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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088246/budget-impact-analysis-of-vaccination-against-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-as-a-part-of-a-pentavalent-vaccine-in-the-childhood-immunization-schedule-of-iran
#1
Fatemeh Teimouri, Abbas Kebriaeezadeh, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, MohammadMahdi Gheiratian, Shekoufeh Nikfar
BACKGROUND: Health decision makers need to know the impact of the development of a new intervention on the public health and health care costs so that they can plan for economic and financial objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of adding Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine (Hib-HBV-DTP) to the national childhood immunization schedule of Iran. METHODS: An excel-based model was developed to determine the costs of including the Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization program (NIP), comparing the present schedule with the previous one (including separate DTP and hepatitis B vaccines)...
January 14, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086846/stochastic-agent-based-modeling-of-tuberculosis-in-canadian-indigenous-communities
#2
Ashleigh R Tuite, Victor Gallant, Elaine Randell, Annie-Claude Bourgeois, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, active tuberculosis (TB) disease rates remain disproportionately higher among the Indigenous population, especially among the Inuit in the north. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate how interventions might enhance existing TB control efforts in a region of Nunavut. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based model of TB transmission that captured the unique household and community structure. Evaluated interventions included: (i) rapid treatment of active cases; (ii) rapid contact tracing; (iii) expanded screening programs for latent TB infection (LTBI); and (iv) reduced household density...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081208/optimizing-training-population-size-and-genotyping-strategy-for-genomic-prediction-using-association-study-results-and-pedigree-information-a-case-of-study-in-advanced-wheat-breeding-lines
#3
Fabio Cericola, Ahmed Jahoor, Jihad Orabi, Jeppe R Andersen, Luc L Janss, Just Jensen
Wheat breeding programs generate a large amount of variation which cannot be completely explored because of limited phenotyping throughput. Genomic prediction (GP) has been proposed as a new tool which provides breeding values estimations without the need of phenotyping all the material produced but only a subset of it named training population (TP). However, genotyping of all the accessions under analysis is needed and, therefore, optimizing TP dimension and genotyping strategy is pivotal to implement GP in commercial breeding schemes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079566/retesting-the-hypothesis-of-a-clinical-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-simulation-environment-to-validate-anesthesia-simulation-in-error-research-the-vaser-study
#4
Alan F Merry, Jacqueline A Hannam, Craig S Webster, Kylie-Ellen Edwards, Jane Torrie, Chris Frampton, Daniel W Wheeler, Arun K Gupta, Ravi P Mahajan, Rachel Evley, Jennifer M Weller
BACKGROUND: Simulation has been used to investigate clinical questions in anesthesia, surgery, and related disciplines, but there are few data demonstrating that results apply to clinical settings. We asked "would results of a simulation-based study justify the same principal conclusions as those of a larger clinical study?" METHODS: We compared results from a randomized controlled trial in a simulated environment involving 80 cases at three centers with those from a randomized controlled trial in a clinical environment involving 1,075 cases...
January 12, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079279/evaluating-predictors-of-lead-exposure-for-activities-disturbing-materials-painted-with-or-containing-lead-using-historic-published-data-from-u-s-workplaces
#5
Sarah J Locke, Nicole C Deziel, Dong-Hee Koh, Barry I Graubard, Mark P Purdue, Melissa C Friesen
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated predictors of differences in published occupational lead concentrations for activities disturbing material painted with or containing lead in U.S. workplaces to aid historical exposure reconstruction. METHODS: For the aforementioned tasks, 221 air and 113 blood lead summary results (1960-2010) were extracted from a previously developed database. Differences in the natural log-transformed geometric mean (GM) for year, industry, job, and other ancillary variables were evaluated in meta-regression models that weighted each summary result by its inverse variance and sample size...
February 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077079/a-double-simex-approach-for-bivariate-random-effects-meta-analysis-of-diagnostic-accuracy-studies
#6
Annamaria Guolo
BACKGROUND: Bivariate random-effects models represent a widely accepted and recommended approach for meta-analysis of test accuracy studies. Standard likelihood methods routinely used for inference are prone to several drawbacks. Small sample size can give rise to unreliable inferential conclusions and convergence issues make the approach unappealing. This paper suggests a different methodology to address such difficulties. METHODS: A SIMEX methodology is proposed...
January 11, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075424/managing-challenging-patients-with-venous-thromboembolism-a-practical-case-based-approach
#7
James Douketis, Walter Ageno, Marc Carrier, Clive Kearon
The management of patients with venous thromboembolism is a common clinical scenario that, for the most part, involves well-established, evidence-based treatment pathways. However, important unanswered clinical questions remain that are the focus of ongoing research. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a practical, case-based approach to the following clinical scenarios in which therapeutic management pathways are less well established: How long to anticoagulated patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism? How to manage complex patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism? When and how to treat patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis? When to use thrombolytic therapy for deep vein thrombosis?...
January 4, 2017: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070276/a-hypothesis-to-explain-accuracy-of-wasp-resemblances
#8
Michael Boppré, Richard I Vane-Wright, Wolfgang Wickler
Mimicry is one of the oldest concepts in biology, but it still presents many puzzles and continues to be widely debated. Simulation of wasps with a yellow-black abdominal pattern by other insects (commonly called "wasp mimicry") is traditionally considered a case of resemblance of unprofitable by profitable prey causing educated predators to avoid models and mimics to the advantage of both (Figure 1a). However, as wasps themselves are predators of insects, wasp mimicry can also be seen as a case of resemblance to one's own potential antagonist...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068242/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-preoperative-versus-postoperative-radiation-therapy-in-extremity-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#9
Xuanlu M Qu, Alexander V Louie, Jonathan Ashman, Nabil Wasif
PURPOSE: Surgery combined with radiation therapy (RT) is the cornerstone of multidisciplinary management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Although RT can be given in either the preoperative or the postoperative setting with similar local recurrence and survival outcomes, the side effect profiles, costs, and long-term functional outcomes are different. The aim of this study was to use decision analysis to determine optimal sequencing of RT with surgery in patients with extremity STS...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067709/factors-associated-with-risk-of-neurologic-complications-after-peripheral-nerve-blocks-a-systematic-review
#10
Rakesh V Sondekoppam, Ban C H Tsui
The onset of neurologic complications after regional anesthesia is a complex process and may result from an interaction of host, agent, and environmental risk factors. The purpose of this systematic review was examine the qualitative evidence relating to various risk factors implicated in neurologic dysfunction after peripheral nerve block (PNB). The MEDLINE, OVID, and EMBASE databases were primary sources for literature. Cochrane, LILACS, DARE, IndMed, ERIC, NHS, and HTA via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD; York University) databases were searched for additional unique results...
January 5, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067020/spatial-detection-of-outlier-loci-with-moran-eigenvector-maps-mem
#11
Helene H Wagner, Mariana Chávez-Pesqueira, Brenna R Forester
The spatial signature of micro-evolutionary processes structuring genetic variation may play an important role in the detection of loci under selection. However, the spatial location of samples hasn't yet been used to quantify this. Here, we present a new two-step method of spatial outlier detection at the individual and deme levels using the power spectrum of Moran eigenvector maps (MEM). The MEM power spectrum quantifies how the variation in a variable, such as the frequency of an allele at a SNP locus, is distributed across a range of spatial scales defined by MEM spatial eigenvectors...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060235/orif-or-arthroplasty-for-displaced-femoral-neck-fractures-in-patients-younger-than-65-years-old-an-economic-decision-analysis
#12
Eric Swart, Paulvalery Roulette, Daniel Leas, Kevin J Bozic, Madhav Karunakar
BACKGROUND: The decision between open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and arthroplasty for a displaced femoral neck fracture in a patient ≤65 years old can be challenging. Both options have potential drawbacks; if a fracture treated with ORIF fails to heal it may require a revision operation, whereas a relatively young patient who undergoes arthroplasty may need revision within his/her lifetime. The purpose of this study was to employ decision analysis modeling techniques to generate evidence-based treatment recommendations in this clinical scenario...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058804/pesticide-exposure-assessment-for-surface-waters-in-the-eu-part-2-determination-of-statistically-based-runoff-and-drainage-scenarios-for-germany
#13
Martin Bach, Mirjam Diesner, Dietlinde Großmann, Djamal Guerniche, Udo Hommen, Michael Klein, Roland Kubiak, Alexandra Müller, Thomas G Preuss, Jan Priegnitz, Stefan Reichenberger, Kai Thomas, Matthias Trapp
BACKGROUND: In order to assess surface water exposure to active substances of plant protection products (PPP) in the EU, the FOCUS (FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe) surface water workgroup introduced four runoff and six drainage scenarios for Step 3 of the tiered FOCUSsw approach. These scenarios may not necessarily represent realistic worst-case situations for the different Member States of the EU. Hence, the suitability of the scenarios for risk assessment in the national authorisation procedures is not known...
January 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056112/association-of-delayed-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-survival-after-lung-cancer-surgery
#14
Michelle C Salazar, Joshua E Rosen, Zuoheng Wang, Brian N Arnold, Daniel C Thomas, Roy S Herbst, Anthony W Kim, Frank C Detterbeck, Justin D Blasberg, Daniel J Boffa
Importance: Adjuvant chemotherapy offers a survival benefit to a number of staging scenarios in non-small-cell lung cancer. Variable recovery from lung cancer surgery may delay a patient's ability to tolerate adjuvant chemotherapy, yet the urgency of chemotherapy initiation is unclear. Objective: To assess differences in survival according to the time interval between non-small-cell lung cancer resection and the initiation of postoperative chemotherapy to determine the association between adjuvant treatment timing and efficacy...
January 5, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055858/icap-an-individualized-model-combining-gaze-parameters-and-image-based-features-to-predict-radiologists-decisions-while-reading-mammograms
#15
Ziba Gandomkar, Kevin Tay, William Ryder, Patrick C Brennan, Claudia Mello-Thoms
This study introduces an individualized tool for identifying mammogram interpretation errors, called eye-Computer Assisted Perception (iCAP). iCAP consists of two modules, one which processes areas marked by radiologists as suspicious for cancer and classifies these as False Positive (FP) or True Positive (TP) decisions, while the second module classifies fixated but not marked locations as False Negative (FN) or True-Negative (TN) decisions. iCAP relies on both radiologists' gaze-related parameters, extracted from eye tracking data, and image-based features...
December 28, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055027/interdisciplinary-onsite-team-based-simulation-training-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-pilot-report
#16
D J W Reed, R L Hermelin, C S Kennedy, J Sharma
OBJECTIVE: Simulation training improves individual clinician confidence, performance and self-efficacy in resuscitation and procedural training experiences. The reality of resuscitation experiences in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is that they are team-accomplished events. However, limited data exist on team-based simulation training (TBST) in the NICU. We report the experience of TBST over a 4-year period. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective report of 65 TBST events in a 71-bed Level IV NICU at a regional subspecialty children's hospital...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052080/societal-risk-evaluation-scheme-sres-scenario-based-multi-criteria-evaluation-of-synthetic-biology-applications
#17
Christopher L Cummings, Jennifer Kuzma
Synthetic biology (SB) applies engineering principles to biology for the construction of novel biological systems designed for useful purposes. From an oversight perspective, SB products come with significant uncertainty. Yet there is a need to anticipate and prepare for SB applications before deployment. This study develops a Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES) in order to advance methods for anticipatory governance of emerging technologies such as SB. The SRES is based upon societal risk factors that were identified as important through a policy Delphi study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051896/optimizing-the-timing-of-hiv-screening-as-part-of-routine-medical-care
#18
Matthew R Golden, James P Hughes, Julia C Dombrowski
US federal guidelines recommend that medical providers test all adolescents and adults for HIV infection at least once before the age of 64. The wide age range included in these guidelines may limit their utility and impact. We created an arithmetic model to estimate how HIV screening at different ages would impact the total number of years of undiagnosed HIV infection in the population and the number of persons developing clinical manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Our base case model assumed that age of infection in the screened population was the same as the estimated age of infection among all persons diagnosed with HIV in the United States in 2010...
January 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048840/su-f-j-208-prompt-gamma-imaging-based-prediction-of-bragg-peak-position-for-realistic-treatment-error-scenarios
#19
Y Xing, B Macq, G Janssens, L Bondar
PURPOSE: To quantify the accuracy in predicting the Bragg peak position using simulated in-room measurements of prompt gamma (PG) emissions for realistic treatment error scenarios that combine several sources of errors. METHODS: Prompt gamma measurements by a knife-edge slit camera were simulated using an experimentally validated analytical simulation tool. Simulations were performed, for 143 treatment error scenarios, on an anthropomorphic phantom and a pencil beam scanning plan for nasal cavity...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048554/th-ab-202-03-a-novel-tool-for-computing-deliverable-doses-in-dynamic-mlc-tracking-treatments
#20
M Fast, C Kamerling, S Crijns, M Menten, S Nill, B Raaymakers, U Oelfke
PURPOSE: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. METHODS: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised ("warm-started") in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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