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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149358/clinically-directed-neuroimaging-of-ophthalmoplegia
#1
REVIEW
Lucia Danieli, Margherita Montali, Luca Remonda, Hanspeter E Killer, Cesare Colosimo, Alessandro Cianfoni
PURPOSE: Ophthalmoplegia (OP) can have numerous etiologies and different clinical presentations. Most causes of OP can be narrowed down to specific anatomical locations based on clinical information. The aim of this study was to outline the different categories of diseases encountered in patients with OP, based on the location along the ocular motor pathways, and the most appropriate imaging modality for the given scenarios. METHODS: Representative neuroimaging examples of pathological processes causing OP are displayed, sequenced by anatomical location and disease category...
November 17, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148554/modelling-direct-dna-damage-for-gold-nanoparticle-enhanced-proton-therapy
#2
Marios Sotiropoulos, Nicholas T Henthorn, John W Warmenhoven, Ranald I Mackay, Karen J Kirkby, Michael J Merchant
Gold nanoparticles have been proven as potential radiosensitizer when combined with protons. Initially the radiosensitization effect was attributed to the physical interactions of radiation with the gold and the production of secondary electrons that induce DNA damage. However, emerging data challenge this hypothesis, supporting the existence of alternative or supplementary radiosensitization mechanisms. In this work we incorporate a realistic cell model with detailed DNA geometry and a realistic gold nanoparticle biodistribution based on experimental data...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145817/family-context-and-individual-situation-of-teens-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-in-mexico-city
#3
Reyna Sámano, Hugo Martínez-Rojano, David Robichaux, Ana Lilia Rodríguez-Ventura, Bernarda Sánchez-Jiménez, Maria de la Luz Hoyuela, Estela Godínez, Selene Segovia
BACKGROUND: In the last 20 years, adolescent pregnancy has become one of the most critical problems affecting women in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: This qualitative study was based on in-depth interviews with 29 teen mothers. All of the pregnant teens were from low- to lower-middle-class social strata in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The family (living with the girl) and the individual context of pregnant teens were analysed on the basis of data from at least three interviews: during pregnancy and at approximately 6 and 24 months following delivery...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145777/a-probability-based-method-for-selecting-the-optimal-personalized-treatment-from-multiple-treatments
#4
Chathura Siriwardhana, Meng Zhao, Somnath Datta, K B Kulasekera
In this work we propose a method for optimal treatment assignment based on individual covariate information for a patient. For the K treatment ([Formula: see text]) scenario, we compare quantities that are suitable surrogates to true conditional probabilities of outcome variable of each treatment dominating outcome variables for all other treatments conditional on patient specific scores constructed from patient-specific covariates. As opposed to methods based on conditional means, our method can be applied for a broad set of models and error structures...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144160/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-in-adults-an-evidence-based-assessment
#5
Matthew G Drake
High flow nasal cannula oxygenation has distinct advantages over other oxygen devices due to its unique effects on respiratory physiology. In particular, adjustable oxygen delivery and flow-dependent carbon dioxide clearance from the upper airway reduce work of breathing and can better match inspiratory demand during respiratory distress. Historically, few studies had evaluated whether the physiologic effects of these devices translated into clinical benefit. However, recent publications have begun to address this knowledge gap...
November 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143618/using-the-missed-opportunity-tool-as-an-application-of-the-lives-saved-tool-list-for-intervention-prioritization
#6
Yvonne Tam, Luwei Pearson
BACKGROUND: The Missed Opportunity tool was developed as an application in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to allow users to quickly compare the relative impact of interventions. Global Financing Facility (GFF) investment cases have been identified as a potential application of the Missed Opportunity analyses in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania, to use 'lives saved' as a normative factor to set priorities. METHODS: The Missed Opportunity analysis draws on data and methods in LiST to project maternal, stillbirth, and child deaths averted based on changes in interventions' coverage...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142251/reverse-stress-testing-interbank-networks
#7
Daniel Grigat, Fabio Caccioli
We reverse engineer dynamics of financial contagion to find the scenario of smallest exogenous shock that, should it occur, would lead to a given final systemic loss. This reverse stress test can be used to identify the potential triggers of systemic events, and it removes the arbitrariness in the selection of shock scenarios in stress testing. We consider in particular the case of distress propagation in an interbank market, and we study a network of 44 European banks, which we reconstruct using data collected from banks statements...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142029/routine-use-of-quantitative-disease-activity-measurements-among-us-rheumatologists-implications-for-treat-to-target-management-strategies-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Jeffrey R Curtis, Lang Chen, Maria I Danila, Kenneth G Saag, Kathy L Parham, John J Cush
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine why real-world practices and attitudes regarding quantitative measurements of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have received limited attention. METHODS: An e-mail survey asked US rheumatologists to self-report on their use of quantitative measurements (metric). RESULTS: Among 439 respondents, metric rheumatologists (58%) were more likely to be in group practice and to use tumor necrosis factor inhibitors...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141909/local-fitness-landscapes-predict-yeast-evolutionary-dynamics-in-directionally-changing-environments
#9
Florien A Gorter, Mark G M Aarts, Bas J Zwaan, J Arjan G M de Visser
The fitness landscape is a concept that is widely used for understanding and predicting evolutionary adaptation. The topography of the fitness landscape depends critically on the environment, with potentially far-reaching consequences for evolution under changing conditions. However, few studies have assessed directly how empirical fitness landscapes change across conditions, or validated the predicted consequences of such change. We previously evolved replicate yeast populations in the presence of either gradually increasing or constant high concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), and analysed their phenotypic and genomic changes...
November 15, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136595/modeling-the-temporal-dynamics-of-intertidal-benthic-infauna-biomass-with-environmental-factors-impact-assessment-of-land-reclamation
#10
Ye Yang, Ting Fong May Chui, Ping Ping Shen, Yang Yang, Ji Dong Gu
Anthropogenic activities such as land reclamation are threatening tidal marshes worldwide. This study's hypothesis is that land reclamation in a semi-enclosed bay alters the seasonal dynamics of intertidal benthic infauna, which is a key component in the tidal marsh ecosystem. Mai Po Tidal Marsh, Deep Bay, Pearl River Estuary, China was used as a case study to evaluate the hypothesis. Ecological models that simulate benthic biomass dynamics with governing environmental factors were developed, and various scenario experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of reclamations...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136145/a-two-step-method-for-variable-selection-in-the-analysis-of-a-case-cohort-study
#11
P J Newcombe, S Connolly, S Seaman, S Richardson, S J Sharp
Background: Accurate detection and estimation of true exposure-outcome associations is important in aetiological analysis; when there are multiple potential exposure variables of interest, methods for detecting the subset of variables most likely to have true associations with the outcome of interest are required. Case-cohort studies often collect data on a large number of variables which have not been measured in the entire cohort (e.g. panels of biomarkers). There is a lack of guidance on methods for variable selection in case-cohort studies...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133630/non-contact-lens-related-acanthamoeba-keratitis
#12
REVIEW
Prashant Garg, Paavan Kalra, Joveeta Joseph
The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs). This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133136/comparison-of-the-near-field-far-field-model-and-the-advanced-reach-tool-art-model-v1-5-exposure-estimates-to-benzene-during-parts-washing-with-mineral-spirits
#13
Mallory LeBlanc, Joseph G Allen, Robert F Herrick, James H Stewart
The Advanced Reach Tool V1.5 (ART) is a mathematical model for occupational exposures conceptually based on, but implemented differently than, the "classic" Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) exposure model. The NF/FF model conceptualizes two distinct exposure "zones"; the near field, within approximately 1m of the breathing zone, and the far field, consisting of the rest of the room in which the exposure occurs. ART has been reported to provide "realistic and reasonable worst case" estimates of the exposure distribution...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132088/analysing-the-impacts-of-air-quality-policies-on-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-for-telemark-norway
#14
L Hein, L White, A Miles, P Roberts
There is an increasing interest in considering the effects of air pollution on ecosystem services supply in order to enhance cost-benefit analyses of air pollution policies. This paper presents a generic, conceptual approach that can be used to link atmospheric deposition of air pollutants to ecosystem services supply and societal benefits. The approach is applied in a case study in the Telemark county of Norway. First, we examine the potential effects of four European air quality policy scenarios on N deposition in the ecosystems of this county...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131704/impact-of-team-composition-on-student-perceptions-of-interprofessional-teamwork-a-6-year-cohort-study
#15
Chad Lairamore, Duston Morris, Rachel Schichtl, Lorrie George-Paschal, Heather Martens, Alexandros Maragakis, Mary Garnica, Barbara Jones, Myra Grantham, Adam Bruenger
Interprofessional education (IPE) provides students with opportunities to learn about the roles and responsibilities of other professions and develop communication and teamwork skills. As different health professions have recognised the importance of IPE, the number of disciplines participating in IPE events is increasing. Consequently, it is important to examine the effect group structure has on the learning environment and student knowledge acquisition during IPE events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of group composition on student perceptions of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration when participating in a case-based IPE forum...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131617/coupling-matched-molecular-pairs-with-machine-learning-for-virtual-compound-optimization
#16
Simone Fulle, Samo Turk, Benjamin Merget, Friedrich Rippmann
Matched molecular pair (MMP) analyses are widely used in compound optimization projects to gain insights into structure-activity relationships (SAR). The analysis is traditionally done via statistical methods but can also be employed together with machine learning (ML) approaches to extrapolate to novel compounds. The here introduced MMP/ML method combines a fragment-based MMP implementation with different machine learning methods to obtain automated SAR decomposition and prediction. To test the prediction capabilities and model transferability, two different compound optimization scenarios were designed: (1) 'new fragments' that occurs when exploring new fragments for a defined compound series, and (2) 'new static core and transformations' that resembles for instance the identification of a new compound series...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130697/-preferences-for-the-attributes-of-home-enteral-nutrition-hen-in-spain-do-caregivers-know-their-patients-preferences
#17
Gabriel Olveira, Miguel Ángel Martínez-Olmos, Belén Fernández de Bobadilla, Mercedes Ferrer, Nuria Virgili, Belén Vega, Mercedes Blanco, Miquel Layola, Luis Lizán, Susana Aceituno
INTRODUCTION: Establishing a home enteral nutrition (HEN) that is adapted to the patient's needs and preferences can improve their quality of life and adherence, contributing to a higher treatment efficiency, better prognosis and cost reduction. As in most cases, patients need total or partial help from their caregivers, and there is a need for evaluating how well do caregivers know their patients' priorities. OBJECTIVES: Exploring patients' preferences for HEN characteristics in Spain, and the concordance between patients and caregivers...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129005/chronic-overdrainage-syndrome-pathophysiological-insights-based-on-icp-analysis-a-case-based-review
#18
REVIEW
Laura V Sainz, Konstantin Hockel, Martin U Schuhmann
INTRODUCTION: Chronic overdrainage affects shunted patients producing a variety of symptoms that may be misdiagnosed. The best known symptoms are so-called shunt-related headaches. There is mounting evidence that changes in cerebrospinal venous system dynamics are a key factor to the pathophysiology of chronic overdrainage syndrome. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 29-year-old woman with a shunt since the postnatal period suffering from chronic but the most severe intermittent headache attacks, despite an open shunt and with unchanged ventricular width during attacks...
November 11, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125802/penalty-based-approaches-to-evaluating-multiplicity-adjustments-in-clinical-trials-advanced-multiplicity-problems
#19
Gautier Paux, Alex Dmitrienko
Given the importance of addressing multiplicity issues in confirmatory clinical trials, several recent publications focused on the general goal of identifying most appropriate methods for multiplicity adjustment in each individual setting. This goal can be accomplished using the Clinical Scenario Evaluation approach. This approach encourages trial sponsors to perform comprehensive assessments of applicable analysis strategies such as multiplicity adjustments under all plausible sets of statistical assumptions using relevant evaluation criteria...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123008/reproducibility-of-mr-based-attenuation-maps-in-pet-mri-and-the-impact-on-pet-quantification-in-lung-cancer
#20
Anders Olin, Claes N Ladefoged, Natasha H Langer, Sune H Keller, Johan O Löfgren, Adam E Hansen, Andreas Kjær, Seppo W Langer, Barbara M Fischer, Flemming L Andersen
AIM: Quantitative positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is dependent upon reliable and reproducible MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). In this study we evaluated the quality of current vendor-provided thoracic MR-AC maps, and further investigated the reproducibility of these in terms of their impact on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET quantification in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent two to five thoracic PET/MRI scan-rescan examinations within 22 days...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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