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cortical sensory motor areas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340757/comparing-brain-activity-patterns-during-spontaneous-exploratory-and-cue-instructed-learning-using-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-freely-behaving-rats
#1
A Mannewitz, J Bock, S Kreitz, A Hess, J Goldschmidt, H Scheich, Katharina Braun
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities...
January 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#2
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#3
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323046/non-concomitant-cortical-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-sensorimotor-areas-following-incomplete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Yu Pan, Wei-Bei Dou, Yue-Heng Wang, Hui-Wen Luo, Yun-Xiang Ge, Shu-Yu Yan, Quan Xu, Yuan-Yuan Tu, Yan-Qing Xiao, Qiong Wu, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Hong-Liang Zhao
Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11) and 18 healthy subjects (37...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322527/thalamo-cortical-projections-to-the-macaque-superior-parietal-lobule-areas-pec-and-pe
#5
Daniele Impieri, Michela Gamberini, Lauretta Passarelli, Marcello G P Rosa, Claudio Galletti
The exposed surface of the superior parietal lobule in macaque brain contains two architectonically defined areas named PEc and PE. The aim of the present study is the characterization of thalamic afferents of these two areas. For this purpose, retrograde neuronal tracers were injected, or placed in crystal form, in areas PEc and PE. We found that the two areas show a similar pattern of thalamic inputs, mainly originating from Lateral Posterior (LP), Pulvinar (Pul), Ventral Posterior Lateral (VPL), and Ventral Lateral (VL) nuclei, all structures known to be involved in visual, somatosensory, and/or sensorimotor processing...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321712/sensorimotor-integration-during-motor-learning-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-studies
#6
REVIEW
Zeliha Matur, A Emre Öge
The effect of sensory signals coming from skin and muscle afferents on the sensorimotor cortical networks is entitled as sensory-motor integration (SMI). SMI can be studied electrophysiologically by the motor cortex excitability changes in response to peripheral sensory stimulation. These changes include the periods of short afferent inhibition (SAI), afferent facilitation (AF), and late afferent inhibition (LAI). During the early period of motor skill acquisition, motor cortex excitability increases and changes occur in the area covered by the relevant zone of the motor cortex...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317192/abnormal-cortical-brain-integration-of-somatosensory-afferents-in-als
#7
Sina Sangari, Alain Giron, Guillaume Marrelec, Pierre-François Pradat, Véronique Marchand-Pauvert
OBJECTIVES: Infraclinical sensory alterations have been reported at early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While previous studies mainly focused on early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), late SEPs, which reflect on cortical pathways involved in cognitive-motor functions, are relatively underinvestigated. Early and late SEPs were compared to assess their alterations in ALS. METHODS: Median and ulnar nerves were electrically stimulated at the wrist, at 9 times the perceptual threshold, in 21 ALS patients without clinical evidence of sensory deficits, and 21 age- and gender-matched controls...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259118/generation-of-a-whole-brain-atlas-for-the-cholinergic-system-and-mesoscopic-projectome-analysis-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#8
Xiangning Li, Bin Yu, Qingtao Sun, Yalun Zhang, Miao Ren, Xiaoyan Zhang, Anan Li, Jing Yuan, Linda Madisen, Qingming Luo, Hongkui Zeng, Hui Gong, Zilong Qiu
The cholinergic system in the brain plays crucial roles in regulating sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive behaviors by modulating neuronal activity. Understanding the organization of the cholinergic system requires a complete map of cholinergic neurons and their axon arborizations throughout the entire brain at the level of single neurons. Here, we report a comprehensive whole-brain atlas of the cholinergic system originating from various cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. Using genetically labeled cholinergic neurons together with whole-brain reconstruction of optical images at 2-μm resolution, we obtained quantification of the number and soma volume of cholinergic neurons in 22 brain areas...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251836/longitudinal-development-of-thalamic-and-internal-capsule-microstructure-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Kristine McLaughlin, Brittany G Travers, Olga I Dadalko, Douglas C Dean, Do Tromp, Nagesh Adluru, Daniel Destiche, Abigail Freeman, Molly D Prigge, Alyson Froehlich, Tyler C Duffield, Brandon A Zielinski, Erin D Bigler, Nicholas Lange, Jeff S Anderson, Andrew L Alexander, Janet E Lainhart
The thalamus is a key sensorimotor relay area that is implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown how the thalamus and white-matter structures that contain thalamo-cortical fiber connections (e.g., the internal capsule) develop from childhood into adulthood and whether this microstructure relates to basic motor challenges in ASD. We used diffusion weighted imaging in a cohort-sequential design to assess longitudinal development of the thalamus, and posterior- and anterior-limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC and ALIC, respectively) in 89 males with ASD and 56 males with typical development (3-41 years; all verbal)...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249287/reward-based-learning-drives-rapid-sensory-signals-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsal-hippocampus-necessary-for-goal-directed-behavior
#10
Pierre Le Merre, Vahid Esmaeili, Eloïse Charrière, Katia Galan, Paul-A Salin, Carl C H Petersen, Sylvain Crochet
The neural circuits underlying learning and execution of goal-directed behaviors remain to be determined. Here, through electrophysiological recordings, we investigated fast sensory processing across multiple cortical areas as mice learned to lick a reward spout in response to a brief deflection of a single whisker. Sensory-evoked signals were absent from medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus in naive mice, but developed with task learning and correlated with behavioral performance in mice trained in the detection task...
December 12, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222423/voluntary-modulation-of-mental-effort-investment-an-fmri-study
#11
Omar T Khachouf, Gang Chen, Davide Duzzi, Carlo A Porro, Giuseppe Pagnoni
Mental effort is a common phenomenological construct deeply linked to volition and self-control. While it is often assumed that the amount of exertion invested in a task can be voluntarily regulated, the neural bases of such faculty and its behavioural effects are yet insufficiently understood. In this study, we investigated how the instructions to execute a demanding cognitive task either "with maximum exertion" or "as relaxed as possible" affected performance and brain activity. The maximum exertion condition, compared to relaxed execution, was associated with speeded motor responses without an accuracy trade-off, and an amplification of both task-related activations in dorsal frontoparietal and cerebellar regions, and task-related deactivations in default mode network (DMN) areas...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218004/decoding-of-self-paced-lower-limb-movement-intention-a-case-study-on-the-influence-factors
#12
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Zhongcai Pei, José Del R Millán
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been applied as new rehabilitation tools for motor disabled individuals. Active involvement of cerebral activity has been shown to enhance neuroplasticity and thus to restore mobility. Various studies have focused on the detection of upper-limb movement intention, while the fewer study has investigated the lower-limb movement intention decoding. This study presents a BMI to decode the self-paced lower-limb movement intention, with 10 healthy subjects participating in the experiment...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194849/somatotopic-effects-of-rtms-in-neuropathic-pain-a-comparison-between-stimulation-over-hand-and-face-motor-areas
#13
N Andre-Obadia, M Magnin, E Simon, L Garcia-Larrea
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic influence of somatotopic matching between pain topography and motor cortex stimulation site for neuropathic pain (NP) remains controversial. METHODS: Thirty-two patients suffering from NP involving the upper limb (n = 20) or the face (n = 12) received two high-frequency rTMS neuronavigated sessions targeting hand and face motor cortical areas, versus placebo. The cortical target was defined by anatomical MRI and EMG responses in all patients, completed in 19 of them by functional MRI...
December 1, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190334/the-ventral-posterior-lateral-thalamus-preferentially-encodes-externally-applied-versus-active-movement-implications-for-self-motion-perception
#14
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182648/the-neural-response-properties-and-cortical-organization-of-a-rapidly-adapting-muscle-sensory-group-response-that-overlaps-with-the-frequencies-that-elicit-the-kinesthetic-illusion
#15
Paul D Marasco, Dennis J Bourbeau, Courtney E Shell, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Jason G Ina
Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175055/cortical-morphometric-changes-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Raffaele Nardone, Yvonne Höller, Luca Sebastianelli, Viviana Versace, Leopold Saltuari, Francesco Brigo, Piergiorgio Lochner, Eugen Trinka
Neuroimaging studies suggest that spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to significant anatomical alterations in the human sensorimotor system. In particular, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of cortical volume has revealed a significant gray and white matter atrophy bilaterally in the primary sensory cortex (S1). By contrast, some structural studies failed to detect changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the primary motor cortex (M1) following SCI, whereas others have reported a substantial decrease of GMV also in M1...
November 23, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163078/natural-translating-locomotion-modulates-cortical-activity-at-action-observation
#17
Thierry Pozzo, Alberto Inuggi, Alejo Keuroghlanian, Stefano Panzeri, Ghislain Saunier, Claudio Campus
The present study verified if the translational component of locomotion modulated cortical activity recorded at action observation. Previous studies focusing on visual processing of biological motion mainly presented point light walker that were fixed on a spot, thus removing the net translation toward a goal that yet remains a critical feature of locomotor behavior. We hypothesized that if biological motion recognition relies on the transformation of seeing in doing and its expected sensory consequences, a significant effect of translation compared to centered displays on sensorimotor cortical activity is expected...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155276/cortical-plasticity-as-a-basis-of-phantom-limb-pain-fact-or-fiction
#18
J Andoh, C Milde, J W Tsao, H Flor
Cortical reorganization has been proposed as a major factor involved in phantom pain with prior nociceptive input to the deafferented region and input from the non-deafferented cortex creating neuronal activity that is perceived as phantom pain. There is substantial evidence that these processes play a role in neuropathic pain, although causal evidence is lacking. Recently it has been suggested that a maintenance of the cortical representation of the former hand area is related to phantom pain. Although interesting, evidence for this process is so far scarce...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134944/distinct-spatial-coordinate-of-visual-and-vestibular-heading-signals-in-macaque-fefsem-and-mstd
#19
Lihua Yang, Yong Gu
Precise heading estimate requires integration of visual optic flow and vestibular inertial motion originating from distinct spatial coordinates (eye- and head-centered, respectively). To explore whether the two heading signals may share a common reference frame along the hierarchy of cortical stages, we explored two multisensory areas in macaques: the smooth pursuit area of the frontal eye field (FEFsem) closer to the motor side, and the dorsal portion of medial superior temporal area (MSTd) closer to the sensory side...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114569/cholinergic-receptor-alterations-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-spinal-cord-injured-rat
#20
R Chinthu, T R Anju, C S Paulose
Many areas of the cerebral cortex process sensory information or coordinate motor output necessary for control of movement. Disturbances in cortical cholinergic system can affect locomotor coordination. Spinal cord injury causes severe motor impairment and disturbances in cholinergic signalling can aggravate the situation. Considering the impact of cortical cholinergic firing in locomotion, we focussed the study in understanding the cholinergic alterations in cerebral cortex during spinal cord injury. The gene expression of key enzymes in cholinergic pathway - acetylcholine esterase and choline acetyl transferase showed significant upregulation in the cerebral cortex of spinal cord injured group compared to control with the fold increase in expression of acetylcholine esterase prominently higher than cholineacetyl transferase...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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