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Sam C C Chan, Tommy L H Lam, Kenneth N K Fong, Marco Y C Pang, Chetwyn C H Chan
BACKGROUND: This study examined the neural processes associated with the generalization of the effect of context-specific (CS) training to noncontextual situations among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Fourteen and 16 participants with MCI were randomly allocated to a Chinese calligraphy writing (CW) training or a control group, respectively. The CW participants learned how to write Chinese strokes in a semicursive style to construct characters, tapping on working memory functions...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Aihuan Zhang, Xia Bai, Houhun Li
Two new species of Rhopalovalva Kuznetzov are described from China: R. macrocuculla Zhang and Li, sp. nov., and R. connata Zhang and Li, sp. nov. Photographs of the adults and genitalia are provided. We report the first occurrence of the absence of an uncus in the male genitalia of a Rhopalovalva species. A key to the Chinese species is provided based on the characters of the male genitalia. We also comment on the generic characters of Rhopalovalva.
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
Aurélie Lagarrigue, Marieke Longcamp, Jean Luc Anton, Bruno Nazarian, Laurent Prévot, Jean-Luc Velay, Fan Cao, Cheryl Frenck-Mestre
We examined the implication of training modality on the cortical representation of Chinese words in adult learners of Chinese. In particular, we tested the implication of the neural substrates of writing in a reading task. The brain network sustaining finger writing was defined neuroanatomically based on an independent functional localizer, and brain activations during reading were analysed according to the position of the activation peaks in this localizer. We compared the brain activation elicited by Chinese words learned via writing vs...
January 25, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Hong Liu, Gaoyan Zhang, Baolin Liu
In the Chinese language, a polyphone is a kind of special character that has more than one pronunciation, with each pronunciation corresponding to a different meaning. Here, we aimed to reveal the cognitive processing of audio-visual information integration of polyphones in a sentence context using the event-related potential (ERP) method. Sentences ending with polyphones were presented to subjects simultaneously in both an auditory and a visual modality. Four experimental conditions were set in which the visual presentations were the same, but the pronunciations of the polyphones were: the correct pronunciation; another pronunciation of the polyphone; a semantically appropriate pronunciation but not the pronunciation of the polyphone; or a semantically inappropriate pronunciation but also not the pronunciation of the polyphone...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jihong Huang, Keping Ma, Jianhua Huang
Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest...
2017: PloS One
Zhaoyang Qiu, Brendan Z Allison, Jing Jin, Yu Zhang, Xingyu Wang, Wei Li, Andrzej Cichocki
: Abstract-Background: Motor imagery (MI) is a mental representation of motor behavior. MI-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication for the physically impaired. The performance of MI based BCI mainly depends on the subject's ability to self-modulate EEG signals. Proper training can help naive subjects learn to modulate brain activity proficiently. However, training subjects typically involves abstract motor tasks and is time-consuming. METHODS: To improve the performance of naive subjects during motor imagery, a novel paradigm was presented that would guide naive subjects to modulate brain activity effectively...
January 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Yongrui Bao, Shuai Wang, Xinxin Yang, Li Tianjiao, Mingyue Xia, Xiansheng Meng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolomics is the comprehensive assessment of endogenous metabolites of a biological system in a holistic context, and its property consists with the global view of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Shuihonghuazi Formula (SHHZF) has been used for liver cancer early treatment in clinical for more than thirty years, but its mechanism remains unclear completely. This paper was designed to explore the therapeutic effects of SHHZF on liver cancer and its metabolomic characters...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
L P Zhang, J G Li
Objective: To investigate whether glabridin has a beneficial effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in rats, and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control group, model group (LPS group), glabridin group (GLA group), and ulinastatin group (UTI group), with 8 rats in each group. ARDS rat model was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg). The rats in the control group received an equal volume of normal saline at the same times...
December 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Jingjun Chen, Rong Luo, Huashan Liu
With the development of ICT, digital writing is becoming much more common in people's life. Differently from keyboarding alphabets directly to input English words, keyboarding Chinese character is always through typing phonetic alphabets and then identify the glyph provided by Pinyin input-method software while in this process which do not need users to produce orthography spelling, thus it is different from traditional written language production model based on handwriting process. Much of the research in this domain has found that using Pinyin input method is beneficial to Chinese characters recognition, but only a small part explored the effects of individual's Pinyin input experience on the Chinese characters production process...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Yue Ma, Ke Tang, Yan Xu, Ji-Ming Li
The key aroma compounds of Chinese Vidal icewine were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) on polar and nonpolar columns, and their flavor dilution (FD) factors were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 59 odor-active aroma compounds in three ranks of Vidal icewines were identified, and 28 odorants (FD ≥ 9) were further quantitated for aroma reconstitution and omission tests. β-Damascenone showed the highest FD value of 2187 in all icewines...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lan Zhang, Li Yin, Rebecca Treiman
Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables...
December 26, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Li Dai, Chenchen Zhang, Xiangping Liu
According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Chuanli Zang, Manman Zhang, Xuejun Bai, Guoli Yan, Bernhard Angele, Simon P Liversedge
English readers do not fixate every word: during their first pass through a sentence they skip a third of the words (Rayner, 1998, 2009). How do readers decide whether to skip or fixate a word? Angele and Rayner (2013) showed that English readers base skipping decisions on the parafoveal information available, but not the sentential context. Due to the increased visual density of the language, Chinese readers may be able to process a parafoveal word and integrate it with the sentence context to a greater extent than English readers...
December 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Fan Cao, Charles A Perfetti
Research on cross-linguistic comparisons of the neural correlates of reading has consistently found that the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) is more involved in Chinese than in English. However, there is a lack of consensus on the interpretation of the language difference. Because this region has been found to be involved in writing, we hypothesize that reading Chinese characters involves this writing region to a greater degree because Chinese speakers learn to read by repeatedly writing the characters. To test this hypothesis, we recruited English L1 learners of Chinese, who performed a reading task and a writing task in each language...
2016: PloS One
Meiqing Yang, Houhun Li
Seventeen species of the genus Encolapta Meyrick, 1913 from China are reviewed. Six species are described as new: E. bifasciaria sp. nov., E. cornuta sp. nov., E. aciprojecta sp. nov., E. obliquata sp. nov., E. trapezoidea sp. nov. and E. lunata sp. nov.; the previously unknown female of E. marginans (Li et Zheng, 1998) is described for the first time; and one new combination, E. valvispinata (Li, 2002) comb. nov., is proposed. All these species are placed into two species groups based on morphological characters: the tegulifera-group and the epichthonia-group...
November 15, 2016: Zootaxa
Guang-Chun Liu, Meng Yang
The Chinese species of Diplonevra are revised, with 16 recognised species from both the Oriental and Palaearctic parts of China. The following 8 species are described as new to science: D. corniculata sp. nov., D. trapezia sp. nov., D. vecticrassa sp. nov., D. lamella sp. nov., D. furcavectis sp. nov., D. brevicula sp. nov., D. triangulata sp. nov., D. spinibotra sp. nov. All known species are re-identified, re-described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters of the base of the posterior face of the hind trochanter and femur are depicted in detail...
December 4, 2016: Zootaxa
Wei Dong, Jian Zheng, Qiuju Guo
To study the applications of Pu isotopes in long-distance dust migration monitoring, Pu isotopes in surface soil of Inner Mongolia have been analyzed using SF-ICP-MS after size fractionation. (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged narrowly (0.169-0.200) and indicated global fallout character, while (239+240)Pu activities increased with decreasing particle size. A spherical model could well simulate (239+240)Pu activities as a function of particle diameter when soil particle size was less than 600µm, and the soil particle surface sorption phenomenon of Pu isotopes in natural soil samples was revealed...
February 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Lili Yu, Qiaoming Zhang, Caspian Priest, Erik D Reichle, Heather Sheridan
Three eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine how the complexity of characters in Chinese words (i.e., number of strokes per character) influences their processing and eye-movement behavior. In Experiment 1, English speakers with no significant knowledge of Chinese searched for specific low-, medium-, and high-complexity target characters in a multi-page narrative containing characters of varying complexity (3-16 strokes). Fixation durations and skipping rates were influenced by the visual complexity of both the target characters and the characters being searched, with the latter findings replicating previous reports (e...
December 15, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Wei Shen, Xingshan Li, Alexander Pollatsek
We employed a boundary paradigm to investigate how Chinese two-character compound words are processed during sentence reading. The first character of the compound words was an ambiguous morpheme which had a dominant and subordinate meaning. In Experiment 1, there were three previews of the second character: (a) identical to the target character; (b) the preview of the second character provided subordinate biasing information (the Subordinate condition); (c) the preview of the second character provided dominant biasing information (the Dominant condition)...
December 14, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Thomas Horn, Annette Häser
BACKGROUND: Names used in ingredient lists of food products are trivial and in their nature rarely precise. The most recent scientific interpretation of the term bamboo (Bambusoideae, Poaceae) comprises over 1,600 distinct species. In the European Union only few of these exotic species are well known sources for food ingredients (i.e., bamboo sprouts) and are thus not considered novel foods, which would require safety assessments before marketing of corresponding products. In contrast, the use of bamboo leaves and their taxonomic origin is mostly unclear...
2016: PeerJ
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