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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121483/effects-of-n-carbamylglutamate-and-l-arginine-on-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-gene-expression-and-secretion-in-gt1-7-cells
#1
Y Liu, J H Bai, X L Xu, Z L Chen, L J Spicer, T Feng
Recent studies have shown that N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) and arginine (ARG) supplementation improves reproductive performance in livestock. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of NCG and ARG on GT1-7 cell gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, gene expression and cell proliferation. GT1-7 cells were treated in vitro with different concentrations of NCG (0-1.0mM) or ARG (0-4.0mM) in serum-free medium for 12 or 24h. For GnRH secretion and cell proliferation, GT1-7 cells were more sensitive to NCG than ARG...
November 10, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100632/the-anti-estrogenicity-of-chronic-exposure-to-semicarbazide-in-female-japanese-flounders-paralichthys-olivaceus-and-its-potential-mechanisms
#2
Zonghao Yue, Miao Yu, Haifeng Zhao, Jun Wang, Xiaona Zhang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
This study investigated the anti-estrogenic effects of chronic exposure to a new marine pollutant, semicarbazide (SMC; 1, 10, and 100μg/L), in female Paralichthys olivaceus, as well as the associated mechanism. After 130days of exposure, plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations, and hepatic estrogen receptors, vitellogenin, and choriogenin mRNA levels decreased significantly in SMC-exposed groups. Moreover, down-regulation of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropic hormones and their receptors, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 19A, was observed after SMC exposure...
October 31, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053844/evolutionally-conserved-function-of-kisspeptin-neuronal-system-is-non-reproductive-regulation-as-revealed-by-non-mammalian-study
#3
Mikoto Nakajo, Shinji Kanda, Tomomi Karigo, Akiko Takahashi, Yasuhisa Akazome, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Makito Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Oka
Kisspeptin neuronal system, which consists of a neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor Gpr54, is considered in mammals a key factor of reproductive regulation, so called hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, in non-mammalian vertebrates, especially in teleosts, existence of kisspeptin regulation on HPG axis is still controversial. Here, we applied multidisciplinary techniques to a teleost fish, medaka and examined possible kisspeptin regulation on HPG axis. First, we generated knockout medaka for kisspeptin-related genes and found that they show normal fertility, gonadal maturation, and expression of gonadotropins...
October 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017168/enhanced-at-puberty-1-eap1-expression-critically-regulates-the-onset-of-puberty-independent-of-hypothalamic-kiss1-expression
#4
Chenxi Li, Pin Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Enhance at puberty-1 (Eap1) is an intronless gene that regulates the onset of puberty through a network of hypothalamic genes. However, precise mechanistic events essential for Eap1-regulation of puberty have not been fully elucidated. Eap1 is thought to promote the initiation of puberty through regulation of the hypothalamic metastasis-suppressor KiSS1. We aim to investigate this hypothesis by genetically perturbing Eap1 through RNA interference in vivo. METHODS: We first engineered and optimized four sets of shRNAs that target rat Eap1 mRNA as well as one negative control shRNA...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944853/kisspeptin-inhibits-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-via-activation-of-eif2ak2
#5
Tae-Hun Kim, Sung-Gook Cho
Kisspeptin is a protein encoded by the KISS1 gene, which has been reported to suppress the metastatic capabilities of various types of cancer cells, through the activation of its G‑protein coupled receptor GPR54. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of kisspeptin‑mediated signaling in the inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion have yet to be elucidated. The present in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and in vivo experimental metastasis studies demonstrated that kisspeptin‑induced eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) activation suppressed the metastatic capabilities of several types of cancer cells...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878091/kisspeptin-regulates-steroidogenesis-and-spermiation-in-anuran-amphibian
#6
Rosanna Chianese, Vincenza Ciaramella, Silvia Fasano, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
Kisspeptin (Kp) system has a recognized role in the control of gonadotropic axis, at multiple levels. Recently, a major focus of research has been to assess any direct activity of this system on testis physiology. Using the amphibian anuran, Pelophylax esculentus, as animal model, we demonstrate - for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrate - that testis expresses both Kiss-1 and Gpr54 proteins during the annual sexual cycle and that ex vivo 17B-estradiol (E2, 10(-6) M) increases both proteins over control group...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870491/the-effect-of-neonatal-immune-challenge-on-reproduction-by-altering-intraovarian-kisspeptin-gpr54-system-in-the-rat
#7
Bin-Qiao Wang, Yuan-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Xiao Lan, Zhi-Yang Zhou, Xin-Xin Xu, Xue-Qing Wu
Immune challenge in early life has been observed to influence the long-term reproductive dysfunction. On PNDs 3 and 5, female offsprings were administered with LPS (50μg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Vaginal opening was recorded, and oestrous cyclicity was monitored immediately post puberty and again at 56-70 days. At 10 weeks of age, the ovaries were removed for immunostaining and RNA analysis. Neonatal exposure to LPS resulted in a significant delay puberty onset as well as destroyed expression of ovulation related genes...
September 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804932/kisspeptin-regulates-ovarian-steroidogenesis-during-delayed-embryonic-development-in-the-fruit-bat-cynopterus-sphinx
#8
Anuradha, Amitabh Krishna
Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779857/hormonal-changes-over-the-spawning-cycle-in-the-female-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#9
Chrysoula Roufidou, Monika Schmitz, Ian Mayer, Marion Sebire, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Yi Ta Shao, Bertil Borg
Female three-spined sticklebacks are batch spawners laying eggs in a nest built by the male. We sampled female sticklebacks at different time points, when they were ready to spawn and 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-spawning (hps) with a male. Following spawning, almost all females (15 out of 19) had ovulated eggs again at Day 3 post-spawning (72hps). At sampling, plasma, brain and pituitaries were collected, and the ovary and liver were weighed. Testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay...
August 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714670/cross-linking-furan-modified-kisspeptin-10-to-the-kiss-receptor
#10
Willem Vannecke, Christophe Ampe, Marleen Van Troys, Massimiliano Beltramo, Annemieke Madder
Chemical cross-linking is well-established for investigating protein-protein interactions. Traditionally, photo cross-linking is used but is associated with problems of selectivity and UV toxicity in a biological context. We here describe, with live cells and under normal growth conditions, selective cross-linking of a furan-modified peptide ligand to its membrane-presented receptor with zero toxicity, high efficiency, and spatio-specificity. Furan-modified kisspeptin-10 is covalently coupled to its glycosylated membrane receptor, GPR54(KISS1R)...
July 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650956/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-kisspeptin-antagonists-p234-p271-p354-and-p356-on-gpr54-activation
#11
C H J Albers-Wolthers, J de Gier, M Walen, P J S van Kooten, C B Lambalk, P A J Leegwater, B A J Roelen, A C Schaefers-Okkens, V P M G Rutten, R P M Millar, H S Kooistra
Kisspeptins (KPs) and their receptor (GPR54 or KiSS1R) play a key-role in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are therefore interesting targets for therapeutic interventions in the field of reproductive endocrinology. As dogs show a rapid and robust LH response after the administration of KP10, they can serve as a good animal model for research concerning KP signaling. The aims of the present study were to test the antagonistic properties of KP analogs p234, p271, p354, and p356 in vitro, by determining the intracellular Ca2+ response of CHEM1 cells that stably express human GPR54, and to study the in vivo effects of these peptides on basal plasma LH concentration and the KP10-induced LH response in female dogs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583614/effects-of-active-immunization-against-gnrh-versus-surgical-castration-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-function-in-boars
#12
Xingfa Han, Yuqin Zhou, Yu Zeng, Fenfen Sui, Yacheng Liu, Yao Tan, Xiaohan Cao, Xiaogang Du, Fengyan Meng, Xianyin Zeng
The objective was to compare effects of anti-GnRH immunization (immunocastration) versus surgical castration on hypothalamic-pituitary function in boars. Thirty-six boars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12/group): control, surgically castrated, or immunized against GnRH at 10 wk of age (boostered 8 wk later). Compared to intact boars, immunocastration reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and inhibin B and caused severe testicular atrophy, whereas surgical castration increased (P < 0...
July 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438528/molecular-characterization-of-kiss2-receptor-and-in-vitro-effects-of-kiss2-on-reproduction-related-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#13
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its receptor, KissR (previously known as GPR54), play a critical role in the control of reproduction and puberty onset in mammals. Additionally, a number of studies have provided evidence of the existence of multiple Kiss/KissR systems in teleosts, but the physiological relevance and functions of these kisspeptin forms (Kiss1 and Kiss2) still remain to be investigated. To this end, we examined the direct actions of Kiss2 on hypothalamic functions in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), a representative species of the order Pleuronectiformes...
August 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411243/potent-vasoconstrictor-kisspeptin-10-induces-atherosclerotic-plaque-progression-and-instability-reversal-by-its-receptor-gpr54-antagonist
#14
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Mina Hontani, Rina Shinooka, Akinori Hasegawa, Tomoki Kichise, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Hayami Yoshizawa, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), a potent vasoconstrictor and inhibitor of angiogenesis, and its receptor, GPR54, have currently received much attention in relation to pre-eclampsia. However, it still remains unknown whether KP-10 could affect atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the effects of KP-10 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324048/demonstration-of-a-functional-kisspeptin-kisspeptin-receptor-system-in-amphioxus-with-implications-for-origin-of-neuroendocrine-regulation
#15
Peng Wang, Meng Wang, Guangdong Ji, Shuangshuang Yang, Shicui Zhang, Zhenhui Liu
Amphioxus belongs to the Cephalochordata, which is the most basal subphylum of the chordates. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, key information about its regulation remains ambiguous. Here we clearly demonstrate the presence of a functional kisspeptin/kisspeptin receptor (Kiss-Kissr) system, which is involved in the regulation of reproduction in amphioxus. Evolutionary analyses revealed large expansion of Kiss and Kissr (gpr54) genes in amphioxus, and they might represent the ancestral type of the Kiss/gpr54 genes in chordates...
May 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251550/the-mystery-of-puberty-initiation-genetics-and-epigenetics-of-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-icpp
#16
REVIEW
Sofia Leka-Emiri, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
Puberty is a major developmental stage. Damaging mutations, considered as "mistakes of nature", have contributed to the unraveling of the networks implicated in the normal initiation of puberty. Genes involved in the abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis development, in the normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH), in the X-linked or autosomal forms of Kallmann syndrome and in precocious puberty have been identified (GNRH1, GNRHR, KISS1, GPR54, FGFR1, FGF8, PROK2, PROKR2, TAC3, TACR3, KAL1, PROK2, PROKR2, CHD7, LEP, LEPR, PC1, DAX1, SF-1, HESX-1, LHX3, PROP-1)...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209621/prominent-oncogenic-roles-of-evi1-in-breast-carcinoma
#17
Hui Wang, Thorsten Schaefer, Martina Konantz, Martin Braun, Zsuzsanna Varga, Anna M Paczulla, Selina Reich, Francis Jacob, Sven Perner, Holger Moch, Tanja N Fehm, Lothar Kanz, Klaus Schulze-Osthoff, Claudia Lengerke
Overexpression of the EVI1 oncogene is associated typically with aggressive myeloid leukemia, but is also detectable in breast carcinoma where its contributions are unexplored. Analyzing a tissue microarray of 608 breast carcinoma patient specimens, we documented EVI1 overexpression in both estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast carcinomas. Here, we report prognostic relevance of EVI1 overexpression in triple-negative breast carcinoma but not in the HER2-positive breast carcinoma subset...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194651/kisspeptin-10-inhibits-proliferation-and-regulates-lipolysis-and-lipogenesis-processes-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-isolated-rat-adipocytes
#18
Ewa Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Paweł A Kołodziejski, Maciej Sassek, Joanna H Sliwowska
INTRODUCTION: Kisspeptin, which is encoded by the KISS1 gene and acts via GPR54, plays a role in the regulation of reproductive functions. Expression of KISS1 and GRPR54 has been found in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, and was shown to be influenced by metabolic status. PURPOSE: We hypothesized that kisspeptin could be involved in regulation of lipid metabolism in the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line and in isolated rat adipocytes. METHODS: First, we characterized expression profiles of KISS1 and GPR54 mRNA and proteins in adipose cells isolated from male rats...
April 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139049/effect-of-supplements-during-the-cold-season-on-the-reproductive-system-in-prepubertal-tibetan-sheep-ewes
#19
Xiaoping Jing, Quanhui Peng, Rui Hu, Hongze Wang, Xiaoqiang Yu, Allan Degen, Huawei Zou, Shanke Bao, Suonan Zhao, Zhisheng Wang
We examined the development of the reproductive system in prepubertal Tibetan sheep ewes when fed only oat hay (CON) or supplemented with either lick blocks (BS) or concentrate feed (CS) during the cold season. The average daily gain of the CS ewes was greater than that of the BS ewes (P < 0.05), which was greater than that of the CON ewes. The same pattern was observed in the number of ovarian follicles (P < 0.001), that is, CS > BS > CON. Serum concentrations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteotrophic hormone, estradiol and progesterone in the CS and BS groups were higher than in the CON group (P < 0...
September 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981646/characterisation-of-kiss1r-gpr54-expressing-neurones-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-female-rat-hypothalamus
#20
S Higo, N Iijima, H Ozawa
Kisspeptin is essential in reproduction and acts by stimulating neurones expressing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Recent studies suggest that kisspeptin has multiple roles in the modulation of neuronal circuits in systems outside the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our recent research using in situ hybridisation (ISH) clarified the histological distribution of Kiss1r (Gpr54)-expressing neurones in the rat brain that were presumed to be putative targets of kisspeptin. The arcuate nucleus (ARN) of the hypothalamus is one of the brain regions in which Kiss1r expression in non-GnRH neurones is prominent...
February 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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