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cortical sensory motor areas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891099/reduced-phrenic-motoneuron-recruitment-during-sustained-inspiratory-threshold-loading-compared-to-single-breath-loading-a-twitch-interpolation-study
#1
Mathieu Raux, Alexandre Demoule, Stefania Redolfi, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski
In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#2
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862192/long-distance-projections-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#3
REVIEW
Charles R Gerfen, Michael N Economo, Jayaram Chandrashekar
The neuronal circuits defined by the axonal projections of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex are responsible for processing sensory and other information to plan and execute behavior. Subtypes of cortical pyramidal neurons are organized across layers, with those in different layers distinguished by their patterns of axonal projections and connectivity. For example, those in layers 2 and 3 project between cortical areas to integrate sensory and other information with motor areas; while those in layers 5 and 6 also integrate information between cortical areas, but also project to subcortical structures involved in the generation of behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860375/differential-impairment-of-thalamocortical-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Jiu-Quan Zhang, Bing Ji, Chao-Yang Zhou, Long-Chuan Li, Zhi-Hao Li, Xiao-Ping Hu, Jun Hu
AIMS: The thalamus is a major relay station that modulates input from many cortical areas and a filter for sensory input and is involved in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it still remains unclear whether all thalamocortical networks are affected or whether there is selective vulnerability. In this study, we aimed to study the selective vulnerability of different thalamocortical structural connections in ALS and to test the hypothesis of a specific impairment in motor-related thalamocortical connectivity...
November 12, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#5
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846398/cortical-activation-during-balancing-on-a-balance-board
#6
Fabian Herold, Katja Orlowski, Sabrina Börmel, Notger G Müller
BACKGROUND: Keeping one's balance is a complex motor task which requires the integration and processing of different sensory information. For this, higher cortical processes are essential. However, in the past research dedicated to the brain's involvement in balance control has predominantly used virtual reality paradigms whilst little is known about cortical activation during the challenging balancing on unstable surfaces (e.g. balance board). Hence, the main goal of this study was the simultaneous evaluation of cortical activation patterns and sway parameters during balancing on a balance board...
November 12, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#7
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818789/early-experiences-can-alter-the-size-of-cortical-fields-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#8
A M H Seelke, S-M Yuan, A M Perkeybile, L A Krubitzer, K L Bales
The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth...
August 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791966/activation-of-sensory-cortex-by-imagined-genital-stimulation-an-fmri-analysis
#9
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. OBJECTIVE: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. DESIGN: Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791099/situating-the-default-mode-network-along-a-principal-gradient-of-macroscale-cortical-organization
#10
Daniel S Margulies, Satrajit S Ghosh, Alexandros Goulas, Marcel Falkiewicz, Julia M Huntenburg, Georg Langs, Gleb Bezgin, Simon B Eickhoff, F Xavier Castellanos, Michael Petrides, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Understanding how the structure of cognition arises from the topographical organization of the cortex is a primary goal in neuroscience. Previous work has described local functional gradients extending from perceptual and motor regions to cortical areas representing more abstract functions, but an overarching framework for the association between structure and function is still lacking. Here, we show that the principal gradient revealed by the decomposition of connectivity data in humans and the macaque monkey is anchored by, at one end, regions serving primary sensory/motor functions and at the other end, transmodal regions that, in humans, are known as the default-mode network (DMN)...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771498/ephrinb3-restricts-endogenous-neural-stem-cell-migration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
September 28, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767240/a-somatosensory-to-motor-cascade-of-cortical-areas-engaged-in-perceptual-decision-making-during-tactile-pattern-discrimination
#12
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749828/organization-of-long-range-inputs-and-outputs-of-frontal-cortex-for-top-down-control
#13
Siyu Zhang, Min Xu, Wei-Cheng Chang, Chenyan Ma, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Daniel Jeong, Tiffany Lei, Jiang Lan Fan, Yang Dan
Long-range projections from the frontal cortex are known to modulate sensory processing in multiple modalities. Although the mouse has become an increasingly important animal model for studying the circuit basis of behavior, the functional organization of its frontal cortical long-range connectivity remains poorly characterized. Here we used virus-assisted circuit mapping to identify the brain networks for top-down modulation of visual, somatosensory and auditory processing. The visual cortex is reciprocally connected to the anterior cingulate area, whereas the somatosensory and auditory cortices are connected to the primary and secondary motor cortices...
December 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744289/temporal-evolution-of-target-representation-movement-direction-planning-and-reach-execution-in-occipital-parietal-frontal-cortex-an-fmri-study
#14
David C Cappadocia, Simona Monaco, Ying Chen, Gunnar Blohm, J Douglas Crawford
The cortical mechanisms for reach have been studied extensively, but directionally selective mechanisms for visuospatial target memory, movement planning, and movement execution have not been clearly differentiated in the human. We used an event-related fMRI design with a visuospatial memory delay, followed by a pro-/anti-reach instruction, a planning delay, and finally a "go" instruction for movement. This sequence yielded temporally separable preparatory responses that expanded from modest parieto-frontal activation for visual target memory to broad occipital-parietal-frontal activation during planning and execution...
October 15, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732573/cortico-fugal-output-from-visual-cortex-promotes-plasticity-of-innate-motor-behaviour
#15
Bao-Hua Liu, Andrew D Huberman, Massimo Scanziani
The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision...
October 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723764/a-neural-code-that-is-isometric-to-vocal-output-and-correlates-with-its-sensory-consequences
#16
Alexei L Vyssotski, Anna E Stepien, Georg B Keller, Richard H R Hahnloser
What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns...
October 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722789/availability-of-vision-and-tactile-gating-vision-enhances-tactile-sensitivity
#17
Francisco L Colino, Ji-Hang Lee, Gordon Binsted
A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector...
October 8, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717064/high-order-motor-cortex-in-rats-receives-somatosensory-inputs-from-the-primary-motor-cortex-via-cortico-cortical-pathways
#18
Nobuo Kunori, Ichiro Takashima
The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690117/effect-of-experimental-cutaneous-hand-pain-on-corticospinal-excitability-and-short-afferent-inhibition
#19
Catherine Mercier, Martin Gagné, Karen T Reilly, Laurent J Bouyer
Sensorimotor integration is altered in people with chronic pain. While there is substantial evidence that pain interferes with neural activity in primary sensory and motor cortices, much less is known about its impact on integrative sensorimotor processes. Here, the short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm was used to assess sensorimotor integration in the presence and absence of experimental cutaneous heat pain applied to the hand. Ulnar nerve stimulation was combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation to condition motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous muscle...
2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664033/altered-resting-state-signals-in-patients-with-acute-stroke-in-or-under-the-thalamus
#20
Lijun Chen, Chuanfu Li, Jian Zhai, Anqin Wang, Qin Song, Ying Liu, Ru Ma, Long Han, Yamikani Ndasauka, Xiaoming Li, Hai Li, Xiaochu Zhang
Previous studies have suggested that cortical functional reorganization is associated with motor recovery after stroke and that normal afferent sensory information is very important in that process. In this study, we selected patients who had a stroke in or under the thalamus, with potentially impaired afferent sensory information and analyzed the differences between these patients and healthy controls at three levels: brain regions, the functional connectivity between brain areas, and the whole-brain functional network...
December 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
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