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Mismatch Negativity

Shou-Fei Gao, Ying-Ying Wang, Wei Ding, Pu Wang
UV guiding fibers are highly sought after in laser and spectroscopy applications. Recent advances in hollow-core fiber orient a practical approach for proper UV light delivery sustainable to high-power and long-term irradiation. In this Letter, we report two types of hollow-core negative-curvature fibers (NCFs) in a UV spectral range. Their structures consist of one ring of six small (7.9 μm in diameter) and four big (20.8 μm in diameter) tubes, enclosing a hollow core of similar size (∼15  μm in diameter)...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Mohammad Vafaee Shahi, Samileh Noorbakhsh, Vida Zarrabi, Banafsheh Nourozi, Leila Tahernia
Background: Any mismatch between the production and absorption of CSF results in hydrocephalus. In most cases, the selected choice of treatment is the ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Although, the surgery could have complications such as infection, shunt malfunction, subdural hematoma, seizure and Shunt immigration; so, the early and proper detection of these complications could result in better prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of CT scan, CSF analysis and X-ray radiography in detection of shunt complications and problems in shunt placement and further follow-up in hospitalized children...
2018: Open Neuroimaging Journal
Margareta Heby, Sebastian Lundgren, Björn Nodin, Jacob Elebro, Jakob Eberhard, Karin Jirström
BACKGROUND: Periampullary adenocarcinomas, including pancreatic cancer, are a heterogeneous group of tumors with poor prognosis, where classification into intestinal type (I-type) or pancreatobiliary type (PB-type) is a relevant prognostic factor. The clinical significance of deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) in periampullary adenocarcinoma is comparatively unexplored. Herein, we examined the associations of MMR immunophenotype with long-term survival in patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinoma, with particular reference to morphology and adjuvant treatment response...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Jeroen J Stekelenburg, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioral and neural level. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Devin C Flaherty, John R Jalas, Myung S Sim, Alexander Stojadinovic, Mladjan Protic, Delphine J Lee, Anton J Bilchik
BACKGROUND: The association between tumor mismatch repair status and obesity in colon cancer is not well understood. The authors of this study hypothesized that mismatch repair deficiency in colon cancer may be associated with a lower Body Mass Index (BMI) and improved patient outcome due to an enhanced tumor immune microenvironment. METHODS: For this study, 70 patients were randomly selected from a prospective trial evaluating nodal ultrastaging for colon cancer...
March 12, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Jort de Vreeze, Christina Matschke, Ulrike Cress
Students from low social-class background often struggle to adapt to university. Previous research shows that perceived incompatibility between social-class background identity and student identity is one reason, but little is known about the underlying causes of identity incompatibility. In three studies, we expected and found that students with low subjective social-class background perceived their values differently from other students, but also differently from people back home, and both increased identity incompatibility...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Martin Picard, Aric A Prather, Eli Puterman, Alexanne Cuillerier, Michael Coccia, Kirstin Aschbacher, Yan Burelle, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Chronic life stress, such as the stress of caregiving, can promote pathophysiology, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Chronic stress may induce recalibrations in mitochondria leading to changes either in mitochondrial content per cell, or in mitochondrial functional capacity (i.e., quality). METHODS: Here we present a functional index of mitochondrial health (MHI) for human leukocytes that can distinguish between these two possibilities...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Catarina Amado, Polina Stoyanova, Gyula Kovács
Several electrophysiological studies found response differences to a given stimulus when it is repeated frequently as compared to when it occurs rarely in oddball sequences. Initially defined in acoustic perception, such difference also exists in the visual modality and is referred to as visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). However, the repetition of a stimulus also leads to the reduction of the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal (fMRI adaptation, fMRIa) when compared to alternating stimuli in fMRI experiments...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tian Hong, Lan Shuai, Stephen J Frost, Nicole Landi, Kenneth R Pugh, Hua Shu
We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition...
March 9, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Patrik Roser, Eva-Maria Pichler, Benedikt Habermeyer, Wolfram Kawohl, Georg Juckel
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Deficient mismatch negativity (MMN) generation is a characteristic finding in SCZ patients and cannabis users. This study therefore examined the effects of CUD on MMN generation in SCZ patients. METHODS: Twenty SCZ - CUD patients, 21 SCZ+CUD patients, and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. MMN to frequency and duration deviants was elicited within an auditory oddball paradigm and recorded by 32 channel EEG...
March 5, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Marketa Zimova, Klaus Hackländer, Jeffrey M Good, José Melo-Ferreira, Paulo Célio Alves, L Scott Mills
Animals that occupy temperate and polar regions have specialized traits that help them survive in harsh, highly seasonal environments. One particularly important adaptation is seasonal coat colour (SCC) moulting. Over 20 species of birds and mammals distributed across the northern hemisphere undergo complete, biannual colour change from brown in the summer to completely white in the winter. But as climate change decreases duration of snow cover, seasonally winter white species (including the snowshoe hare Lepus americanus, Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus and willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus) become highly contrasted against dark snowless backgrounds...
March 5, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Derek J Fisher, Debra J Campbell, Shelagh C Abriel, Emma M L Ells, Erica D Rudolph, Philip G Tibbo
The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an EEG-derived event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any violation of a predicted auditory "rule," regardless of whether one is attending to the stimuli and is thought to reflect updating of the stimulus context. Redirection of attention toward a rare, distracting stimulus event, however, can be measured by the subsequent P3a component of the P300. Chronic schizophrenia patients exhibit robust MMN deficits, as well as reductions in P3a amplitude. While, the substantial literature on the MMN in first-episode and early phase schizophrenia in this population reports reduced amplitudes, there also exist several contradictory studies...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Jessica U Ramlakhan, Reza Zomorrodi, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Tony P George, Michael Kiang, Mera S Barr
Substance use disorders (SUDs) have a devastating impact on society and place a heavy burden on health care systems. Given that alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use have the highest prevalence, further understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of these SUDs is crucial. Electroencephalography is an inexpensive, temporally superior, and translatable technique which enables investigation of the pathobiology of SUDs through the evaluation of various event-related potential components, including mismatch negativity (MMN)...
March 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Bob O Vogel, Joanna Stasch, Henrik Walter, Andres H Neuhaus
The mismatch negativity (MMN) deficit in schizophrenia is a consistently replicated finding and is considered a potential biomarker. From the cognitive neuroscience perspective, MMN represents a cortical correlate of the prediction error, a fundamental computational operator that may be at the core of various cognitive and clinical deficits observed in schizophrenia. The impact of emotion on cognitive processes in schizophrenia is insufficiently understood, and its impact on basic operators of cortical computation is largely unknown...
February 28, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Niken M Mahaweni, Gerard M J Bos, Constantine S Mitsiades, Marcel G J Tilanus, Lotte Wieten
Natural killer (NK) cell-based immunotherapy is a promising novel approach to treat cancer. However, NK cell function has been shown to be potentially diminished by factors common in the tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we assessed the synergistic potential of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and killer immunoglobin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatched NK cells to potentiate NK cell antitumor reactivity in multiple myeloma (MM). Hypoxia, lactate, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or combinations were selected to mimic the TME...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Xue Xiao, Dandan Dong, Wenjing He, Linhong Song, Qiao Wang, Jun Yue, Lan Xie
OBJECTIVE: The role of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in ovarian cancer (OC) pathogenesis and its association with other clinicopathologic features, such as microsatellite instability (MSI) and expression of checkpoint proteins, remain largely elusive. METHODS: We performed Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 on full-section slides from 419 OCs to assess the MMR status. The clinical relevance of MMR deficiency was analyzed in combination with clinical data...
February 26, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Sudarat Khadsai, Noppadol Seeja, Nunthiya Deepuppha, Metha Rutnakornpituk, Tirayut Vilaivan, Maliwan Nakkuntod, Boonjira Rutanakornpituk
Magnetite nanoparticle conjugated with pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (MNP@PNA) was synthesized for use as both a magnetic nano-support and a probe for specific adsorption with complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). MNP@PNA with the size ranging between 120 and 170 nm in diameter was prepared via a free radical polymerization of acrylic acid in the presence of acrylamide-grafted MNP to obtain negatively charged magnetic nanoclusters, followed by ionic adsorption with PNA. According to fluorescence spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, this MNP@PNA can differentiate between fully matched, single-base mismatched and fully mismatched synthetic DNAs tagged with different fluorophores...
February 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yao Zhang, Jie Li, Ziwei Wang, Lun Zhao, Wei Wang, Danmin Miao
Perceptual expertise can be defined as enhanced abilities of discriminating, learning, and recognizing object of special categories. It is unclear whether the perceptual expertise effects occur at the preattentive stage. In the present study, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90°/270° vs. 0°) for faces, houses, and arrows, respectively, was investigated. Compared with standard stimuli (0° orientation), the orientation changes elicited posterior vMMNs for all deviant stimuli...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Motohiro Kimura
Visual mismatch negativity (VMMN) is an event-related brain potential component that is automatically elicited by infrequent (deviant) stimuli that are inserted among frequent (standard) stimuli (i.e., an oddball sequence). Although the elicitation of VMMN is basically determined in a stimulus-driven manner, it can be modulated by top-down control. In a previous study using a "patterned" oddball sequence, where deviant (D) stimuli were regularly inserted among standard (S) stimuli (i.e., repetitions of an SSSSD pattern), VMMN was largely reduced when participants noticed the SSSSD pattern and actively predicted both the identity and timing of the deviant stimuli compared to when they did not notice the SSSSD pattern and did not form such active prediction...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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