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cortical sensory motor areas

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766764/local-cortical-activity-of-distant-brain-areas-can-phase-lock-to-the-olfactory-bulb-s-respiratory-rhythm-in-the-freely-behaving-rat
#1
Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Jonathan Wimmer Del Solar, Marcelo Aguilar-Rivera, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Pedro Esteban Maldonado
An important unresolved question about neural processing is the mechanism by which distant brain areas coordinate their activities and relate their local processing to global neural events. A potential candidate for the local-global integration are slow rhythms such as respiration. In this article, we asked if there are modulations of local cortical processing which are phase-locked to (peripheral) sensory-motor exploratory rhythms. We studied rats on an elevated platform where they would spontaneously display exploratory and rest behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763635/cortical-thickness-and-gyrification-patterns-in-patients-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures
#2
Marco Mcsweeney, Markus Reuber, Nigel Hoggard, Liat Levita
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are often viewed as manifestations of altered motor and sensory function resulting from psychological responses to adverse experiences. Yet many patients and non-expert healthcare professionals find it difficult to understand how severe disturbances in normal neurological functioning can solely result from underlying psychological mechanisms to the exclusion of other physical causes. Perhaps importantly, recent advances using neuroimaging techniques point to possible structural and functional correlates in PNES...
May 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751242/local-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Yange Wei, Miao Chang, Fay Y Womer, Qian Zhou, Zhiyang Yin, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Xudong Yao, Jia Duan, Ke Xu, Xi-Nian Zuo, Yanqing Tang, Fei Wang
BACKGROUND: Local functional connectivity (FC) indicates local or short-distance functional interactions and may serve as a neuroimaging marker to investigate the human brain connectome. Local FC alterations suggest a disrupted balance in the local functionality of the whole brain network and are increasingly implicated in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: We aim to examine the similarities and differences in the local FC across SZ, BD, and MDD...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737490/regional-entropy-of-functional-imaging-signals-varies-differently-in-sensory-and-cognitive-systems-during-propofol-modulated-loss-and-return-of-behavioral-responsiveness
#4
Xiaolin Liu, Kathryn K Lauer, B Douglas Ward, Christopher J Roberts, Suyan Liu, Suneeta Gollapudy, Robert Rohloff, William Gross, Zhan Xu, Shanshan Chen, Lubin Wang, Zheng Yang, Shi-Jiang Li, Jeffrey R Binder, Anthony G Hudetz
The level and richness of consciousness depend on information integration in the brain. Altered interregional functional interactions may indicate disrupted information integration during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. How anesthetics modulate the amount of information in various brain regions has received less attention. Here, we propose a novel approach to quantify regional information content in the brain by the entropy of the principal components of regional blood oxygen-dependent imaging signals during graded propofol sedation...
May 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730536/differences-in-response-inhibition-processes-between-adolescents-and-adults-are-modulated-by-sensory-processes
#5
Benjamin Bodmer, Julia Friedrich, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Response inhibition processes undergo strong developmental changes. The same is true for sensory processes, and recent evidence shows that there also within-modality differences in the efficacy to trigger motor response inhibition. Yet, modulatory effects of within-modality differences during age-related changes in response inhibition between adolescence and adulthood are still indeterminate. We investigated this question in a system neurophysiological approach combining analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs) with temporal EEG signal decomposition and source localization processes...
April 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704748/developmental-interactions-between-thalamus-and-cortex-a-true-love-reciprocal-story
#6
REVIEW
Noelia Antón-Bolaños, Ana Espinosa, Guillermina López-Bendito
The developmental programs that control the specification of cortical and thalamic territories are maintained largely as independent processes. However, bulk of evidence demonstrates the requirement of the reciprocal interactions between cortical and thalamic neurons as key for the correct development of functional thalamocortical circuits. This reciprocal loop of connections is essential for sensory processing as well as for the execution of complex sensory-motor tasks. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how mutual collaborations between both brain regions define area patterning and cell differentiation in the thalamus and cortex...
April 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702087/out-of-focus-brain-attention-control-deficits-in-adult-adhd
#7
Juha Salmi, Viljami Salmela, Emma Salo, Katri Mikkola, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Laura Hokkanen, Marja Laasonen, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701820/cerebello-cortical-network-fingerprints-differ-between-essential-parkinson-s-and-mimicked-tremors
#8
Muthuraman Muthuraman, Jan Raethjen, Nabin Koirala, Abdul Rauf Anwar, Kidist G Mideksa, Rodger Elble, Sergiu Groppa, Günter Deuschl
Cerebello-thalamo-cortical loops play a major role in the emergence of pathological tremors and voluntary rhythmic movements. It is unclear whether these loops differ anatomically or functionally in different types of tremor. We compared age- and sex-matched groups of patients with Parkinson's disease or essential tremor and healthy controls (n = 34 per group). High-density 256-channel EEG and multi-channel EMG from extensor and flexor muscles of both wrists were recorded simultaneously while extending the hands against gravity with the forearms supported...
April 26, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621826/cognitive-functions-of-the-fetus
#9
Aida Salihagic Kadic, Asim Kurjak
The human brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions, such as perception, attention, action, memory and learning. The complete nervous system is active during prenatal development and the aim of this review is to present data on fetal cognitive functions. The fetus processes sensory stimuli at a cortical level, including painful stimulus, from about 25 weeks of gestation onwards. At gestational week 34, the fetus is able not only to perceive complex acoustic external sounds but also to discriminate between different sounds...
April 2018: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593054/low-dimensional-and-monotonic-preparatory-activity-in-mouse-anterior-lateral-motor-cortex
#10
Hidehiko K Inagaki, Miho Inagaki, Sandro Romani, Karel Svoboda
Neurons in multiple brain regions fire trains of action potentials anticipating specific movements, but this "preparatory activity" has not been systematically compared across behavioral tasks. We compared preparatory activity in auditory and tactile delayed-response tasks in male mice. Skilled, directional licking was the motor output. The anterior lateral motor cortex (ALM) is necessary for motor planning in both tasks. Multiple features of ALM preparatory activity during the delay epoch were similar across tasks...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580968/correlation-of-neural-activity-with-behavioral-kinematics-reveals-distinct-sensory-encoding-and-evidence-accumulation-processes-during-active-tactile-sensing
#11
Ioannis Delis, Jacek P Dmochowski, Paul Sajda, Qi Wang
Many real-world decisions rely on active sensing, a dynamic process for directing our sensors (e.g. eyes or fingers) across a stimulus to maximize information gain. Though ecologically pervasive, limited work has focused on identifying neural correlates of the active sensing process. In tactile perception, we often make decisions about an object/surface by actively exploring its shape/texture. Here we investigate the neural correlates of active tactile decision-making by simultaneously measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and finger kinematics while subjects interrogated a haptic surface to make perceptual judgments...
March 23, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563572/cortical-travelling-waves-mechanisms-and-computational-principles
#12
REVIEW
Lyle Muller, Frédéric Chavane, John Reynolds, Terrence J Sejnowski
Multichannel recording technologies have revealed travelling waves of neural activity in multiple sensory, motor and cognitive systems. These waves can be spontaneously generated by recurrent circuits or evoked by external stimuli. They travel along brain networks at multiple scales, transiently modulating spiking and excitability as they pass. Here, we review recent experimental findings that have found evidence for travelling waves at single-area (mesoscopic) and whole-brain (macroscopic) scales. We place these findings in the context of the current theoretical understanding of wave generation and propagation in recurrent networks...
March 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559891/layer-5-callosal-parvalbumin-expressing-neurons-a-distinct-functional-group-of-gabaergic-neurons
#13
Hector Zurita, Paul L C Feyen, Alfonso Junior Apicella
Previous studies have shown that parvalbumin-expressing neurons (CC-Parv neurons) connect the two hemispheres of motor and sensory areas via the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the cortical circuit. Here we test the hypothesis that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons possess anatomical and molecular mechanisms which dampen excitability and modulate the gating of interhemispheric inhibition. In order to investigate this hypothesis we use viral tracing to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of layer 5 CC-Parv and parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons of the mouse auditory cortex (AC)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551308/auditory-perceptual-learning-and-changes-in-the-conceptualization-of-auditory-cortex
#14
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Perceptual learning, improvement in discriminative ability as a consequence of training, is one of the forms of sensory system plasticity that has driven profound changes in our conceptualization of sensory cortical function. Psychophysical and neurophysiological studies of auditory perceptual learning have indicated that the characteristics of the learning, and by implication the nature of the underlying neural changes, are highly task specific. Some studies in animals have indicated that recruitment of neurons to the population responding to the training stimuli, and hence an increase in the so-called cortical "area of representation" of those stimuli, is the substrate of improved performance, but such changes have not been observed in other studies...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540748/structural-changes-in-hand-related-cortical-areas-after-median-nerve-injury-and-repair
#15
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519475/the-role-of-the-parietal-cortex-in-sensorimotor-transformations-and-action-coding
#16
Ferdinand Binkofski, Giovanni Buccino
The picture of the human cortical motor system has fully changed in the last two decades. In the light of new data, the notion of a motor system devoted solely to action execution, strictly isolated from the sensory system, is not sustainable. There is evidence that parietal areas are strictly connected to frontal areas and these connections build up sensorimotor circuits aimed at interacting with objects in the environment, and at understanding actions. They are known as the canonic neuron system and mirror neuron system, respectively...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519458/somatosensory-deficits
#17
Carsten M Klingner, Otto W Witte
The analysis and interpretation of somatosensory information are performed by a complex network of brain areas located mainly in the parietal cortex. Somatosensory deficits are therefore a common impairment following lesions of the parietal lobe. This chapter summarizes the clinical presentation, examination, prognosis, and therapy of sensory deficits, along with current knowledge about the anatomy and function of the somatosensory system. We start by reviewing how somatosensory signals are transmitted to and processed by the parietal lobe, along with the anatomic and functional features of the somatosensory system...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511386/clinical-and-electrophysiological-impact-of-repetitive-low-frequency-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-sensory-motor-network-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome
#18
Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Debora Aricò, Bartolo Lanuzza, Filomena Irene Ilaria Cosentino, Domenico Paci, Maurizio Papotto, Manuela Pennisi, Rita Bella, Giovanni Pennisi, Walter Paulus, Raffaele Ferri
Background: Based on the hyperexcitability and disinhibition observed in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we conducted a study with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the primary motor (M1) and somatosensory cortical areas (S1) in patients with RLS. Methods: A total of 13 right-handed patients and 10 age-matched controls were studied using clinical scales and TMS. Measurements included resting motor threshold (rMT), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), and central motor conduction time (CMCT)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510282/multimodal-approach-for-radical-excision-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia-by-combining-advanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-to-intraoperative-ultrasound-electrocorticography-and-cortical-stimulation-a-preliminary-experience
#19
Giovanni Tringali, Beatrice Bono, Ivano Dones, Roberto Cordella, Giuseppe Didato, Flavio Villani, Francesco Prada
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Type II focal cortical dysplasia is the most common malformation of cortical development associated with drug resistant epilepsy and susceptible to surgical resection. Although, at present, advanced imaging modalities are capable of detecting most cortical disorders, it is still a challenge for the surgeon to visualize them intraoperatively. The lack of direct identification between normal brain and subtle dysplastic tissue may explain the poor results in terms of being seizure-free versus other forms of epilepsy...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509806/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-cortical-thickness-in-females-and-males
#20
Paul M Macey, Natasha Haris, Rajesh Kumar, M Albert Thomas, Mary A Woo, Ronald M Harper
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 10% of adults, and alters brain gray and white matter. Psychological and physiological symptoms of the disorder are sex-specific, perhaps related to greater injury occurs in female than male patients in white matter. Our objective was to identify influences of OSA separated by sex on cortical gray matter. METHODS: We assessed cortical thickness in 48 mild-severe OSA patients (mean age±std[range] = 46...
2018: PloS One
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