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Mismatch Negativity

Renée M Symonds, Wei Wei Lee, Adam Kohn, Odelia Schwartz, Sarah Witkowski, Elyse S Sussman
The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) component of event-related potentials (ERPs) has served as a neural index of auditory change detection. MMN is elicited by presentation of infrequent (deviant) sounds randomly interspersed among frequent (standard) sounds. Deviants elicit a larger negative deflection in the ERP waveform compared to the standard. There is considerable debate as to whether the neural mechanism of this change detection response is due to release from neural adaptation (neural adaptation hypothesis) or from a prediction error signal (predictive coding hypothesis)...
October 17, 2016: Brain Topography
Marc A Bouffard, Wayne T Cornblath, Joseph F Rizzo, Michael S Lee, Lindsey B DeLott, Eric R Eggenberger, Nurhan Torun
BACKGROUND: Transient monocular vision loss (TMVL) is an alarming symptom owing to potentially serious etiologies such as thromboembolism or giant cell arteritis. Our objective is to describe the phenomenon of TMVL present on awakening, which may represent a distinct and benign entity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational case series of 29 patients who experienced TMVL on awakening. Patients who described monocular dimming or blackout of vision were included, and those with blurred vision, concurrent eye pain, and binocular vision loss were excluded...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Himanshu Kumar Sanju, Prawin Kumar
Introduction Mismatch Negativity is a negative component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any discriminable changes in auditory stimulation. Objective The present study aimed to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine and gross difference between auditory stimuli. Method Seventeen normal hearing individual participated in the study. To assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine difference between auditory stimuli, we recorded mismatch negativity (MMN) with pair of stimuli (pure tones), using /1000 Hz/ and /1010 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1010 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
I Laranjinha, P Matias, C Jorge, R Birne, A Weigert, T Adragão, M Bruges, R A Cabrera, J Cassis, S Ramos, A Nogueira, J Godinho, H Messias, D Machado
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant (KT) recipients have a higher incidence of malignancy than the general population. Smooth muscle tumors (SMT), including leiomyosarcoma, are rare in kidney transplant recipients, and most cases are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. CASE REPORT: A 57-year-old man received a deceased donor kidney transplant at the age of 53 years, with 5 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches. Before the transplantation, the patient was IgG positive for EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), negative for IgM EBV VCA, and also negative for IgG EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA), suggesting a prior EBV infection...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Clément François, Toni Cunillera, Enara Garcia, Matti Laine, Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells
Learning a new language requires the identification of word units from continuous speech (the speech segmentation problem) and mapping them onto conceptual representation (the word to world mapping problem). Recent behavioral studies have revealed that the statistical properties found within and across modalities can serve as cues for both processes. However, segmentation and mapping have been largely studied separately, and thus it remains unclear whether both processes can be accomplished at the same time and if they share common neurophysiological features...
October 9, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi, Saeid Mahmoudian, Hasan Ashayeri, Farshid Allaeddini, Mohammad Farhadi
OBJECTIVE: Auditory phoneme discrimination is a basic and important prerequisite for acquiring speech, reading, and spelling skills. Children, who are unable to perceive auditory phoneme discrimination, cannot develop phonemic representations. Therefore, the early identification of these deficits and application of effective therapeutic approaches is a necessity. We need to assess appropriately word or sound discrimination in normal populations using an objective passive task such as mismatch negativity (MMN)...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Adrian Garcia-Sierra, Nairan Ramírez-Esparza, Patricia K Kuhl
The present investigation explored the relation between the amount of language input and neural responses in English monolingual (N=18) and Spanish-English bilingual (N=19) infants. We examined the mismatch negativity (MMN); both the positive mismatch response (pMMR) and the negative mismatch response (nMMR), and identify a relationship between amount of language input and brain measures of speech discrimination for native and non-native speech sounds (i.e., Spanish, English and Chinese). Brain responses differed as a function of language input for native speech sounds in both monolinguals and bilinguals...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Koji Okada, Naoko Kishimoto, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIM: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Maxine T Sherman, Anil K Seth, Ryota Kanai
: It is clear that prior expectations shape perceptual decision-making, yet their contribution to the construction of subjective decision confidence remains largely unexplored. We recorded fMRI data while participants made perceptual decisions and confidence judgments, manipulating perceptual prior expectations while controlling for potential confounds of attention. Results show that subjective confidence increases as expectations increasingly support the decision, and that this relationship is associated with BOLD activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
L-H Zhou, X-Y Wang, J-J Lei
The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest that causes major losses in some main crop-producing areas of China. To control this pest effectively, it is necessary to investigate its population genetic diversity and genetic structure around the Bohai Gulf area of China. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes, COI (578 bp) and Cytb (724 bp), to investigate its genetic diversity. We obtained 622 COI sequences and 462 Cytb sequences from 23 populations, and 28 and 73 haplotypes, respectively, were identified...
September 30, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Rachele Pandolfi, Bianca Barreira, Enrique Moreno, Victor Lara-Acedo, Daniel Morales-Cano, Andrea Martínez-Ramas, Beatriz de Olaiz Navarro, Raquel Herrero, José Ángel Lorente, Ángel Cogolludo, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Laura Moreno
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is frequently observed in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and it is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Both acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) activity and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels are increased in patients with sepsis and correlate with worst outcomes, but their role in pulmonary vascular dysfunction pathogenesis has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the potential contribution of aSMase and IL-6 in the pulmonary vascular dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
July 27, 2016: Thorax
Hollie M Putnam, Jennifer M Davidson, Ruth D Gates
As climate change challenges organismal fitness by creating a phenotype-environment mismatch, phenotypic plasticity generated by epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., DNA methylation) can provide a temporal buffer for genetic adaptation. Epigenetic mechanisms may be crucial for sessile benthic marine organisms, such as reef-building corals, where ocean acidification (OA) and warming reflect in strong negative responses. We tested the potential for scleractinian corals to exhibit phenotypic plasticity associated with a change in DNA methylation in response to OA...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Britta Biedermann, Peter de Lissa, Yatin Mahajan, Vince Polito, Nicolas Badcock, Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Linda Larsen, Genevieve McArthur
The findings of a study by Cahn and Polich (2009) suggests that there is an effect of a meditative state on three event-related potential (ERP) brain markers of "low-level" auditory attention (i.e., acoustic representations in sensory memory) in expert meditators: the N1, the P2, and the P3a. The current study built on these findings by examining trait and state effects of meditation on the passive auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), N1, and P2 ERPs. We found that the MMN was significantly larger in meditators than non-meditators regardless of whether they were meditating or not (a trait effect), and that N1 amplitude was significantly attenuated during meditation in non-meditators but not expert meditators (an interaction between trait and state)...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ding-Ping Chen, Su-Wei Chang, Tang-Her Jaing, Ching-Ping Tseng, Shih-Hsiang Chen, Wei-Ting Wang
Unrelated cord blood transplantation has become a reliable alternative therapy for children and adults owing to that one or two antigen/allele mismatches between a patient and the cord blood donor are acceptable without occurrence of graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the relationship between the number and types of mismatches and relapse, we compared the number of mismatched and non-mismatched donor-recipient pairs, number of mismatched alleles, and number of mismatched antigens at each of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) -A, -B, and -DR loci, respectively...
November 1, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
J Ryan Shipley, Polly Campbell, Jeremy B Searle, Bret Pasch
Aerobic respiration is a fundamental physiological trait dependent on coordinated interactions between gene products of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Mitonuclear mismatch in interspecific hybrids may contribute to reproductive isolation by inducing reduced viability (or even complete inviability) due to increased metabolic costs. However, few studies have tested for effects of mitonuclear mismatch on respiration at the whole organism level. We explored how hybridization affects metabolic rates in closely related species of grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to better understand the role of metabolic costs in reproductive isolation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
J E Barasa, R Abila, J P Grobler, M Agaba, E J Chemoiwa, B Kaunda-Arara
In order to improve the conservation and sustainable utilization of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus of the Yala Swamp in Kenya, genetic diversity and population structure of Lakes Kanyaboli and Namboyo populations of the species were studied using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop control region. Genetic diversity inferred as haplotype and nucleotide diversities and number of singletons and shared haplotypes was higher in the Lake Kanyaboli population (LKG) than the Lake Namboyo population (LNG) of C...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Lingyan Wang, Yan Bao, Jiyuan Zhang, Xiaoxiong Lin, Lang Yang, Ernst Pöppel, Bin Zhou
It has been shown recently that a temporal window of approximately 3 s has a modulatory effect on mismatch negativity (MMN). This special temporal window has been interpreted as representing the "subjective present," and reflecting a temporal segmentation in behavioral and cognitive functions. A more detailed look into the temporal structure of the MMN appeared to be reasonable as group data might shadow the underlying mechanisms because of too-high response variance. In this study, we tested one subject on 11 successive days at the same circadian phase using a passive auditory oddball paradigm with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 1 s to 6 s...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
Varghese Peter, Marina Kalashnikova, Aimee Santos, Denis Burnham
Infant directed speech (IDS), the speech register adults use when talking to infants, has been shown to have positive effects on attracting infants' attention, language learning, and emotional communication. Here event related potentials (ERPs) are used to investigate the neural coding of IDS and ADS (adult directed speech) as well as their discrimination by both infants and adults. Two instances of the vowel /i/, one extracted from ADS and one from IDS, were presented to 9-month-old infants and adults in two oddball conditions: ADS standard/IDS deviant and IDS standard/ADS deviant...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anelisa Jaca, Padmini Govender, Michael Locketz, Richard Naidoo
AIMS: The study was conducted to assess the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, snail-1 and vimentin) and miRNA-21. In addition, we correlated these data with clinicopathological features in Colorectal cancer. METHODS: H&E slides from a total of 59 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks were examined by a pathologist to demarcate normal and tumour regions. Immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6) and EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, snail-1 and vimentin) was performed...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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