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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#1
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114569/cholinergic-receptor-alterations-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-spinal-cord-injured-rat
#2
R Chinthu, T R Anju, C S Paulose
Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement. Disturbances in cortical cholinergic system can affect locomotor coordination. Spinal cord injury causes severe motor impairment and disturbances in cholinergic signalling can aggravate the situation. Considering the impact of cortical cholinergic firing in locomotion, we focussed the study in understanding the cholinergic alterations in cerebral cortex during spinal cord injury. The gene expression of key enzymes in cholinergic pathway - acetylcholine esterase and choline acetyl transferase showed significant upregulation in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured group compared to control with the fold increase in expression of acetylcholine esterase prominently higher than cholineacetyl transferase...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112509/association-between-sensorimotor-impairments-and-functional-brain-changes-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-critical-review
#3
Nina Goossens, Sofie Rummens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Simon Brumagne
Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, e.g., reduced lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that sensorimotor impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the available fMRI studies on brain activation related to non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in individuals with LBP...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109238/extensive-tonotopic-mapping-across-auditory-cortex-is-recapitulated-by-spectrally-directed-attention-and-systematically-related-to-cortical-myeloarchitecture
#4
Frederic K Dick, Matt I Lehet, Martina F Callaghan, Tim A Keller, Martin I Sereno, Lori L Holt
Auditory selective attention is vital in natural soundscapes. But, it is unclear how attentional focus on the primary dimension of auditory representation - acoustic frequency - might modulate basic auditory functional topography during active listening. In contrast to visual selective attention, which is supported by motor-mediated optimization of input across saccades and pupil dilation, the primate auditory system has fewer means of differentially sampling the world. This makes spectrally-directed endogenous attention a particularly crucial aspect of auditory attention...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095902/rehabilitative-skilled-forelimb-training-enhances-axonal-remodeling-in-the-corticospinal-pathway-but-not-the-brainstem-spinal-pathways-after-photothrombotic-stroke-in-the-primary-motor-cortex
#5
Naohiko Okabe, Naoyuki Himi, Emi Maruyama-Nakamura, Norito Hayashi, Kazuhiko Narita, Osamu Miyamoto
Task-specific rehabilitative training is commonly used for chronic stroke patients. Axonal remodeling is believed to be one mechanism underlying rehabilitation-induced functional recovery, and significant roles of the corticospinal pathway have previously been demonstrated. Brainstem-spinal pathways, as well as the corticospinal tract, have been suggested to contribute to skilled motor function and functional recovery after brain injury. However, whether axonal remodeling in the brainstem-spinal pathways is a critical component for rehabilitation-induced functional recovery is not known...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092081/novel-findings-in-obstetric-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-study-of-corpus-callosum-volumetry-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-sensorimotor-network
#6
Kishore Kislay, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhananjaya Ishwar Bhat, Dhaval Prem Shukla, Arun Kumar Gupta, Rajanikant Panda
BACKGROUND: The response of the brain to obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is not clearly understood. We propose that even a peripheral insult at the developmental stage may result in changes in the volume of white matter of the brain, which we studied using corpus callosum volumetry and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) of sensorimotor network. OBJECTIVE: To study the central neural effects in OBPP. METHODS: We performed an MRI study on a cohort of 14 children who had OBPP and 14 healthy controls...
October 28, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074960/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-information-encoding-revealed-in-orbitofrontal-high-gamma
#7
Erin L Rich, Joni D Wallis
High-gamma signals mirror the tuning and temporal profiles of neurons near a recording electrode in sensory and motor areas. These frequencies appear to aggregate local neuronal activity, but it is unclear how this relationship affects information encoding in high-gamma activity (HGA) in cortical areas where neurons are heterogeneous in selectivity and temporal responses, and are not functionally clustered. Here we report that populations of neurons and HGA recorded from the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encode similar information, although there is little correspondence between signals recorded by the same electrode...
October 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060862/transcranial-cerebellar-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-brain-resting-state-oscillatory-and-network-activity
#8
M Petti, L Astolfi, M Masciullo, S Clausi, F Pichiorri, F Cincotti, D Mattia, M Molinari
Transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation (tcDCS) can offer new insights into the cerebellar function and disorders, by modulating noninvasively the activity of cerebellar networks. Taking into account the functional interplay between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, we addressed the effects of unilateral tcDCS (active electrode positioned over the right cerebellar hemisphere) on the electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity and on the cortical network organization at resting state...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060810/self-regulation-of-primary-motor-cortex-activity-with-motor-imagery-induces-functional-connectivity-modulation-a-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-study
#9
Meena M Makary, Eun Seulgi, Kyungmo Park
Recent developments in data acquisition of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to rapid preprocessing and analysis of brain activity in a quasireal-time basis, what so called real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NFB). This information is fed back to subjects allowing them to gain a voluntary control over their own region-specific brain activity. Forty-one healthy participants were randomized into an experimental (NFB) group, who received a feedback directly proportional to their brain activity from the primary motor cortex (M1), and a control (CTRL) group who received a sham feedback...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056451/the-lamprey-pallium-provides-a-blueprint-of-the-mammalian-layered-cortex
#10
Shreyas M Suryanarayana, Brita Robertson, Peter Wallén, Sten Grillner
The basic architecture of the mammalian neocortex is remarkably similar across species. Pallial structures in the reptilian brain are considered amniote precursors of mammalian neocortex, whereas pallia of anamniotes ("lower" vertebrates) have been deemed largely insignificant with respect to homology. Here, we examine the cytoarchitecture of the lateral pallium in the lamprey, the phylogenetically oldest group of extant vertebrates. We reveal a three-layered structure with similar excitatory cell types as in the mammalian cortex and GABAergic interneurons...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#11
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031913/chronic-pain-and-pain-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Pierre J Blanchet, Christine Brefel-Courbon
Pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients living with Parkinson's disease. It is most often of nociceptive origin, but may also be ascribed to neuropathic (radicular or central) or miscellaneous sources. The recently validated King's Parkinson's Disease Pain Scale is based on 7 domains including musculoskeletal pain, chronic body pain (central or visceral), fluctuation-related pain, nocturnal pain, oro-facial pain, pain with discolouration/oedema/swelling, and radicular pain. The basal ganglia integrate incoming nociceptive information and contribute to coordinated motor responses in pain avoidance and nocifensive behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031510/pain-and-consciousness
#13
REVIEW
Luis Garcia-Larrea, Hélène Bastuji
The aversive experience we call "pain" results from the coordinated activation of multiple brain areas, commonly described as a "pain matrix". This is not a fixed arrangement of structures but rather a fluid system composed of several interacting networks: A 'nociceptive matrix' includes regions receiving input from ascending nociceptive systems, and ensures the bodily characteristics of physical pain. A further set of structures receiving secondary input supports the 'salience' attributes of noxious stimuli, triggers top-down cognitive controls, and -most importantly- ensures the passage from pre-conscious nociception to conscious pain...
October 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#14
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#15
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018655/the-involvement-of-sensory-motor-networks-in-reflex-seizure
#16
Hime Suzuki, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Takashi Murahara, Shogo Yazawa, Hideaki Shiraishi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific external stimuli, or less commonly, internal mental stimuli. Understanding the characteristics of reflex seizures is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying network abnormalities in epileptic conditions. This report details a patient with medically intractable reflex seizures provoked by sensory stimuli to the patient's right foot. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the seizure induced by sensory stimulation showed hyperperfusion in broad sensory-motor networks (dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, left thalamus, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior parietal cortices, left supplementary motor area (SMA), and left paracentral lobule) and left caudateputamen...
October 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986148/brain-activity-unique-to-orgasm-in-women-an-fmri-analysis
#17
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: Although the literature on imaging of regional brain activity during sexual arousal in women and men is extensive and largely consistent, that on orgasm is relatively limited and variable, owing in part to the methodologic challenges posed by variability in latency to orgasm in participants and head movement. AIM: To compare brain activity at orgasm (self- and partner-induced) with that at the onset of genital stimulation, immediately before the onset of orgasm, and immediately after the cessation of orgasm and to upgrade the methodology for obtaining and analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985566/brain-wide-maps-reveal-stereotyped-cell-type-based-cortical-architecture-and-subcortical-sexual-dimorphism
#18
Yongsoo Kim, Guangyu Robert Yang, Kith Pradhan, Kannan Umadevi Venkataraju, Mihail Bota, Luis Carlos García Del Molino, Greg Fitzgerald, Keerthi Ram, Miao He, Jesse Maurica Levine, Partha Mitra, Z Josh Huang, Xiao-Jing Wang, Pavel Osten
The stereotyped features of neuronal circuits are those most likely to explain the remarkable capacity of the brain to process information and govern behaviors, yet it has not been possible to comprehensively quantify neuronal distributions across animals or genders due to the size and complexity of the mammalian brain. Here we apply our quantitative brain-wide (qBrain) mapping platform to document the stereotyped distributions of mainly inhibitory cell types. We discover an unexpected cortical organizing principle: sensory-motor areas are dominated by output-modulating parvalbumin-positive interneurons, whereas association, including frontal, areas are dominated by input-modulating somatostatin-positive interneurons...
October 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970785/multiple-transmitter-receptors-in-regions-and-layers-of-the-human-cerebral-cortex
#19
Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
We measured the densities (fmol/mg protein) of 15 different receptors of various transmitter systems in the supragranular, granular and infragranular strata of 44 areas of visual, somatosensory, auditory and multimodal association systems of the human cerebral cortex. Receptor densities were obtained after labeling of the receptors using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography in human postmortem brains. The mean density of each receptor type over all cortical layers and of each of the three major strata varies between cortical regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966644/cortical-activation-pattern-during-shoulder-simple-versus-vibration-exercises-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo, Seung Hyun Lee, Sang Hyun Jin, Mi Young Lee
To date, the cortical effect of exercise has not been fully elucidated. Using the functional near infrared spectroscopy, we attempted to compare the cortical effect between shoulder vibration exercise and shoulder simple exercise. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Two different exercise tasks (shoulder vibration exercise using the flexible pole and shoulder simple exercise) were performed using a block paradigm. We measured the values of oxygenated hemoglobin in the four regions of interest: the primary sensory-motor cortex (SM1 total, arm somatotopy, and leg and trunk somatotopy), the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the prefrontal cortex...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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