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Ines Dourado, Luís Augusto V da Silva, Laio Magno, Maycon Lopes, Caio Cerqueira, Adriana Prates, Sandra Brignol, Sarah MacCarthy
Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Elizabeth A Atchison, Ahmed F Omar, Raymond Iezzi, Andrew J Barkmeier, Sophie J Bakri
PURPOSE: To examine the safety outcomes of an intravitreal injection-only clinic where patients needing long-term anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy are treated with injections at a predetermined interval for a set number of injections without an accompanying clinic visit. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of all patients with exudative macular degeneration treated in an intravitreal injection clinic over a 4-year period. Data on the outcome measures of interest were gathered from electronic medical records...
October 18, 2016: Retina
Ying Liu, Kesheng Wang, Mildred Maisonet, Liang Wang, Shimin Zheng
BACKGROUND: A long term of unhealthy lifestyles can lead to many health problems, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study is to determine the associations of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) with type 2 diabetes in American adults (≥20 years) in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data were from 12987 American adults who participated in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2014...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Thavasyappan Thambi, V H Giang Phan, Doo Sung Lee
Stimuli-sensitive injectable polymeric hydrogels are one of the promising delivery vehicles for the controlled release of bioactive agents. In aqueous solutions, these polymers are able to switch sol-to-gel transitions in response to various stimuli including pH, temperature, light, enzyme and magnetic field. Therapeutic agents, including chemotherapeutic agents, protein drugs or cells, are easily mixed with the low-viscous polymer solution at room temperature. Therapeutic-agents-containing solutions are readily injected into target sites through syringe or catheter, which could form hydrogel depot and serve as bioactive molecules release carriers...
October 18, 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Oline Anita Bjørkelund, Hanna Degerud, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Joanne Paton, Sam Glasser, Richard Collings, Jon Marsden
BACKGROUND: Over 1 in 3 older people with diabetes sustain a fall each year. Postural instability has been identified as independent risk factor for falls within people with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN). People with DPN, at increased risk of falls, are routinely required to wear offloading insoles, yet the impact of these insoles on postural stability and postural control is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a standard offloading insole and its constituent parts on the balance in people with DPN...
2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Thamir M Alshammari
Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Maartje Liefting, Jarno Cosijn, Jacintha Ellers
Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating temperatures rather than a constant temperature regime. The benefit of fluctuating temperature has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with temperature. Daily temperature rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking daily temperature fluctuations with light and dark phases e...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Mariya V Konovalova, Pavel A Markov, Eugene A Durnev, Denis V Kurek, Sergey V Popov, Valery P Varlamov
Today, there is a need for the development of biomaterials with novel properties for biomedical purposes. The biocompatibility of materials is a key factor in determining its possible use in biomedicine. In this study, composite cryogels were obtained based on pectin and chitosan using ionic cryotropic gelation. For cryogel preparation, apple pectin (AP), Heracleum L. pectin (HP), and chitosan samples with different physical and chemical characteristics were used. The properties of pectin-chitosan cryogels were found to depend on the structural features and physicochemical characteristics of the pectin and chitosan within them...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
S Binita Chanu, Samya Banerjee, Mithun Roy
Cancer-specific anticancer drugs are still an elusive goal. Using light as the temporal control to generate cytotoxic species from photo-activated prodrug in the presence or absence of molecular oxygen has shown potential application targeted chemotherapy as in photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present work we explored the chemistry of several photo-active (μ-oxo)diiron(III) complexes of the following formulation [{Fe(μ-O) (L-his)(B)}2](ClO4)2 (1a-1c), [Fe2(μ-O)(H2O)2B4](ClO4)4 (2b, 2c) and [Fe2(μ-O)(μ-O2CMe)B4](ClO4)3 (3b, 3c), L-his = l-histidine, B is 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq) complexes for tumor-specific anticancer activity...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
V A Banakh, I A Razenkov
Experimental data proving the possibility of lidar measurement of the refractive turbulence strength based on the effect of backscattering amplification are reported. It is shown, for the first time to our knowledge, that the values of the amplification factor correlate with the variance of random jitter of the optical image of an incoherent light source depending on the value of the structure constant of the air refractive index turbulent fluctuations averaged over the probing path.
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Golnaz Javey, Mohammed Rigi, Andrew J Barkmeier, Jordan L Heffez, Petros E Carvounis
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of cannula removal over the light pipe on the incidence of sclerotomy leakage and to evaluate other factors that may influence the incidence of sclerotomy leaks and hypotony on conclusion of small-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS: Retrospective, interventional clinical study of consecutive patients who underwent small-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy at a single academic center. Eyes were divided into a group in which cannulae were removed over the light pipe (Group L) and a group in which cannulae were simply pulled out (Group N)...
October 4, 2016: Retina
Massimiliano de Zambotti, John Trinder, Harold Javitz, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker
OBJECTIVE: Insomnia disorder is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) pathology. It is unknown whether insomnia that develops in the context of the menopausal transition (MT) impacts the CV system. We assessed nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) profiles in women with insomnia disorder in the MT. METHODS: Twelve women meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia in the MT (age, mean ± SD: 50.5 ± 3.6 y) and 11 controls (age, mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 3...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Eija Haukka, Anneli Ojajärvi, Leena Kaila-Kangas, Päivi Leino-Arjas
We identified factors protective of all-cause sickness absence (SA) among subjects with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP). The nationally representative source sample comprised 3420 actively working Finns aged 30-55 in year 2000 and alive at follow-up. Pain in 18 body locations was combined into four sites (neck, low back, upper limbs, lower limbs). The baseline prevalence of MSP (pain in ≥ 2 sites) was 32 %. Baseline data on sociodemographic factors, work ability, work, health, and lifestyle were gathered by questionnaire, interview and clinical examination and linked with national registers on all-cause SA (periods lasting ≥10 workdays) for 2002-2008...
October 3, 2016: Pain
Elisa Tardelli, Sara Mazzarri, Domenico Rubello, Marta Gennaro, Lorenzo Fantechi, Valerio Duce, Antonella Romanini, Sotirios Chondrogiannis, Duccio Volterrani, Patrick M Colletti, Gianpiero Manca
Melanoma is an important public health problem, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. The disease status of regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced in the early 1990s as a less invasive procedure than complete lymph node dissection to allow histopathologic evaluation of the "sentinel lymph node" (SLN), which is the first node along the lymphatic pathway from a primary tumor. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has minimal complication risks compared with standard complete lymph node dissection...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Swarup China, Bingbing Wang, Johannes Weis, Luciana Rizzo, Joel Brito, Glauber G Cirino, Libor Kovarik, Paulo Artaxo, Mary K Gilles, Alexander Laskin
Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Jin Zhou, Wenjuan Fang, Qingliang Cao, Linyan Yang, Victor W-C Chang, William W Nazaroff
Utilizing the ultraviolet-light induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurement technique as embodied in the Waveband-Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4A), we evaluated the fluorescent particle emissions associated with human shedding while walking in a chamber. The mean emission rates of supermicron (1-10 μm) fluorescent particles was in the range 6.8-7.5 million particles per person-h (~ 0.3 mg per person-h) across three participants, for conditions when the relative humidity was 60-70% and no moisturizer was applied after showering...
October 17, 2016: Indoor Air
Limin Liu, Lin Chen, Zhihui Mai, Zhuli Peng, Kafung Yu, Guanqi Liu, Hong Ai
The role of myosin light chain II (MLC‑II) in cellular differentiation of rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) induced by cyclical uniaxial compressive stress (CUCS) remains unclear. In the current study, a four‑point bending system was used to apply CUCS to primary cultured MCCs from rats. It was identified that CUCS stimulated features of cellular differentiation including morphological alterations, cytoskeleton rearrangement and overproduction of proteoglycans. Furthermore, CUCS promoted runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2) expression at mRNA (P<0...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
A Cacace, M Sboarina, T Vazeille, P Sonveaux
Cancer cells can use a variety of metabolic substrates to fulfill the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of their oncogenic program. Besides bioenergetics, cancer cell metabolism also directly influences genetic, epigenetic and signaling events associated with tumor progression. Many cancer cells are addicted to glutamine, and this addiction is observed in oxidative as well as in glycolytic cells. Although both oxidative and bioreductive glutamine metabolism can contribute to cancer progression and glutamine can further serve to generate peptides (including glutathione) and proteins, we report that glutamine promotes the proliferation of cancer cells independently of its use as a metabolic fuel or as a precursor of glutathione...
October 17, 2016: Oncogene
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
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