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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681889/role-of-kisspeptin-and-neurokinin-b-in-puberty-in-female-non-human-primates
#1
REVIEW
Ei Terasawa, James P Garcia, Stephanie B Seminara, Kim L Keen
In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin ( KISS1 ) and neurokinin B ( NKB) and their receptors ( KISS1R and NK3R , respectively) result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus with infusion of agonists and antagonists for kisspeptin and NKB reveal that kisspeptin and NKB signaling stimulate GnRH release independently or collaboratively by forming kisspeptin and NKB neuronal networks depending on the developmental age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678280/the-kisspeptin-receptor-a-key-g-protein-coupled-receptor-in-the-control-of-the-reproductive-axis
#2
REVIEW
Delphine Franssen, Manuel Tena-Sempere
The kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1R, also known as Gpr54, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), deorphanized in 2001, when it was recognized as canonical receptor for the Kiss1-derived peptides, kisspeptins. In 2003, inactivating mutations of Kiss1R gene were first associated to lack of pubertal maturation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and rodents. These seminal findings pointed out the previously unsuspected, essential role of Kiss1R and its ligands in control of reproductive maturation and function...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674723/steap2-knockdown-reduces-the-invasive-potential-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#3
Stephanie E A Burnell, Samantha Spencer-Harty, Suzie Howarth, Owen Bodger, Howard Kynaston, Claire Morgan, Shareen H Doak
Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-2 (STEAP2) expression is increased in prostate cancer when compared to normal prostate, suggesting STEAP2 may drive prostate cancer progression. This study aimed to establish the functional role of STEAP2 in prostate tumourigenesis and evaluate if its knockdown resulted in reduced invasive potential of prostate cancer cells. PC3 and LNCaP cells were transfected with STEAP2 siRNA and proliferation, migration, invasion and gene expression analyses were performed...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670580/the-roles-of-kisspeptin-system-in-the-reproductive-physiology-of-fish-with-special-reference-to-chub-mackerel-studies-as-main-axis
#4
REVIEW
Hirofumi Ohga, Sethu Selvaraj, Michiya Matsuyama
Kisspeptin, a novel neuropeptide product of the Kiss1 gene, activates the G protein-coupled membrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 54 (now termed Kiss1r). Over the last 15 years, the importance of the kisspeptin system has been the subject of much debate in the mammalian research field. At the heart of the debate is whether kisspeptin is an absolute upstream regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, as it has been proposed to be the master molecule in reproductive events and plays a special role not only during puberty but also in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643834/metabolic-impact-on-the-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-kiss1r-signaling-pathway
#5
REVIEW
Fazal Wahab, Bibi Atika, Farhad Ullah, Muhammad Shahab, Rüdiger Behr
A large body of data has established the hypothalamic kisspeptin (KP) and its receptor, KISS1R, as major players in the activation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis at the time of puberty and maintenance of reproductive capacity in the adult. Due to its strategic location, this ligand-receptor pair acts as an integrator of cues from gonadal steroids as well as of circadian and seasonal variation-related information on the reproductive axis. Besides these cues, the activity of the hypothalamic KP signaling is very sensitive to the current metabolic status of the body...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618281/melatonin-independent-photoperiodic-entrainment-of-the-circannual-tsh-rhythm-in-the-pars-tuberalis-of-the-european-hamster
#6
Cristina Sáenz de Miera, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Valérie Simonneaux, Paul Pévet, Stefanie Monecke
Adaptation of biological rhythms to a seasonal environment in circannual mammals is achieved via the synchronization of intrinsic circannual rhythms to the external year by photoperiod. In mammals, the photoperiodic information is integrated to seasonal physiology via the pineal hormone melatonin regulation of pars tuberalis (PT) TSHβ expression and its downstream control of hypothalamic dio2 gene expression. In the circannual European hamster, however, photoperiodic entrainment of the circannual clock is possible in pinealectomized animals...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615476/neuronostatin-exerts-actions-on-pituitary-that-are-unique-from-its-sibling-peptide-somatostatin
#7
Raul M Luque, Rhonda D Kineman
Neuronostatin, a somatostatin gene-encoded peptide, exerts important physiological and metabolic actions in diverse tissues. However, the direct biological effects of neuronostatin on pituitary function of humans and primates are still unknown. This study used baboon (Papio anubis) primary pituitary cell cultures, a species that closely models human physiology, to demonstrate that neuronostatin inhibits basal, but not ghrelin-/GnRH-stimulated, GH and LH secretion in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, without affecting the secretion of other pituitary hormones (prolactin, ACTH, FSH, TSH) or changing mRNA levels...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582202/automated-quantitative-image-analysis-for-ex-vivo-metastasis-assays-reveals-differing-lung-composition-requirements-for-metastasis-suppression-by-kiss1
#8
Eric D Young, Kyle Strom, Ashley F Tsue, Joseph L Usset, Seth MacPherson, John T McGuire, Danny R Welch
Imaging is broadly used in biomedical research, but signal variation complicates automated analysis. Using the Pulmonary Metastasis Assay (PuMA) to study metastatic colonization by the metastasis suppressor KISS1, we cultured GFP-expressing melanoma cells in living mouse lung ex vivo for 3 weeks. Epifluorescence images of cells were used to measure growth, creating large datasets which were time consuming and challenging to quantify manually due to scattering of light from outside the focal plane. To address these challenges, we developed an automated workflow to standardize the measurement of disseminated cancer cell growth by applying statistical quality control to remove unanalyzable images followed and a filtering algorithm to quantify only in-focus cells...
March 26, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580824/esr2-regulates-granulosa-cell-genes-essential-for-follicle-maturation-and-ovulation
#9
Vincentaben Khristi, V Praveen Chakravarthi, Prabhakar Singh, Subhra Ghosh, Archit Pramanik, Anamika Ratri, Shaon Borosha, Katherine F Roby, Michael W Wolfe, M A Karim Rumi
Estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) plays a critical role in folliculogenesis and ovulation. Disruption of ESR2-function in the rats results in female infertility due to failure of ovulation. Ovulation failure occurred in two distinct rat models, a null mutant and a DNA binding domain (DBD) mutant of ESR2, indicating that transcriptional regulation by ESR2 is indispensable for ovulation. To define the regulatory role of ESR2 in preovulatory follicular maturation and ovulation, we investigated ovarian responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropins in prepubertal females...
March 23, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552764/kiss1-and-kiss1r-expression-in-gastric-cancer
#10
Ioannis D Kostakis, George Agrogiannis, Aristeidis G Vaiopoulos, Eleni Mylona, Efstratios Patsouris, Gregory Kouraklis, Michael Koutsilieris
PURPOSE: Kisspeptins, which are derived from the gene KISS1, supress tumor progression. We intended to investigate the production of KISS1 and its receptor (KISSR) in gastric cancer. METHODS: The expression of KISS1 and KISS1R in both normal and cancer tissue was examined with immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens of 40 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: KISS1 expression in normal gastric mucosa was much higher than in malignant mucosa...
January 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545200/alterations-in-placental-gene-expression-of-pregnant-women-with-chronic-chagas-disease
#11
Natalia Anahí Juiz, Irma Torrejón, Marianela Burgos, Ana María Fernanda Torres, Tomás Duffy, Nelly Melina Cayo, Anahí Tabasco, Miriam Salvo, Silvia Andrea Longhi, Alejandro Gabriel Schijman
Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in women at reproductive age is associated with congenital transmission and adverse pregnancy outcome. The placenta is a key barrier to infection. We characterized gene expression profiles of term placental environment from T. cruzi seropositive (SP) and seronegative (SN) mothers performing RNA-seq. Nine pools of placental RNA paired samples were used: three from SN and six from SP tissues. Each pool consisted of female/male newborns and vaginal/caesarean deliveries binomials...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515520/a-short-day-photoperiod-delays-the-timing-of-puberty-in-female-mice-via-changes-in-the-kisspeptin-system
#12
Tabata Mariz Bohlen, Marina Augusto Silveira, Daniella do Carmo Buonfiglio, Hildebrando Candido Ferreira-Neto, José Cipolla-Neto, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
The reproduction of seasonal breeders is modulated by exposure to light in an interval of 24 h defined as photoperiod. The interruption of reproductive functions in seasonally breeding rodents is accompanied by the suppression of the Kiss1 gene expression, which is known to be essential for reproduction. In non-seasonal male rodents, such as rats and mice, short-day photoperiod (SP) conditions or exogenous melatonin treatment also have anti-gonadotropic effects; however, whether photoperiod is able to modulate the puberty onset or Kiss1 gene expression in mice is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508270/sleeve-gastrectomy-reversed-obesity-induced-hypogonadism-in-a-rat-model-by-regulating-inflammatory-responses-in-the-hypothalamus-and-testis
#13
Jun Xiang, Cuidong Bian, Xiaodong Wan, Qimin Zhang, Shengsong Huang, Denglong Wu
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a metabolic disease with a serious health burden in children and adults, and it induces a variety of conditions including subfecundity. Sleeve gastrectomy showed encouraging results in terms of weight loss and improve quality of life, and this study aimed to determine whether sleeve gastrectomy could reverse obesity-induced impaired fertility in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: After 16 weeks of a chow diet (CD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) challenge, rats on the HFD were given a sleeve gastrectomy or sham operation and then fed an HFD for another 8 weeks...
March 5, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403355/impact-of-triclosan-on-female-reproduction-through-reducing-thyroid-hormones-to-suppress-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurons-in-mice
#14
Xin-Yuan Cao, Xu Hua, Jian-Wei Xiong, Wen-Ting Zhu, Jun Zhang, Ling Chen
Triclosan (TCS), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345030/reproductive-status-dependent-kisspeptin-and-rfamide-related-peptide-rfrp-gene-expression-in-female-damaraland-mole-rats
#15
Cornelia Voigt, Nigel C Bennett
Damaraland mole rats (Fukomys damarensis) are cooperatively breeding, subterranean mammals, which exhibit high reproductive skew. Reproduction is monopolized by the dominant female of the group while subordinates are physiologically suppressed to the extent that they are anovulatory. It is thought that in these latter animals normal GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus is disrupted. The RFamide peptides kisspeptin (Kiss1) and RFamid-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) are considered potent regulators of gonadotropin release...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325466/the-correlation-between-birth-weight-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-igfbp-1-kisspeptin-1-kiss-1-and-three-dimensional-fetal-volume
#16
Gunsu Kimyon Comert, Sertac Esin, Gamze Sinem Caglar, Bulent Yirci, Sedat Ozdemir, Selda Demirtas, Omer Kandemir
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between birth weight, and maternal serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1) levels, and first-trimester fetal volume (FV) based on three-dimensional ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 142 pregnant women at gestational week 11°-136 . All fetuses were imaged ultrasonographically by the same physician. Maternal blood samples were collected at the time of ultrasonographic evaluation and analyzed for IGFBP-1 and KISS-1 levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302059/trithorax-dependent-changes-in-chromatin-landscape-at-enhancer-and-promoter-regions-drive-female-puberty
#17
Carlos A Toro, Hollis Wright, Carlos F Aylwin, Sergio R Ojeda, Alejandro Lomniczi
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control the timing of puberty by repressing the Kiss1 gene in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons. Here we identify two members of the Trithorax group (TrxG) of modifiers, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1), and 3 (MLL3), as central components of an activating epigenetic machinery that dynamically counteracts PcG repression. Preceding puberty, MLL1 changes the chromatin configuration at the promoters of Kiss1 and Tac3, two genes required for puberty to occur, from repressive to permissive...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278519/gnrh-dependent-precocious-puberty-manifested-at-the-age-of-14-months-in-a-girl-with-47-xxx-karyotype
#18
Nicos Skordis, Eleana Ferrari, Aria Antoniadou, Leonidas A Phylactou, Pavlos Fanis, Vassos Neocleous
This case report describes a 47,XXX girl who presented very early, at the age of 14 months, with signs of sexual precocity (breast and pubic hair development, menarche) and was finally diagnosed with GnRH dependent precocious puberty with no evidence of underlying central nervous system pathology. Molecular testing did not identify any genetic defect in any of the genes tested (KISS1, KISS1R, DLK1 and the intronless MKRN3). Though previous studies have shown a link between karyotype 47,XXX and precocious puberty, this is the youngest patient reported so far...
July 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/-morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#19
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis ( M. officinalis ) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203206/expression-of-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-neurons-attenuates-in-female-zucker-fatty-rats
#20
Kimihiko Nakao, Kinuyo Iwata, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hitoshi Ozawa
Zucker fatty (ZF) rats are considered to be an obese model due to leptin receptor abnormality and such rats show infertility. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, which is important for follicular development in females, is considered to be controlled by KNDy neurons coexpressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin A (DynA), encoded by Kiss1, Tac3, and Pdyn, respectively, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of KNDy neurons in female ZF rats by histochemical approach because pulsatile LH secretion is suppressed...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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