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Mismatch Negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328295/bright-nanowire-single-photon-source-based-on-siv-centers-in-diamond
#1
L Marseglia, K Saha, A Ajoy, T Schröder, D Englund, F Jelezko, R Walsworth, J L Pacheco, D L Perry, E S Bielejec, P Cappellaro
The practical implementation of many quantum technologies relies on the development of robust and bright single photon sources that operate at room temperature. The negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV-) color center in diamond is a possible candidate for such a single photon source. However, due to the high refraction index mismatch to air, color centers in diamond typically exhibit low photon out-coupling. An additional shortcoming is due to the random localization of native defects in the diamond sample...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322456/method-for-detecting-and-studying-genome-wide-mutations-in-single-living-cells-in-real-time
#2
Marina Elez, Lydia Robert, Ivan Matic
DNA sequencing and fluctuation test have been choice methods for studying DNA mutations for decades. Although invaluable tools allowing many important discoveries on mutations, they are both highly influenced by fitness effects of mutations, and therefore suffer several limits. Fluctuation test is for example limited to mutations that produce an identifiable phenotype, which is the minority of all generated mutations. Genome-wide extrapolations using this method are therefore difficult. DNA sequencing detects almost all DNA mutations in population of cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312863/human-leukocyte-antigen-typing-and-crossmatch-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Mohammed Mahdi Althaf, Mohsen El Kossi, Jon Kim Jin, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Mostafa Halawa
Renal transplantation remains the best option for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Given the worldwide shortage of organs and growing population of patients with ESRD, those waitlisted for a transplant is ever expanding. Contemporary crossmatch methods and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing play a pivotal role in improving organ allocation and afford better matches to recipients. Understanding crossmatch as well as HLA typing for renal transplantation and applying it in clinical practice is the key step to achieve a successful outcome...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305875/neural-discrimination-of-speech-sound-changes-in-a-variable-context-occurs-irrespective-of-attention-and-explicit-awareness
#4
P Virtala, E Partanen, M Tervaniemi, T Kujala
To process complex stimuli like language, our auditory system must tolerate large acoustic variance, like speaker variability, and still be sensitive enough to discriminate between phonemes and to detect complex sound relationships in, e.g., prosodic cues. Our study determined discrimination of speech sounds in input mimicking natural speech variability, and detection of deviations in regular pitch relationships (rule violations) between speech sounds. We investigated the automaticity and the influence of attention and explicit awareness on these changes by recording the neurophysiological mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a as well as task performance from 21 adults...
January 3, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302713/psilocybin-disrupts-sensory-and-higher-order-cognitive-processing-but-not-pre-attentive-cognitive-processing-study-on-p300-and-mismatch-negativity-in-healthy-volunteers
#5
Anna Bravermanová, Michaela Viktorinová, Filip Tylš, Tomáš Novák, Renáta Androvičová, Jakub Korčák, Jiří Horáček, Marie Balíková, Inga Griškova-Bulanova, Dominika Danielová, Přemysl Vlček, Pavel Mohr, Martin Brunovský, Vlastimil Koudelka, Tomáš Páleníček
RATIONALE: Disruption of auditory event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN), electrophysiological markers of attentive and pre-attentive cognitive processing, is repeatedly described in psychosis and schizophrenia. Similar findings were observed in a glutamatergic model of psychosis, but the role of serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in information processing is less clear. OBJECTIVES: We studied ERPs in a serotonergic model of psychosis, induced by psilocybin, a psychedelic with 5-HT2A/C agonistic properties, in healthy volunteers...
January 5, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302048/diagnostic-challenges-in-a-child-with-early-onset-desmoplastic-medulloblastoma-and-homozygous-variants-in-msh2-and-msh6
#6
Julia Taeubner, Katharina Wimmer, Martine Muleris, Olivier Lascols, Chrystelle Colas, Christine Fauth, Triantafyllia Brozou, Joerg Felsberg, Jasmin Riemer, Michael Gombert, Sebastian Ginzel, Jessica I Hoell, Arndt Borkhardt, Michaela Kuhlen
Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is an autosomal recessively inherited childhood cancer susceptibility syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The spectrum of CMMRD-associated tumours is very broad and many CMMRD patients additionally display signposting non-neoplastic features, most frequently café-au-lait macules and other pigmentation alterations. We report on a 13-month-old girl suspected of having CMMRD due to a desmoplastic medulloblastoma and a striking skin pigmentation that included multiple café-au-lait macules, hypopigmented areas and Mongolian spots...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301327/family-a-and-b-dna-polymerases-in-cancer-opportunities-for-therapeutic-interventions
#7
REVIEW
Vinit Shanbhag, Shrikesh Sachdev, Jacqueline A Flores, Mukund J Modak, Kamalendra Singh
DNA polymerases are essential for genome replication, DNA repair and translesion DNA synthesis (TLS). Broadly, these enzymes belong to two groups: replicative and non-replicative DNA polymerases. A considerable body of data suggests that both groups of DNA polymerases are associated with cancer. Many mutations in cancer cells are either the result of error-prone DNA synthesis by non-replicative polymerases, or the inability of replicative DNA polymerases to proofread mismatched nucleotides due to mutations in 3'-5' exonuclease activity...
January 2, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296844/potential-impact-of-complement-regulator-deficiencies-on-hemolytic-reactions-due-to-minor-abo-mismatched-transfusions
#8
Priyanka Pandey, Waseem Q Anani, Jerome L Gottschall, Gregory A Denomme
Minor ABO-mismatched transfusions are a common occurrence, although infrequent transfusion reactions occur. We sought to investigate the regulation of complement C3 activation induced by anti-A. In vitro complement C3 activation was observed with 10 of 30 group O samples and correlated with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-A titers. We developed an in vitro paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) model of hemolysis in which group A1 red blood cells (RBCs) were chemically treated with 2-aminoethylisothiouronium (AET) to alter regulators of complement C3 activation...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289739/human-leukocyte-antigen-allele-and-eplet-mismatches-in-liver-transplantation-observations-from-a-small-single-center-cohort
#9
David Forner, Robert Liwski, Ian Alwayn
BACKGROUND: The impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on outcomes in liver transplantation is controversial. Varying levels of HLA matching resolutions were examined in a uniform patient population with no pre-transplant DSA from a small, single center cohort. METHODS: Retrospective chart review from a single center yielded 131 patients, 67 of which were confirmed to be DSA negative, all of which received induction immunotherapy and post-operative immunosuppression...
December 28, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289720/sensory-intelligence-for-extraction-of-an-abstract-auditory-rule-a-cross-linguistic-study
#10
Xiao-Tao Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Xiu-Yuan Liang, Ming Wang, Lin Chen
In a complex linguistic environment, while speech sounds can greatly vary, some shared features are often invariant. These invariant features constitute so called abstract auditory rules. Our previous study has shown that with auditory sensory intelligence, the human brain can automatically extract the abstract auditory rules in the speech sound stream, presumably serving as the neural basis for speech comprehension. However, whether the sensory intelligence for extraction of abstract auditory rules in speech is inherent or experience-dependent remains unclear...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279147/seminal-vesicle-invasion-on-multi-parametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-correlation-with-histopathology
#11
Nikolaos Grivas, Karel Hinnen, Jeroen de Jong, Wilma Heemsbergen, Luc Moonen, Thelma Witteveen, Henk van der Poel, Stijn Heijmink
OBJECTIVES: The pre-treatment risk of seminal vesicle (SV) invasion (SVI) from prostate cancer is currently based on nomograms which include clinical stage (cT), Gleason score (GS) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The aim of our study was to evaluate the staging accuracy of 3T (3T) multi-parametric (mp) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) by comparing the imaging report of SVI with the tissue histopathology. The additional value in the existing prediction models and the role of radiologists' experience were also examined...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277890/rethinking-normal-the-role-of-stochasticity-in-the-phenology-of-a-synchronously-breeding-seabird
#12
Casey Youngflesh, Stephanie Jenouvrier, Jefferson T Hinke, Lauren DuBois, Judy St Leger, Wayne Z Trivelpiece, Susan G Trivelpiece, Heather J Lynch
1.Phenological changes have been observed in a variety of systems over the past century. There is concern that, as a consequence, ecological interactions are becoming increasingly mismatched in time, with negative consequences for ecological function. 2.Significant spatial heterogeneity (inter-site) and temporal variability (inter-annual) can make it difficult to separate intrinsic, extrinsic, and stochastic drivers of phenological variability. The goal of this study was to understand the timing and variability of breeding phenology of Adélie penguins under fixed environmental conditions, and to use those data to identify a 'null model' appropriate for disentangling the sources of variation in wild populations...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276349/mismatch-negativity-in-han-chinese-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Yanbing Xiong, Xianbin Ll, Lei Zhao, Chuanyue Wang
Background: Previous meta-analysis revealed that mismatch negativity(MMN) amplitude decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Cohen's d, d about 1), leading to the possibility of mismatch negativity being used as a biomarker for schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether MMN is reliably changed in Chinese patients. It is necessary to carry out a meta-analysis on MMN of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Aim: To investigate whether MMN could be used as a biomarker for Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia...
October 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274667/a-real-time-multiplex-pcr-for-the-identification-and-typing-of-vibrio-cholerae
#14
David R Greig, Tadgh J Hickey, Megan D Boxall, Hafsah Begum, Amy Gentle, Claire Jenkins, Marie A Chattaway
We report the development and validation of a duo-triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rapid identification and typing of Vibrio cholerae. The PCR assay targets a species-specific toxR gene present in all strains of V. cholerae and used as a marker for the species wbeO1 and wbfO139, encoding the O1 and O139 somatic antigens, and ctxA, encoding cholera toxin (CT). The two tcpA variants associated with the classical and El-Tor biotypes are used to infer biotype. The assay was evaluated using 178 isolates comprising eight different Vibrio species, including 122 isolates of V...
December 1, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248615/exploring-the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-stress-perception-in-english-among-chinese-english-bilingual-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-erp-study
#15
Juan Zhang, Yaxuan Meng, Xiuhong Tong, Zhen Yuan, Chenggang Wu
Previous studies found that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were less sensitive to the variations of lexical stress in their native language. However, no study has been conducted to explore the perception of lexical stress in the second language among individuals with ASD. Using ERP (event-related potential) measurement with an oddball paradigm, the current study examined and compared the neural responses by Chinese-English bilingual children with ASD and typically developing controls in the processing of English lexical stress...
December 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238914/clinical-and-genetic-implications-of-dna-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-biliary-tract-cancers-associated-with-lynch-syndrome
#16
Jordan M Cloyd, Yun Shin Chun, Naruhiko Ikoma, Jean Nicolas Vauthey, Tlhomas A Aloia, Amanda Cuddy, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, Y Nancy You
PURPOSE: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly elevated lifetime risk of developing biliary tract cancers (BTCs) compared to the general population. However, few studies have characterized the clinical characteristics, genetic features, or long-term outcomes of mismatch-repair deficient (dMMR) cholangiocarcinomas associated with LS. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained Familial High-Risk GI Cancer Clinic database identified all patients with BTCs evaluated from 2006 to 2016 who carried germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228033/visual-mismatch-negativity-to-vanishing-parts-of-objects-in-younger-and-older-adults
#17
István Sulykos, Zsófia Anna Gaál, István Czigler
We investigated visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) to vanishing parts of continuously present objects by comparing the event-related potentials (ERPs) to infrequently (deviant) and frequently (standard) disappearing parts of the objects. This paradigm both excludes low-level stimulus-specific adaptation differences between the responses to deviants and standards, and increases the ecological validity of the stimuli. In comparison to frequently disappearing parts of the stimulus objects, infrequently vanishing parts elicited posterior negative event-related brain activity (vMMN)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224122/overfeed-the-bold-starve-the-cowardly-a-legend-or-reality
#18
Yanling Bi, Zhoulei Xiang, Shu Li, Baoshan Zhang
Although the negative effects of overconfidence are more likely to be mentioned in the literature, some researchers have argued that the benefits of overconfidence may outweigh its costs. We attempted to explore the positive effects of overconfidence in competitive situations. We had participants compete against fake opponents who were overconfident and then measured their competitive performance in two studies. In Study 1 we examined the effects of overconfidence on competitive performance in a competitive situation and the possible mechanism for this overconfidence...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220496/the-duration-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-test-negative-design-case-control-studies
#19
Barnaby Young, Sapna Sadarangani, Lili Jiang, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mark I-Cheng Chen
Background: Whether influenza vaccination offers protection for the duration of an influenza season has recently been questioned following analysis of data from test-negative design (TND) case-control studies. Method: The published literature was systematically reviewed to identify TND studies which estimated change in vaccine effectiveness (VE) with time since vaccination. Results: Fourteen studies were identified through the literature search as meeting eligibility criteria...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215027/altered-human-voice-processing-in-the-frontal-cortex-and-a-developmental-language-delay-in-3-to-5-year-old-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Norio Hayashi, Hirotoshi Hiraishi, Chiaki Hasegawa, Tetsuya Takahashi, Manabu Oi, Gerard B Remijn, Takashi Ikeda, Daisuke N Saito, Hirokazu Kumazaki, Yoshio Minabe
The inferior frontal and superior temporal areas in the left hemisphere are crucial for human language processing. In the present study, we investigated the magnetic mismatch field (MMF) evoked by voice stimuli in 3- to 5-year-old typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using child-customized magnetoencephalography (MEG). The children with ASD exhibited significantly decreased activation in the left superior temporal gyrus compared with the TD children for the MMF amplitude...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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