science educators agree that 21st century students need to develop mature scientific thinking skills. Unsurprisingly, students' and experts' perceptions about the nature of scientific knowledge differ. Moreover, students' naïve and entrenched epistemologies can preclude their development toward "thinking like scientists." Novel teaching approaches that guide students toward more mature perceptions may be needed to support their development of scientific thinking skills. To address such issues, physics educators developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey (CLASS), subsequently adapted for chemistry and biology...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Jeffrey T Olimpo, Ryan S Pevey, Thomas M McCabe
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide an avenue for student participation in authentic scientific opportunities. Within the context of such coursework, students are often expected to collect, analyze, and evaluate data obtained from their own investigations. Yet, limited research has been conducted that examines mechanisms for supporting students in these endeavors. In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of an interactive statistics workshop that was expressly designed to provide students with an open platform for graduate teaching assistant (GTA)-mentored data processing, statistical testing, and synthesis of their own research findings...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Susanna Greer, Hannah Alexander, Thomas O Baldwin, Hudson H Freeze, Morgan Thompson, Geoffrey Hunt, Danielle R Snowflack
Effective communication is a requisite skill for scientists. However, formalized training in this area is often unavailable for members of the scientific community. As one approach to combat this problem, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) developed The Art of Science Communication, an eight-week-long online course that provides facilitated instruction on how to communicate science in an oral format. The course is offered three times a year, and as of December 2017, nearly 200 individuals from all career stages have taken part in it...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Nicholas M Ponzio, Janet Alder, Mary Nucci, David Dannenfelser, Holly Hilton, Nikolaos Linardopoulos, Carol Lutz
Doctoral students in science disciplines spend countless hours learning how to conduct cutting-edge research but very little time learning to communicate the nature and significance of their science to people outside their field. To narrow this disparity, we created an unusual course titled Communicating Science for doctoral science trainees at Rutgers University. Our goal was to help students develop an advanced ability to communicate their research clearly and accurately and to emphasize its value and significance to diverse audiences...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Olivier Codol, Peter J Holland, Joseph M Galea
The motor system's ability to adapt to environmental changes is essential for maintaining accurate movements. Such adaptation recruits several distinct systems: cerebellar sensory-prediction error learning, success-based reinforcement, and explicit control. Although much work has focused on the relationship between cerebellar learning and explicit control, there is little research regarding how reinforcement and explicit control interact. To address this, participants first learnt a 20° visuomotor displacement...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristan A Leech, Ryan T Roemmich
People can acquire new walking patterns in many different ways. For example, we can change our gait voluntarily in response to instruction or adapt by sensing our movement errors. Here we investigated how acquisition of a new walking pattern through simultaneous voluntary correction and adaptive learning affected the resulting motor memory of the learned pattern. We studied adaptation to split-belt treadmill walking with and without visual feedback of stepping patterns. As expected, visual feedback enabled faster acquisition of the new walking pattern...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Paolo Vineis, Daniela Fecht
The proportion of total deaths attributable to environmental factors is estimated to be 23% of global deaths and 22% of global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to one review. These estimates encompass all environmental agents including infectious agents but excluding behavioural factors. The authors of the review also estimated that 16% (95% CI: 7-41%) of cancer deaths are attributable to environmental risk factors (and 36% [95% CI: 17-52%] for lung cancer). In this article, we focus on the reasons why epidemiology is often unable to account for the whole burden of environmental carcinogens...
June 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Ilana Graetz, Janeane N Anderson, Caitlin N McKillop, Edward J Stepanski, Andrew J Paladino, Todd D Tillmanns
OBJECTIVE: Nearly 1 in 5 patients hospitalized for ovarian cancer surgery are readmitted for complications that may have been prevented with monitoring. We conducted a randomized controlled feasibility trial to evaluate a postoperative web-based app intervention to provide real-time symptom monitoring among patients diagnosed or with suspected gynecological cancer who had open bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy surgery. METHODS: Participants were randomized into two groups: (1) App + Reminder: had access to the app, and use was encouraged with daily and/or weekly reminders; (2) app: had access to the app but received no reminders...
June 11, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Hallie Ertel, David A Wilder, Ansley Hodges, LeAnn Hurtado
The high-probability (high-p) instructional sequence, which involves the delivery of a series of high-p instructions immediately before delivery of a low-probability (low-p) instruction, is a commonly used procedure to increase compliance among children and individuals with intellectual disabilities. Although the modal ratio of high-p instructions to low-p instructions is 3:1, other ratios may be more effective. In the current study, we compared three ratios of high-p with low-p instructions (i.e., 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1) during use of the high-p instructional sequence to increase compliance among three children with autism...
June 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Le-Xiang Cui, Li-Na Gu, Yan-Bo Hou, Bei-Lin Zhang, Jing-Yao Liu
RATIONALE: Purulent meningitis refers infection of the subarachnoid space by various purulent bacteria and the corresponding inflammation of the leptomeninges. However, purulent meningitis due to Rhodococcus equi is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old man presented with fever and intermittent headache for 6 days. Two hours prior to admission, he developed epileptic seizures. DIAGNOSES: Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed intracerebral malacic lesions...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Enrico Munari, Giulio Rossi, Giuseppe Zamboni, Gianluigi Lunardi, Marcella Marconi, Marco Sommaggio, George J Netto, Mohammad O Hoque, Matteo Brunelli, Guido Martignoni, Michael C Haffner, Francesca Moretta, Maria C Pegoraro, Alberto Cavazza, Giuseppina Samogin, Vanna Furlan, Francesca R Mariotti, Paola Vacca, Lorenzo Moretta, Giuseppe Bogina
Pembrolizumab is the only programmed cell death 1/programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor for treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer, with a companion diagnostic assay, the 22C3 PharmDx. Although in many studies 22C3 and Ventana's SP263 appear to yield overlapping results, they show discrepancies at clinically relevant cutoffs (1% and 50%). We provide a solid comparison between 22C3 and SP263 assays in a large cohort of non-small cell lung cancer cases taking into account interobserver variability between trained pathologists who are used to either clone in their clinical practice...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Megan Cox, Natasha Afonso, Loeto Mazhani, David Kloeck, Mohan Mysore, Kevin Roy, Segolame Setlhare, Tlamelo Daman, Peter A Meaney
OBJECTIVES: To describe provider characteristics, knowledge acquisition, perceived relevance, and instruction quality of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Pediatric Fundamentals of Critical Care Support course pilot implementation in Botswana. DESIGN: Observational, single center. SETTING: Academic, upper middle-income country. SUBJECTS: Healthcare providers in Botswana. INTERVENTIONS: A cohort of healthcare providers completed the standard 2-day Pediatric Fundamentals of Critical Care Support course and qualitative survey during the course...
June 12, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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