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Mismatch Negativity

Guimei Yin, Shenglin She, Lun Zhao, Yingjun Zheng
To investigate the emotional face processing in patients with schizophrenia, the preattentive automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with schizophrenia was compared with that of age-matched healthy control group as indexed by the expressional mismatch negativity (EMMN) elicited by facial expressions. Compared with neutral faces as standard stimuli, deviant emotional faces elicited posterior EMMN between 150 and 500 ms after stimuli onset, with larger amplitudes for sad than happy deviant faces...
May 18, 2018: Neuroreport
Qianru Xu, Elisa M Ruohonen, Chaoxiong Ye, Xueqiao Li, Kairi Kreegipuu, Gabor Stefanics, Wenbo Luo, Piia Astikainen
It is not known to what extent the automatic encoding and change detection of peripherally presented facial emotion is altered in dysphoria. The negative bias in automatic face processing in particular has rarely been studied. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record automatic brain responses to happy and sad faces in dysphoric (Beck's Depression Inventory ≥ 13) and control participants. Stimuli were presented in a passive oddball condition, which allowed potential negative bias in dysphoria at different stages of face processing (M100, M170, and M300) and alterations of change detection (visual mismatch negativity, vMMN) to be investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiaoqing Li, Yiya Chen
An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i.e. TONE condition) and the other two sentence-level information-status contrasts (i.e. ACCENTUATION condition). Both included stimuli with early vs...
May 16, 2018: Brain and Language
Jean-Hugues Dalle, Adriana Balduzzi, Peter Bader, Arjan Lankester, Isaac Yaniv, Jacek Wachowiak, Anna Pieczonka, Marc Bierings, Akif Yesilipek, Petr Sedlacek, Marianne Ifversen, Sabina Sufliarska, Jacek Toporski, Evgenia Glogova, Ulrike Poetschger, Christina Peters
RATIONAL: Allogeneic HSCT is beneficial for pediatric patients with relapsed or (very) high-risk ALL in remission. A total of 1115 consecutive patients were included in the ALL SCT 2003 BFM study and the ALL SCT 2007-International study and were stratified according to relapse risk (Standard vs. High vs. Very High Risk of Relapse) and donor type (Matched Sibling vs. Matched Donor vs. Mismatched Donor). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 148 patients (60% male, median age 8...
May 14, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Anja Lögers, Barbara Rosser, Burkhardt Seifert, Oliver Kretschmar, Michael Hübler, René Prêtre, Lotfi Ben Mime
OBJECTIVES: Do surgical modifications at the annular level (e.g. the modified Ross-Konno procedure or reduction plasty) influence the structure and function of the Ross autograft at the mid-term follow-up? METHODS: From June 2001 to July 2009, 49 patients (37 men and 12 women), mean age 10.5 ± 5.7 years (range 2 weeks to 17.8 years), underwent Ross operations. Twenty-one patients underwent additional aortic annulus reduction plasty and 9 patients a modified Ross-Konno procedure...
May 15, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
John G Howe, Gary Stack
BACKGROUND: The intrinsic properties of polypeptide blood group antigens that determine their relative immunogenicities are unknown. Because size, composition, charge, dose, and epitope glycosylation affect the immunogenicity of other polypeptides, we examined whether similar properties were related to the immunogenicity of blood group antigens. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Amino acid (AA) sequences of antithetical blood group antigens were searched for N- and O-glycosylation sites...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
Yen-Chu Huang, Yuan-Hsiung Tsai, Jiann-Der Lee, Jen-Tsung Yang, Yi-Ting Pan
OBJECTIVE: In acute ischemic stroke, early neurological deterioration (END) may occur in up to one-third of patients. However, there is still no satisfying or comprehensive predictive model for all the stroke subtypes. We propose a practical model to predict END using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHOD: Patients with anterior circulation infarct were recruited and they underwent an MRI within 24 hours of stroke onset. END was defined as an elevation of ≥2 points on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) within 72 hours of stroke onset...
May 16, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Domonkos File, István Sulykos, István Czigler
Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is the electrophysiological correlate of automatic detection of unattended changes in the visual environment. However, vMMNs' relatedness to spatial attention has not been explicitly tested. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of spatial attention on the vMMN event-related potential component. To this end, participants were instructed to fixate and attend to task-related stimuli. In an oddball sequence, offset stimuli were applied, i.e., from time-to time, the two sides of permanently presented objects disappeared...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Chaoying Zhu, Peng Chen, Yuqing Han, Luzhang Ruan
The Ruddy-breasted Crake (Porzana fusca) is an extremely poorly known species. Although it is not listed as globally endangered, in recent years, with the interference of climate change and human activities, its habitat is rapidly disappearing and its populations have been shrinking. There are two different life history traits for Ruddy-breasted Crake in China, i.e., non-migratory population in the south and migratory population in the north of China. In this study, mitochondrial control sequences and microsatellite datasets of 88 individuals sampled from 8 sites were applied to analyze their genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure...
May 12, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Jörg Lewald, Michael-Christian Schlüter, Stephan Getzmann
Neural mechanisms of selectively attending to a sound source of interest in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation, composed of multiple competing sources, were investigated using event-related potentials in combination with a spatial oddball design. Subjects either detected rare spatial deviants in a series of standard sounds or passively listened. Targets either appeared in isolation or in the presence of two distractor sound sources at different locations ("cocktail-party" condition)...
April 27, 2018: Hearing Research
Karl J Friston, Richard Rosch, Thomas Parr, Cathy Price, Howard Bowman
How do we navigate a deeply structured world? Why are you reading this sentence first - and did you actually look at the fifth word? This review offers some answers by appealing to active inference based on deep temporal models. It builds on previous formulations of active inference to simulate behavioural and electrophysiological responses under hierarchical generative models of state transitions. Inverting these models corresponds to sequential inference, such that the state at any hierarchical level entails a sequence of transitions in the level below...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Claudia Menzel, Gyula Kovács, Catarina Amado, Gregor U Hayn-Leichsenring, Christoph Redies
In complex abstract art, image composition (i.e., the artist's deliberate arrangement of pictorial elements) is an important aesthetic feature. We investigated whether the human brain detects image composition in abstract artworks automatically (i.e., independently of the experimental task). To this aim, we studied whether a group of 20 original artworks elicited a visual mismatch negativity when contrasted with a group of 20 images that were composed of the same pictorial elements as the originals, but in shuffled arrangements, which destroy artistic composition...
May 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Judith Charpentier, Klara Kovarski, Sylvie Roux, Emmanuelle Houy-Durand, Agathe Saby, Frédérique Bonnet-Brilhault, Marianne Latinus, Marie Gomot
Voices transmit social signals through speech and/or prosody. Emotional prosody conveys key information about the emotional state of a speaker and is thus a crucial cue that one has to detect in order to develop efficient social communication. Previous studies in adults reported different brain responses to emotional than to neutral prosodic deviancy. The aim of this study was to characterize such specific emotional deviancy effects in school-age children. The mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a evoked potentials, reflecting automatic change detection and automatic attention orienting, respectively, were obtained for neutral and emotional angry deviants in both school-age children (n = 26) and adults (n = 14)...
May 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Francesco Giannelli, Nicola Molinaro
We investigated how native language experience shapes anticipatory language processing. Two groups of bilinguals (either Spanish or Basque natives) performed a word matching task (WordMT) and a picture matching task (PictureMT). They indicated whether the stimuli they visually perceived matched with the noun they heard. Spanish noun endings were either diagnostic of the gender (transparent) or ambiguous (opaque). ERPs were time-locked to an intervening gender-marked determiner preceding the predicted noun. The determiner always gender agreed with the following noun but could also introduce a mismatching noun, so that it was not fully task diagnostic...
May 6, 2018: Psychophysiology
Qi Li, Shiyu Zhou, Ya Zheng, Xun Liu
Sex differences in conscious emotional processing represent a well-known phenomenon. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined sex differences in the automatic change detection of facial expressions, as indexed by the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). As paid volunteers, 19 females and 19 males were presented peripherally with a passive emotional oddball sequence in a happy-neutral context and a fearful-neutral context while they performed a visual detection task in the center of the visual field...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Niels T Haumann, Peter Vuust, Freja Bertelsen, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
The ability to recognize metric accents is fundamental in both music and language perception. It has been suggested that music listeners prefer rhythms that follow simple binary meters, which are common in Western music. This means that listeners expect odd-numbered beats to be strong and even-numbered beats to be weak. In support of this, studies have shown that listeners exposed to Western music show stronger novelty and incongruity related P3 and irregularity detection related mismatch negativity (MMN) brain responses to attenuated odd- than attenuated even-numbered metric positions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ahmed Badr, El-Sabry Abu-Amra, Mohamed Farag El-Sayed, Matti Vornanen
Exercise, capture and handling stress in fishes can elevate extracellular K+ concentration ([K+ ]o ) with potential impact on heart function. Therefore, effects of [K+ ]o on excitability of ventricular myocytes of winter-acclimatized roach (Rutilus rutilus) (4{plus minus}0.5{degree sign}C) were examined at different temperatures and pacing rates. Frequencies corresponding to in vivo heart rates at 4{degree sign}C (0.37Hz), 14{degree sign}C (1.16Hz) and 24{degree sign}C (1.96Hz) had no effect on excitability of myocytes...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
M J Spriggs, R L Sumner, R L McMillan, R J Moran, I J Kirk, S D Muthukumaraswamy
The Roving Mismatch Negativity (MMN), and Visual LTP paradigms are widely used as independent measures of sensory plasticity. However, the paradigms are built upon fundamentally different (and seemingly opposing) models of perceptual learning; namely, Predictive Coding (MMN) and Hebbian plasticity (LTP). The aim of the current study was to compare the generative mechanisms of the MMN and visual LTP, therefore assessing whether Predictive Coding and Hebbian mechanisms co-occur in the brain. Forty participants were presented with both paradigms during EEG recording...
April 28, 2018: NeuroImage
Aleksander A Aleksandrov, Veronika M Knyazeva, Anna B Volnova, Elena S Dmitrieva, Olga Korenkova, Stefano Espinoza, Andrey Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a well-defined component of human event-related potentials that reflects the pre-attentive, stimulus-discrimination process and is associated with involuntary switching of attention. MMN-like responses detected in animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanisms of this process that involves several neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. Trace amines are believed to play a significant role in neuromodulation of synaptic transmission. The present study aimed to determine the role of trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) in the MMN-like response in rats...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
E Legris, M Gomot, J Charpentier, J M Aoustin, C Aussedat, D Bakhos
Hearing loss can impair auditory discrimination, especially in noisy environments, requiring greater listening effort, which can impact socio-occupational life. To assess the impact of hearing loss in noisy environments, clinicians may use subjective or objective methods. Subjective methods, such as speech audiometry in noise, are used in clinical practice to assess reported discomfort. Objective methods, such as cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs), are mainly used in research. Subjective methods mainly comprise speech audiometry in noise, in which the signal-to-noise ratio can be varied so as to determine the individual speech recognition threshold, with and without hearing rehabilitation, the aim being to highlight any improvement in auditory performance...
April 27, 2018: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
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