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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793099/carbon-monoxide-analysis-method-in-human-blood-by-airtight-gas-syringe-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-ags-gc-ms-relevance-for-postmortem-poisoning-diagnosis
#1
S Oliverio, V Varlet
Carbon monoxide is one of the most abundant toxic air pollutants. Symptoms of a CO intoxication are non-specific, leading to a high number of misdiagnosed CO poisoning cases that are missing in the disease statistics. The chemical nature of the molecule makes it difficult to detect for long periods and at low levels, thus requiring a very accurate and sensitive method. Current methods capable of accurate and sensitive analyses are available, however an inconsistency between results and symptoms are frequently reported...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792898/energy-drink-exposures-reported-to-texas-poison-centers-analysis-of-adverse-incidents-in-relation-to-total-sales-2010-2014
#2
Stephen W Borron, Susan H Watts, Jessica Herrera, Joshua Larson, Salvador Baeza, Richard L Kingston
The ill-defined term "energy drink" includes a disparate group of products (beverages, shots, concentrates, and workout powders) having large differences in caffeine content and concentration and intended use. Hence, inaccurate conclusions may be drawn when describing adverse events associated with "energy drinks". The FDA is considering new regulation of these products but product specificity is needed to evaluate safety. To help address this, we queried Texas Poison Center Network data for single substance exposures to "energy drinks" from 2010 to 2014, then analyzed adverse events by product type...
May 21, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792342/misidentification-of-copperhead-and-cottonmouth-snakes-following-snakebites
#3
Robert D Cox, Christina S Parker, Erin C E Cox, Michael B Marlin, Robert L Galli
INTRODUCTION: Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth or water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakes account for the majority of venomous snakebites in the southern United States. Cottonmouth snakes are generally considered to have more potent venom. Copperheads are considered less venomous and there is some controversy as to whether or not bites from copperhead snakes need to be treated with antivenom. Copperhead and juvenile cottonmouth snakes are both brown in color...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790465/multiple-victims-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-the-aftermath-of-a-wildfire-a-case-series
#4
Luís Ramos Santos, Magna Alves-Correia, Margarida Câmara, Manuela Lélis, Carmo Caldeira, Maria Luz Brazão, José Júlio Nóbrega
INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide poisoning may occur in several contexts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective of 37 carbon monoxide poisoning cases that underwent hyperbaric oxygen during wildfires in Funchal in August 2016. RESULTS: The studied sample included 37 patients, mean age of 38 years, 78% males. Ten were firefighters, four children and two pregnant victims. Neurological symptoms were the most reported. Median carboxyhemoglobin level was 3...
March 29, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788909/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-the-diversity-and-evolutionary-relationships-between-necrotic-enteritis-causing-strains-of-clostridium-perfringens
#5
Jake A Lacey, Theodore R Allnutt, Ben Vezina, Thi Thu Hao Van, Thomas Stent, Xiaoyan Han, Julian I Rood, Ben Wade, Anthony L Keyburn, Torsten Seemann, Honglei Chen, Volker Haring, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens causes a range of diseases in animals and humans including necrotic enteritis in chickens and food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. Necrotic enteritis is of concern in commercial chicken production due to the cost of the implementation of infection control measures and to productivity losses. This study has focused on the genomic analysis of a range of chicken-derived C. perfringens isolates, from around the world and from different years. The genomes were sequenced and compared with 20 genomes available from public databases, which were from a diverse collection of isolates from chickens, other animals, and humans...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787634/confined-ultrathin-pd-ce-nanowires-with-outstanding-moisture-and-so2-tolerance-in-methane-combustion
#6
Honggen Peng, Cheng Rao, Ning Zhang, Xiang Wang, Wenming Liu, Wenting Mao, Lu Han, Pengfei Zhang, Sheng Dai
Pd-CeOx solid solutions have demonstrated promising performance in industrial and environmental catalysis. However, challenges such as severe growth and aggregation of Pd and thermal-, vapor- or SO2-induced poisoning still obstruct their path toward real-world applica-tions. Herein we develop an efficient strategy (enhanced metal-oxide interaction and core-shell confinement to inhibit the sintering of noble metal) for design and synthesis of confined ultrathin Pd-CeOx nan-owire (2.4 nm) catalysts for methane combustion, which enable CH4 total oxidation at a low temperature of 350C, much lower than that (425C) of a commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787584/method-overtness-forensic-autopsy-and-the-evidentiary-suicide-note-a-multilevel-national-violent-death-reporting-system-analysis
#7
Ian R H Rockett, Eric D Caine, Steven Stack, Hilary S Connery, Kurt B Nolte, Christa L Lilly, Ted R Miller, Lewis S Nelson, Sandra L Putnam, Paul S Nestadt, Haomiao Jia
OBJECTIVE: Higher prevalence of suicide notes could signify more conservatism in accounting and greater proneness to undercounting of suicide by method. We tested two hypotheses: (1) an evidentiary suicide note is more likely to accompany suicides by drug-intoxication and by other poisoning, as less violent and less forensically overt methods, than suicides by firearm and hanging/suffocation; and (2) performance of a forensic autopsy attenuates any observed association between overtness of method and the reported presence of a note...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786949/the-qsofa-score-a-simple-and-accurate-predictor-of-outcomes-in-patients-with-glyphosate-herbicide-poisoning
#8
Yongsoo Cho, Byeongjo Chun, Jeongmi Moon
This study aimed to investigate whether the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score at emergency department (ED) presentation can help improve the risk assessment of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide (GlySH) poisoning complications. A total of 150 patients presenting with acute glyphosate herbicide ingestion were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The qSOFA scores at presentation, ΔqSOFA (calculated by subtracting the worst qSOFA score from 1 hr after admission from the qSOFA score at presentation), baseline characteristics, clinical courses and outcomes were collected and analysed...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#9
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785632/virulence-factors-in-salmonella-typhimurium-the-sagacity-of-a-bacterium
#10
REVIEW
Anamaria M P Dos Santos, Rafaela G Ferrari, Carlos A Conte-Junior
Currently, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is responsible for most cases of food poisoning in several countries. It is characterized as a non-specific zoonotic bacterium that can infect both humans and animals and although most of the infections caused by this microorganism cause only a self-limiting gastroenteritis, some ST strains have been shown to be invasive, crossing the intestinal wall and reaching the systemic circulation. This unusual pathogenicity ability is closely related to ST virulence factors...
May 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785586/suicide-by-plastic-bag-suffocation-combined-with-the-mixture-of-citric-acid-and-baking-soda-in-an-adolescent
#11
Keishu Murakami, Takashi Kawaguchi, Yumiko Hashizume, Kengo Kitamura, Misato Okada, Kohei Okumoto, Shoich Sakamoto, Yuko Ishida, Mizuho Nosaka, Akihiko Kimura, Akihiro Takatsu, Toshikazu Kondo
We describe a case of suicidal asphyxiation using a plastic bag combined with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas. A 20-year-old male, whose head was covered with a plastic bag, was found dead in his room. In the plastic bag, there were two glass-made cups containing liquid-like substance. Through crime scene investigation by police staffs, a bottle of citric acid and a box of baking soda were also discovered in his room. The forensic autopsy revealed that there were neither lesions nor injuries in all of the organs...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785585/poisoning-associated-with-inappropriate-use-of-a-eutectic-mixture-of-lidocaine-and-prilocaine-before-laser-assisted-hair-removal-about-3-cases
#12
Weniko Caré, Islam-Amine Larabi, Jérôme Langrand, Chantal Medernach, Jean-Claude Alvarez, Antoine Villa
BACKGROUND: Eutectic mixtures of lidocaine and prilocaine are used during painful dermatological procedures. Poisoning is rarely reported in adults. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We report three cases of women who experienced lidocaine and prilocaine poisoning after laser-assisted hair removal. Plasma levels of local anesthetics were assayed by a fully validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. CASE REPORTS: The rules of application of the anesthetic cream were observed apart from the maximum dose and/or maximum surface area...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784754/pediatric-adhd-medication-exposures-reported-to-us-poison-control-centers
#13
Samantha A King, Marcel J Casavant, Henry A Spiller, Nichole L Hodges, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Gary A Smith
: media-1vid110.1542/5754332180001PEDS-VA_2017-3872 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and trends of exposures to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications among individuals 0 to 19 years old reported to US poison control centers. METHODS: National Poison Data System data from 2000 through 2014 were retrospectively analyzed to examine pediatric ADHD medication exposures. RESULTS: From 2000 through 2014, there were 156 365 exposures reported to US poison control centers related to ADHD medications...
May 21, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782961/baclofen-induced-encephalopathy-in-overdose-modeling-of-the-electroencephalographic-effect-concentration-relationships-and-contribution-of-tolerance-in-the-rat
#14
Magali Chartier, Isabelle Malissin, Salma Tannous, Laurence Labat, Patricia Risède, Bruno Mégarbane, Lucie Chevillard
Baclofen, a γ-amino-butyric acid type-B receptor agonist with exponentially increased use at high-dose to facilitate abstinence in chronic alcoholics, is responsible for increasing poisonings. Baclofen overdose may induce severe encephalopathy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Whether prior prolonged baclofen treatment may influence the severity of baclofen-induced encephalopathy in overdose has not been established. We designed a rat study to characterize baclofen-induced encephalopathy, correlate its severity with plasma concentrations and investigate the contribution of tolerance...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781603/new-insight-into-so2-poisoning-and-regeneration-of-ceo2-wo3-tio2-and-v2o5-wo3-tio2-catalysts-for-low-temperature-nh3-scr
#15
Liwen Xu, Chizhong Wang, Huazhen Chang, Qingru Wu, Tao Zhang, Junhua Li
In this study, the poisoning effects of SO2 on the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 (1%VWTi) and CeO2-WO3/TiO2 (5%CeWTi) selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts were investigated in the presence of steam, and also the the regeneration of deactivated catalysts was studied.. After pretreating the catalysts in a flow of NH3 + SO2 + H2O + O2 at 200 °C for 24 h, it was observed that the low-temperature SCR (LT-SCR) activity decreased significantly for the 1%VWTi and 5%CeWTi catalysts. For 1%VWTi, NH4HSO4 (ABS) was the main product detected after the poisoning process...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781377/aluminium-phosphide-poisoning-resulting-in-cardiac-arrest-successful-treatment-with-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-ecpr-a-case-report
#16
Juan Lehoux, Zachary Hena, Megan McCabe, Giles Peek
Aluminium phosphide (AP) is a pesticide used against rodents and insects. Exposure of AP to water releases phosphine gas. Phosphine is a highly toxic mitochondrial poison to which there is no known antidote. We report a case of a 3-year-old female with accidental home exposure to AP, which resulted in cardiac arrest, who was successfully supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
May 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780711/the-continued-egfr-tki-with-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-at-progression-poison-or-medicine
#17
EDITORIAL
Shin-Kyo Yoon, Chang Min Choi, Jae Cheol Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780434/engineered-sulfur-resistant-catalyst-system-with-an-assisted-regeneration-strategy-for-lean-burn-methane-combustion
#18
Niko M Kinnunen, Matthew Keenan, Kauko Kallinen, Teuvo Maunula, Mika Suvanto
Catalytic combustion of methane, the main component of natural gas, is a challenge under lean-burn conditions and at low temperatures owing to sulfur poisoning of the Pd-rich catalyst. This paper introduces a more sulfur-resistant catalyst system that can be regenerated during operation. The developed catalyst system lowers the barrier that has restrained the use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel in energy production.
April 9, 2018: ChemCatChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778973/a-two-fatal-cases-of-poisoning-involving-new-cathinone-derivative-pv8
#19
Ewelina Pieprzyca, Rafał Skowronek, Małgorzata Korczyńska, Joanna Kulikowska, Małgorzata Chowaniec
α-Pyrrolidinoheptiophenone (PV8) is a representative of α-pyrrolidinophenone derivatives, a new group of synthetic cathinones. PV8 was first detected in illegal products in Japan in 2013. It is closely related to α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), which was one of the most popular novel psychoactive substance (NPS) in Poland in years 2013-2015. The article presents two cases of fatal poisonings of 36-year-old man and 37-year-old woman, where a new cathinone derivative - PV8 was detected in biological material collected during medicolegal autopsies...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778924/cerbera-odollam-toxicity-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Ritesh G Menezes, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Huda Fatima, Pradhum Ram, Syed Bilal Pasha, S Senthilkumaran, Tooba Qadir Fatima, Sushil Allen Luis
Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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