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cortical sensory motor areas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073936/human-exploration-of-enclosed-spaces-through-echolocation
#1
Virginia L Flanagin, Sven Schörnich, Michael Schranner, Nadine Hummel, Ludwig Wallmeier, Magnus Wahlberg, Thomas Stephan, Lutz Wiegrebe
: Some blind humans have developed echolocation, as a method of navigation in space. Echolocation is a truly active sense because subjects analyze echoes of dedicated, self-generated sounds to assess space around them. Using a special virtual space technique we assess how humans perceive enclosed spaces through echolocation, thereby revealing the interplay between sensory and vocal-motor neural activity while humans perform this task. Sighted subjects were trained to detect small changes in virtual room size analyzing real-time generated echoes of their vocalizations...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062251/opioid-suppression-of-conditioned-anticipatory-brain-responses-to-breathlessness
#2
Anja Hayen, Vishvarani Wanigasekera, Olivia K Faull, Stewart F Campbell, Payashi S Garry, Simon J M Raby, Josephine Robertson, Ruth Webster, Richard G Wise, Mari Herigstad, Kyle T S Pattinson
Opioid painkillers are a promising treatment for chronic breathlessness, but are associated with potentially fatal side effects. In the treatment of breathlessness, their mechanisms of action are unclear. A better understanding might help to identify safer alternatives. Learned associations between previously neutral stimuli (e.g. stairs) and repeated breathlessness induce an anticipatory threat response that may worsen breathlessness, contributing to the downward spiral of decline seen in clinical populations...
January 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#3
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003406/interfacing-to-the-brain-s-motor-decisions
#4
Giovanni Mirabella, Mikhail A Lebedev
It has been long known that neural activity, recorded with electrophysiological methods, contains rich information about a subject's motor intentions, sensory experiences, allocation of attention, action planning, and even abstract thoughts. All these functions have been the subject of neurophysiological investigations, with the goal of understanding how neuronal activity represents behavioral parameters, sensory inputs, and cognitive functions. The field of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) strives for a somewhat different goal: it endeavors to extract information from neural modulations to create a communication link between the brain and external devices...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999537/nonlinear-coupling-between-cortical-oscillations-and-muscle-activity-during-isotonic-wrist-flexion
#5
Yuan Yang, Teodoro Solis-Escalante, Mark van de Ruit, Frans C T van der Helm, Alfred C Schouten
Coupling between cortical oscillations and muscle activity facilitates neuronal communication during motor control. The linear part of this coupling, known as corticomuscular coherence, has received substantial attention, even though neuronal communication underlying motor control has been demonstrated to be highly nonlinear. A full assessment of corticomuscular coupling, including the nonlinear part, is essential to understand the neuronal communication within the sensorimotor system. In this study, we applied the recently developed n:m coherence method to assess nonlinear corticomuscular coupling during isotonic wrist flexion...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993673/propofol-attenuates-low-frequency-fluctuations-of-resting-state-fmri-bold-signal-in-the-anterior-frontal-cortex-upon-loss-of-consciousness
#6
Xiaolin Liu, Kathryn K Lauer, B Douglas Ward, Christopher Roberts, Suyan Liu, Suneeta Gollapudy, Robert Rohloff, William Gross, Guangyu Chen, Zhan Xu, Jeffrey R Binder, Shi-Jiang Li, Anthony G Hudetz
Recent studies indicate that spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals are driven by the slow (<0.1Hz) modulation of ongoing neuronal activity synchronized locally and across remote brain regions. How regional LFFs of the BOLD fMRI signal are altered during anesthetic-induced alteration of consciousness is not well understood. Using rs-fMRI in 15 healthy participants, we show that during administration of propofol to achieve loss of behavioral responsiveness indexing unconsciousness, the fractional amplitude of LFF (fALFF index) was reduced in comparison to wakeful baseline in the anterior frontal regions, temporal pole, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala...
December 16, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939089/the-resolve-trial-for-people-with-chronic-low-back-pain-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#7
Matthew K Bagg, Markus Hübscher, Martin Rabey, Benedict M Wand, Edel O'Hagan, G Lorimer Moseley, Tasha R Stanton, Chris G Maher, Stephen Goodall, Sopany Saing, Neil E O'Connell, Hannu Luomajoki, James H McAuley
INTRODUCTION: Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of disability, and results in significant personal hardship. Most available treatments, when tested in high-quality randomised, controlled trials, achieve only modest improvements in pain, at best. Recently, treatments that target central nervous system function have been developed and tested in small studies. Combining treatments that target central nervous system function with traditional treatments directed towards functioning of the back is a promising approach that has yet to be tested in adequately powered, prospectively registered, clinical trials...
January 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#8
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891099/reduced-phrenic-motoneuron-recruitment-during-sustained-inspiratory-threshold-loading-compared-to-single-breath-loading-a-twitch-interpolation-study
#9
Mathieu Raux, Alexandre Demoule, Stefania Redolfi, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski
In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#10
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862192/long-distance-projections-of-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Charles R Gerfen, Michael N Economo, Jayaram Chandrashekar
The neuronal circuits defined by the axonal projections of pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex are responsible for processing sensory and other information to plan and execute behavior. Subtypes of cortical pyramidal neurons are organized across layers, with those in different layers distinguished by their patterns of axonal projections and connectivity. For example, those in layers 2 and 3 project between cortical areas to integrate sensory and other information with motor areas; while those in layers 5 and 6 also integrate information between cortical areas, but also project to subcortical structures involved in the generation of behavior...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860375/differential-impairment-of-thalamocortical-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Jiu-Quan Zhang, Bing Ji, Chao-Yang Zhou, Long-Chuan Li, Zhi-Hao Li, Xiao-Ping Hu, Jun Hu
AIMS: The thalamus is a major relay station that modulates input from many cortical areas and a filter for sensory input and is involved in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it still remains unclear whether all thalamocortical networks are affected or whether there is selective vulnerability. In this study, we aimed to study the selective vulnerability of different thalamocortical structural connections in ALS and to test the hypothesis of a specific impairment in motor-related thalamocortical connectivity...
November 12, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852021/-neuroanatomy-of-the-parietal-association-areas
#13
Yasushi Kobayashi
The parietal association cortex comprises the superior and inferior parietal lobules, the precuneus and the cortices in the intraparietal, parietooccipital and lunate sulci. By processing somatic, visual, acoustic and vestibular sensory information, the parietal association cortex plays a pivotal role in spatial cognition and motor control of the eyes and the extremities. Sensory information from the primary and secondary somatosensory areas enters the superior parietal lobule and is transferred to the inferior parietal lobule...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846398/cortical-activation-during-balancing-on-a-balance-board
#14
Fabian Herold, Katja Orlowski, Sabrina Börmel, Notger G Müller
BACKGROUND: Keeping one's balance is a complex motor task which requires the integration and processing of different sensory information. For this, higher cortical processes are essential. However, in the past research dedicated to the brain's involvement in balance control has predominantly used virtual reality paradigms whilst little is known about cortical activation during the challenging balancing on unstable surfaces (e.g. balance board). Hence, the main goal of this study was the simultaneous evaluation of cortical activation patterns and sway parameters during balancing on a balance board...
November 12, 2016: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824897/functional-plasticity-after-unilateral-vestibular-midbrain-infarction-in-human-positron-emission-tomography
#15
Sandra Becker-Bense, Hans-Georg Buchholz, Bernhard Baier, Mathias Schreckenberger, Peter Bartenstein, Andreas Zwergal, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
The aim of the study was to uncover mechanisms of central compensation of vestibular function at brainstem, cerebellar, and cortical levels in patients with acute unilateral midbrain infarctions presenting with an acute vestibular tone imbalance. Eight out of 17 patients with unilateral midbrain infarctions were selected on the basis of signs of a vestibular tone imbalance, e.g., graviceptive (tilts of perceived verticality) and oculomotor dysfunction (skew deviation, ocular torsion) in F18-fluordeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET at two time points: A) in the acute stage, and B) after recovery 6 months later...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818789/early-experiences-can-alter-the-size-of-cortical-fields-in-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#16
A M H Seelke, S-M Yuan, A M Perkeybile, L A Krubitzer, K L Bales
The neocortex of the prairie vole is composed of three well-defined sensory areas and one motor area: primary somatosensory, visual, auditory areas and the primary motor area respectively. The boundaries of these cortical areas are identifiable very early in development, and have been thought to resist alteration by all but the most extreme physical or genetic manipulations. Here we assessed the extent to which the boundaries of sensory/motor cortical areas can be altered by exposing young prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to a chronic stimulus, high or low levels of parental contact, or an acute stimulus, a single dose of saline, oxytocin (OT), or oxytocin antagonist on the day of birth...
August 2016: Environmental Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791966/activation-of-sensory-cortex-by-imagined-genital-stimulation-an-fmri-analysis
#17
Nan J Wise, Eleni Frangos, Barry R Komisaruk
BACKGROUND: During the course of a previous study, our laboratory made a serendipitous finding that just thinking about genital stimulation resulted in brain activations that overlapped with, and differed from, those generated by physical genital stimulation. OBJECTIVE: This study extends our previous findings by further characterizing how the brain differentially processes physical 'touch' stimulation and 'imagined' stimulation. DESIGN: Eleven healthy women (age range 29-74) participated in an fMRI study of the brain response to imagined or actual tactile stimulation of the nipple and clitoris...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791099/situating-the-default-mode-network-along-a-principal-gradient-of-macroscale-cortical-organization
#18
Daniel S Margulies, Satrajit S Ghosh, Alexandros Goulas, Marcel Falkiewicz, Julia M Huntenburg, Georg Langs, Gleb Bezgin, Simon B Eickhoff, F Xavier Castellanos, Michael Petrides, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
Understanding how the structure of cognition arises from the topographical organization of the cortex is a primary goal in neuroscience. Previous work has described local functional gradients extending from perceptual and motor regions to cortical areas representing more abstract functions, but an overarching framework for the association between structure and function is still lacking. Here, we show that the principal gradient revealed by the decomposition of connectivity data in humans and the macaque monkey is anchored by, at one end, regions serving primary sensory/motor functions and at the other end, transmodal regions that, in humans, are known as the default-mode network (DMN)...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771498/ephrinb3-restricts-endogenous-neural-stem-cell-migration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Kirsty J Dixon, Jose Mier, Shyam Gajavelli, Alisa Turbic, Ross Bullock, Ann M Turnley, Daniel J Liebl
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS)...
November 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767240/a-somatosensory-to-motor-cascade-of-cortical-areas-engaged-in-perceptual-decision-making-during-tactile-pattern-discrimination
#20
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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