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Mismatch Negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#1
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent Deluca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 19, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429748/the-pre-argo-ocean-reanalyses-may-be-seriously-affected-by-the-spatial-coverage-of-moored-buoys
#2
S Sivareddy, Arya Paul, Travis Sluka, M Ravichandran, Eugenia Kalnay
Assimilation methods, meant to constrain divergence of model trajectory from reality using observations, do not exactly satisfy the physical laws governing the model state variables. This allows mismatches in the analysis in the vicinity of observation locations where the effect of assimilation is most prominent. These mismatches are usually mitigated either by the model dynamics in between the analysis cycles and/or by assimilation at the next analysis cycle. However, if the observations coverage is limited in space, as it was in the ocean before the Argo era, these mechanisms may be insufficient to dampen the mismatches, which we call shocks, and they may remain and grow...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426152/donor-specific-alloreactive-t-cells-can-be-quantified-from-whole-blood-and-may-predict-cellular-rejection-after-renal-transplantation
#3
Michaela Fischer, Sarah Leyking, Marco Schäfer, Julia Elsäßer, Martin Janssen, Janine Mihm, Kai van Bentum, Danilo Fliser, Martina Sester, Urban Sester
Preformed cellular alloreactivity can exist prior to transplantation and may contribute to rejection. Here, we used a rapid flow-cytometric whole-blood assay to characterize the extent of alloreactive T cells among 1491 stimulatory reactions from 61 renal transplant candidates and 75 controls. The role of preformed donor-specific alloreactive T cells in cellular rejection was prospectively analyzed in 21 renal transplant recipients. Alloreactive CD8(+) T cells were more frequent than respective CD4(+) T cells, and these levels were stable over time...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425497/single-dose-memantine-improves-cortical-oscillatory-response-dynamics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Gregory A Light, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Savita Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Neal R Swerdlow
Aberrant gamma band (30-80 Hz) oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Gamma oscillations and their regulation by NMDA receptors can be studied via their evoked power (γEP) and phase locking (γPL) in response to auditory steady state stimulation; these Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSRs) may be biomarkers for target engagement and early therapeutic effects. We previously reported that memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, enhanced 2 biomarkers of early auditory information processing: prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in SZ patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420951/shared-neural-mechanisms-for-the-prediction-of-own-and-partner-musical-sequences-after-short-term-piano-duet-training
#5
Claudia Lappe, Sabine Bodeck, Markus Lappe, Christo Pantev
Predictive mechanisms in the human brain can be investigated using markers for prediction violations like the mismatch negativity (MMN). Short-term piano training increases the MMN for melodic and rhythmic deviations in the training material. This increase occurs only when the material is actually played, not when it is only perceived through listening, suggesting that learning predictions about upcoming musical events are derived from motor involvement. However, music is often performed in concert with others...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416414/deep-temporal-models-and-active-inference
#6
REVIEW
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
April 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415851/over-education-and-well-being-how-does-education-occupation-mismatch-affect-the-life-satisfaction-of-university-educated-immigrant-and-non-immigrant-workers
#7
Kristyn Frank, Feng Hou
OBJECTIVE: The increased migration of skilled workers has resulted in a focus on the economic costs of their unsuccessful labor market integration. Few studies investigate the consequences of employment difficulties on immigrants' well-being. Researchers studying over-education and life satisfaction tend to only examine the general population despite high levels of over-education among skilled immigrants. This study examines the relationship between over-education and life satisfaction among both immigrant and native-born workers in Canada...
April 17, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412077/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-estimates-in-the-dutch-population-from-2003-to-2014-the-test-negative-design-case-control-study-with-different-control-groups
#8
Eva van Doorn, Maryam Darvishian, Frederika Dijkstra, Gé A Donker, Pieter Overduin, Adam Meijer, Eelko Hak
Information about influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) is important for vaccine strain selection and immunization policy decisions. The test-negative design (TND) case-control study is commonly used to obtain IVE estimates. However, the definition of the control patients may influence IVE estimates. We have conducted a TND study using the Dutch Sentinel Practices of NIVEL Primary Care Database which includes data from patients who consulted the General Practitioner (GP) for an episode of acute influenza-like illness (ILI) or acute respiratory infection (ARI) with known influenza vaccination status...
April 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403519/decadal-declines-in-avian-herbivore-reproduction-density-dependent-nutrition-and-phenological-mismatch-in-the-arctic
#9
Megan V Ross, Ray T Alisauskas, David C Douglas, Dana K Kellett
A full understanding of population dynamics depends not only on estimation of mechanistic contributions of recruitment and survival, but also knowledge about the ecological processes that drive each of these vital rates. The process of recruitment in particular may be protracted over several years, and can depend on numerous ecological complexities until sexually mature adulthood is attained. We addressed long term declines (23 breeding seasons, 1992-2014) in the per capita production of young by both Ross's geese (Chen rossii) and lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) nesting at Karrak Lake in Canada's central arctic...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402428/bayesian-mapping-reveals-that-attention-boosts-neural-responses-to-predicted-and-unpredicted-stimuli
#10
Marta I Garrido, Elise G Rowe, Veronika Halász, Jason B Mattingley
Predictive coding posits that the human brain continually monitors the environment for regularities and detects inconsistencies. It is unclear, however, what effect attention has on expectation processes, as there have been relatively few studies and the results of these have yielded contradictory findings. Here, we employed Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between 2 alternative computational models. The "Opposition" model states that attention boosts neural responses equally to predicted and unpredicted stimuli, whereas the "Interaction" model assumes that attentional boosting of neural signals depends on the level of predictability...
April 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396214/enhancing-links-between-visual-short-term-memory-visual-attention-and-cognitive-control-processes-through-practice-an-electrophysiological-insight
#11
Giorgio Fuggetta, Philip A Duke
The operation of attention on visible objects involves a sequence of cognitive processes. The current study firstly aimed to elucidate the effects of practice on neural mechanisms underlying attentional processes as measured with both behavioural and electrophysiological measures. Secondly, it aimed to identify any pattern in the relationship between Event-Related Potential (ERP) components which play a role in the operation of attention in vision. Twenty-seven participants took part in two recording sessions one week apart, performing an experimental paradigm which combined a match-to-sample task with a memory-guided efficient visual-search task within one trial sequence...
April 7, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389366/musical-rhythm-and-pitch-a-differential-effect-on-auditory-dynamics-as-revealed-by-the-n1-mmn-p3a-complex
#12
E Sebastian Lelo de Larrea-Mancera, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Music represents a complex form of human cognition. To what extent our auditory system is attuned to music is yet to be clearly understood. Our principal aim was to determine whether the neurophysiological operations underlying pre-attentive auditory change detection (N1enhancement (N1e)/Mismatch Negativity (MMN)) and the subsequent involuntary attentional reallocation (P3a) towards infrequent sound omissions, are influenced by differences in musical content. Specifically, we intended to explore any interaction effects that rhythmic and pitch dimensions of musical organization may have over these processes...
April 4, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385587/late-deviance-detection-in-rats-is-reduced-while-early-deviance-detection-is-augmented-by-the-nmda-receptor-antagonist-mk-801
#13
L Harms, W R Fulham, J Todd, C Meehan, U Schall, D M Hodgson, P T Michie
One of the most robust electrophysiological features of schizophrenia is reduced mismatch negativity, a component of the event related potential (ERP) induced by rare and unexpected stimuli in an otherwise regular pattern. Emerging evidence suggests that mismatch negativity (MMN) is not the only ERP index of deviance detection in the mammalian brain and that sensitivity to deviant sounds in a regular background can be observed at earlier latencies in both the human and rodent brain. Pharmacological studies in humans and rodents have previously found that MMN reductions similar to those seen in schizophrenia can be elicited by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonism, an observation in agreement with the hypothesised role of NMDA receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia pathogenesis...
April 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381018/second-order-cascading-assisted-filamentation-and-controllable-supercontinuum-generation-in-birefringent-crystals
#14
Rosvaldas Šuminas, Gintaras Tamošauskas, Vytautas Jukna, Arnaud Couairon, Audrius Dubietis
We experimentally investigate filamentation and supercontinuum generation in a birefringent medium (BBO crystal), in the self-focusing regime where intrinsic cubic nonlinearity is either enhanced or reduced by the second-order cascading due to phase-mismatched second harmonic generation. We demonstrate that the supercontinuum spectral extent is efficiently controlled by varying the phase mismatch parameter. In the range of negative phase mismatch, we achieve full control of the blue-shifted spectral broadening, which is very robust and independent on the input pulse energy...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365848/attenuation-of-cortical-activity-triggering-descending-pain-inhibition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-patients-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Yohei Matsuo, Jiro Kurata, Miho Sekiguchi, Katsuhiro Yoshida, Takuya Nikaido, Shin-Ichi Konno
PURPOSE: A considerable portion of chronic low back pain (cLBP) patients lack anatomical abnormality, resist conventional therapeutic interventions, and their symptoms are often complicated with psychological and social factors. Such patients have been reported to show cerebral abnormalities both in anatomy and function by neuroimaging studies. Here we examined differences in cerebral reactivity to a simulated low back pain stimulus between cLBP patients and healthy controls by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and their behavioral correlates from a psychophysical questionnaire...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361655/the-effect-of-variability-of-practice-at-execution-redundancy-level-in-skilled-and-novice-basketball-players
#16
Hamidreza Taheri, Davoud Fazeli, Sogand Poureghbali
We investigated the effect of practice variability through execution redundancy in skilled and novice basketball players on free throw skills. Twelve skilled basketball players and 12 novices (mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.3) were divided into four groups (skilled constant, skilled variable, novice constant, and novice variable). After a pretest, participants practiced free throw action. The variable groups threw the ball over an obstacle of varying heights on each trial in random order, whereas the obstacle's height was fixed for the constant groups...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358780/the-cure-that-lies-within-the-mind-body-connection-in-orthopaedics
#17
Erin Sullivan, Jeremy Hudson
The mind and the body are clearly intertwined in ways that are only now being discovered. In the orthopaedic world, injuries and diseases are often classified and described in a very organized, discrete fashion-The radius is fractured, the ACL or meniscus or rotator cuff is torn, the ankle is sprained, and/or the lumbar spine has a disc herniation. Although it is, in many ways, almost comforting to think about injuries or orthopaedic issues in this manner, what about the many patients who fail to fall into this classification? What about the thousands of patients with severe unexplained chronic pain or patients who just are not improving with the typical treatment algorithm...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343741/time-as-context-the-influence-of-hierarchical-patterning-on-sensory-inference
#18
Juanita Todd, Anne Petherbridge, Bronte Speirs, Alexander Provost, Bryan Paton
Time, or more specifically temporal structure, is a critical variable in understanding how the auditory system uses acoustic patterns to predict input, and to filter events based on their relevance. A key index of this filtering process is the auditory evoked potential component known as mismatch negativity or MMN. In this paper we review findings of smaller MMN in schizophrenia through the lens of time as an influential contextual variable. More specifically, we review studies that show how MMN to a locally rare pattern-deviation is modulated by the longer-term context in which it occurs...
March 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340449/right-hemisphere-pitch-mismatch-negativity-reduction-in-patients-with-major-depression-an-meg-study
#19
Noriaki Hirakawa, Yoji Hirano, Itta Nakamura, Shogo Hirano, Jinya Sato, Naoya Oribe, Takefumi Ueno, Shigenobu Kanba, Toshiaki Onitsuka
BACKGROUND: The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential and its magnetic counterpart, the MMNm, are generated by a mismatch between the physical features of a deviant stimulus and a neuronal sensory-memory trace produced by repetitive standard stimuli. Deficits in the MMN/MMNm have been reported in patients with major depression; however, the results are inconsistent. The present study investigated the pitch-MMNm in patients with major depression using whole-head 306-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336337/mismatch-negativity-as-a-potential-neurobiological-marker-of-early-stage-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#20
Shixiang Jiang, Chang Yan, Zhengxue Qiao, Haiqian Yao, Shiquan Jiang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Deyu Fang, Yanjie Yang, Limei Zhang, Lina Wang, Liming Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD)...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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