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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650979/expression-of-cerebral-serotonin-related-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-c57bl-6-offspring-induced-by-repeated-subcutaneous-prenatal-exposure-to-low-dose-lipopolysaccharide
#1
Pei-Tan Hsueh, Hsuan-Han Wang, Chiu-Lin Liu, Wei-Fen Ni, Ya-Lei Chen, Jong-Kang Liu
Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which likely occurs due to infection or contact with environmental allergens during pregnancy, is a proposed risk factor that induces anxiety- and autism spectrum disorder-like behaviors in offspring. However, the molecular and behavioral changes in offspring after maternal immune activation have not been completely identified. We hypothesized that a subcutaneous injection of LPS in a pregnant mouse would induce changes in cerebral serotonin (5-HT) in parallel to the appearance of anxiety-like behaviors in the dam's offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#2
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650864/metabolic-syndrome-and-sexual-dysfunction
#3
Michael L Schulster, Sydney E Liang, Bobby B Najari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the connection between metabolic syndrome and male sexual dysfunction. RECENT FINDINGS: Concurrent with the obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome in the United States is reaching crisis levels. A myriad of comorbidities are rising as well, affecting cost and quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is one of these comorbidities, with an extremely high prevalence, which will only increase as the population ages.In light of this ubiquity, recent research has explored the mechanisms of decreased libido, hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction through the lens of metabolic syndrome and its individual components...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650490/hypoxia-induced-tumor-cell-resistance-is-overcome-by-synergistic-gapdh-sirna-and-chemotherapy-co-delivered-by-long-circulating-and-cationic-interior-liposomes
#4
Jibin Guan, Jin Sun, Feilong Sun, Bo Lou, Dong Zhang, Vida Mashayekhi, Negar Sadeghi, Gert Storm, Enrico Mastrobattista, Zhonggui He
Chemotherapeutic drug resistance of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions is caused by the inhibition of apoptosis by autophagy and drug efflux via adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent transporter activation, among other factors. Here, we demonstrate that disrupting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression can reduce the autophagy and ATP levels in tumor cells. To test whether GAPDH knockdown is sufficient to overcome drug resistance, a nanocarrier (asymmetry-membrane liposome) was designed to encapsulate GAPDH-siRNA with a low dose of paclitaxel (PTX)...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#5
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649886/epidermal-growth-factor-inhibitors-in-first-line-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-with-ras-wild-type-a-perspective-based-on-pharmacological-costs
#6
Jacopo Giuliani, Andrea Bonetti
In light of the relevant expenses of pharmacological interventions it might be interesting to make a balance between the cost of the new drugs administered, such as EGFRIs (cetuximab and panitunumab) and the added value represented by the improvement of the clinical parameters of interest such as progression free survival (PFS). Areas Covered: The analysis was conducted to assess the effect of front-line chemotherapy on the PFS, separately, on each arm of the evaluated trials. Only phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered...
June 24, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649458/physico-chemical-rheological-and-antioxidant-properties-of-sweet-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-as-affected-by-pan-and-microwave-roasting
#7
Idrees Ahmed Wani, Humaira Hamid, Afshan Mumtaz Hamdani, Adil Gani, Bilal Ahmad Ashwar
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) belongs to the family Fagaceae and sub family Castaneoideae. Bioactive components such as tannins are present in sweet chestnut in high proportion giving astringent bitter taste and reducing their palatability. Roasting reduces the anti-nutritional factors in chestnut. This study was conducted to compare the effects of pan and microwave roasting on physicochemical, functional, rheological and antioxidant properties of sweet chestnut. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH inhibition activity, reducing power, and total phenolic content...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649315/effects-of-a-social-stimulus-on-gene-expression-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome
#8
Tiffany D Rogers, Allison M J Anacker, Travis M Kerr, C Gunnar Forsberg, Jing Wang, Bing Zhang, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: People with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often have deficits in social behavior, and a substantial portion meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder. Though the genetic cause of FXS is known to be due to the silencing of FMR1, and the Fmr1 null mouse model representing this lesion has been extensively studied, the contributions of this gene and its protein product, FMRP, to social behavior are not well understood. METHODS: Fmr1 null mice and wildtype littermates were exposed to a social or non-social stimulus...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649251/cocoa-and-dark-chocolate-polyphenols-from-biology-to-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Thea Magrone, Matteo Antonio Russo, Emilio Jirillo
It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649043/the-effects-of-biodiesels-on-semivolatile-and-nonvolatile-particulate-matter-emissions-from-a-light-duty-diesel-engine
#10
Yuan Cheng, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Yuemei Han, Craig Stroud, Tak Chan, Marie-Josée Poitras
Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649007/polypharmacy-and-sun-exposure-implications-for-mitochondrial-dna-deletions-in-skin
#11
Julia Montelin Powers, Gillian Murphy, Nikki Ralph, Susan M O'Gorman, James E J Murphy
Most somatic cells contain many copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Because of both the high copy number and the lack of repair mechanisms available to mtDNA, damage to it largely goes unrepaired, and can accumulate over time. Large scale deletions are a recognised type of damage sustained by mtDNA as a consequence of exposure to the ultraviolet light in sunlight. A group of patients were identified as having abnormally high levels of either a 4977 base pair deletion (mtDNA(4977)) or 3895 base pair deletion (mtDNA(3895)), in mtDNA from sun exposed skin or skin suspected to be a non-melanoma skin cancer, but not in their non-sun exposed skin biopsies...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648678/single-plane-illumination-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-studying-nucleome-dynamics
#12
Jörg Langowski
Single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) is a new optical method that has become extremely important in recent years. It is based on the formation of a "light slice" in the specimen in which fluorescently tagged molecules are observed. The spatial resolution is close to that of confocal optics, but without the disadvantages inherent to scanning or high laser irradiation doses. A recent development is light sheet fluctuation microscopy, which exploits the dynamic information contained in the fluorescence intensity fluctuations of each image pixel...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648078/controllable-synthesis-of-mesoporous-sulfur-doped-carbon-nitride-materials-for-enhanced-visible-light-photocatalytic-degradation
#13
Milad Jourshabani, Zahra Shariatinia, Alireza Badiei
Mesoporous sulfur-doped graphitic carbon nitride (MCNS) materials were successfully synthesized using thiourea as a low cost precursor and SiO2 gel solution as a template through a simple thermal condensation method. The effects of three synthesis key factors, namely reaction temperature, reaction time, weight ratio of SiO2/thiourea and also their interactions on the removal rate of methyl orange (MO) were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM) and the samples were subjected to several characterization techniques...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647921/proteome-profile-of-aspergillus-terreus-conidia-at-germinating-stage-identification-of-probable-virulent-factors-and-enzymes-from-mycotoxin-pathways
#14
Raman Thakur, Jata Shankar
Aspergillus terreus is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. The main risk group of individuals for this organism is leukopenic patients, individuals having cancers, bone marrow transplant persons and those who have immunological disorders. The lack of early diagnostic marker for A. terreus and intrinsic resistance to Amphotericin B, further limits the successful therapy of A. terreus-associated infections. The germination of inhaled conidia is the key step to establish successful invasion in host tissues or organs...
June 24, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647720/thinker-soldier-scribe-cross-sectional-study-of-researchers-roles-and-author-order-in-the-annals-of-internal-medicine
#15
Thomas V Perneger, Antoine Poncet, Marc Carpentier, Thomas Agoritsas, Christophe Combescure, Angèle Gayet-Ageron
OBJECTIVE: How researchers' contributions relate to author order on the byline remains unclear. We sought to identify researchers' contributions associated with author order, and to explore the existence of author profiles. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Published record. PARTICIPANTS: 1139 authors of 119 research articles published in 2015 in the Annals of Internal Medicine. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Presence or absence of 10 contributions, reported by each author, published in the journal...
June 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647128/seasonal-dynamics-of-adult-dermacentor-reticulatus-in-a-peri-urban-park-in-southern-europe
#16
Emanuela Olivieri, Alessia Libera Gazzonis, Sergio Aurelio Zanzani, Fabrizia Veronesi, Maria Teresa Manfredi
Studies on the human-biting pathogen vectors Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus have been scarce in southern Europe. The aims of the present study were to determine the abundance of these ticks in a peri-urban park in northern Italy, describe the seasonal activity of D. reticulatus and examine the correlation between tick occurrence and environmental factors. Ticks were collected monthly from April 2015 to May 2016 using both dragging and flagging techniques. Various climatic variables (mean temperature, relative humidity and evapotranspiration for the collection dates; and 30-day moving averages preceding each collection date were calculated for rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and saturation deficit) also were recorded...
June 15, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646918/diurnal-cycling-of-rhizosphere-bacterial-communities-is-associated-with-shifts-in-carbon-metabolism
#17
Christopher Staley, Abigail P Ferrieri, Malak M Tfaily, Yaya Cui, Rosalie K Chu, Ping Wang, Jared B Shaw, Charles K Ansong, Heather Brewer, Angela D Norbeck, Meng Markillie, Fernanda do Amaral, Thalita Tuleski, Tomás Pellizzaro, Beverly Agtuca, Richard Ferrieri, Susannah G Tringe, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Michael J Sadowsky
BACKGROUND: The circadian clock regulates plant metabolic functions and is an important component in plant health and productivity. Rhizosphere bacteria play critical roles in plant growth, health, and development and are shaped primarily by soil communities. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing and high-resolution mass spectrometry, we characterized bacterial communities of wild-type (Col-0) Arabidopsis thaliana and an acyclic line (OX34) ectopically expressing the circadian clock-associated cca1 transcription factor, relative to a soil control, to determine how cycling dynamics affected the microbial community...
June 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646834/beverage-osmolality-as-a-marker-for-maintaining-appropriate-body-hydration
#18
Anna Sadowska1, Franciszek Świderski, Rita Rakowska, Bożena Waszkiewicz-Robak, Małgorzata Żebrowska-Krasuska, Ewa Dybkowska
Background: Osmolalities can be useful markers for determining whether given beverages are suited for maintaining an adequate hydration of the body. Losing 2% of body water relative to body mass reduces the efficiency of body function when undertaking physical effort by around 20%. Deficiencies in water intakes approaching 5-8% of body mass, double the impairment to the body’s physical and mental functioning, whereas at a level of 10% the body becomes incapable of performing any sort of physical effort...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646802/dampness-can-promote-the-influenza-a-virus-and-worsen-its-prognosis-by-upregulating-the-tlr7-signaling-pathway
#19
Deng Li, Xu Huachong, Pang Peng, Zheng Ke, Nie Jiao, Wu Xianlin, Yu Bin, Chen Jia, Chen Xiaoyin
Context • Outbreaks of the influenza A virus (IAV) are increasingly recognized as a global public health issue, affecting a large proportion of the world's population. A number of studies have provided epidemiologic evidence that dampness and mold are consistently associated with multiple allergic and respiratory effects, but they focused on dampness-related pathogenic microorganisms leading to allergy rather than the dampness itself. Objective • The current study intended to examine the effects of a damp environment on the promotion of the IAV and determine the adverse effects on its prognosis through upregulation of the toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-signaling pathway in the lung...
June 23, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646641/do-large-mergers-increase-or-decrease-the-productivity-of-pharmaceutical-r-d
#20
Michael S Ringel, Michael K Choy
There is current uncertainty regarding the effects of mergers on pharmaceutical R&D productivity, with various mechanisms reported by which mergers could either help or harm R&D, and mixed empirical findings in prior analyses. Here, we present an analysis that is novel in several ways: we use downstream measures of R&D productivity, account for both inputs and outputs in our calculations, and use a self-controlled design. We find that recent large pharmaceutical mergers are associated with statistically significant increases in R&D productivity...
June 21, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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