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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550798/sediment-quality-in-a-metal-contaminated-tropical-bay-assessed-with-a-multiple-lines-of-evidence-approach
#1
Sarah K Rodrigues, Denis M S Abessa, Ana Paula de C Rodrigues, Abílio Soares-Gomes, Carolina B Freitas, Ricardo E Santelli, Aline S Freire, Wilson Machado
A sediment quality assessment was performed near to the main industrial source of metal contamination in Sepetiba Bay, Brazil, which represents one of the worst cases of trace metal contamination reported for coastal areas. Acute and chronic toxicity tests, benthic fauna community analysis and metal bioavailability evaluations were applied to identify risks to the benthic community. Significant amphipod mortality was observed close to the major pollution source and lower copepod fertility was observed for all stations...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550724/soil-erosion-predictions-from-a-landscape-evolution-model-an-assessment-of-a-post-mining-landform-using-spatial-climate-change-analogues
#2
G R Hancock, D Verdon-Kidd, J B C Lowry
Landscape Evolution Modelling (LEM) technologies provide a means by which it is possible to simulate the long-term geomorphic stability of a conceptual rehabilitated landform. However, simulations rarely consider the potential effects of anthropogenic climate change and consequently risk not accounting for the range of rainfall variability that might be expected in both the near and far future. One issue is that high resolution (both spatial and temporal) rainfall projections incorporating the potential effects of greenhouse forcing are required as input...
May 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550184/reduced-hematopoietic-stem-cells-frequency-predicts-outcome-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#3
Wenwen Wang, Thomas Stiehl, Simon Raffel, Van T Hoang, Isabel Hoffmann, Laura Poisa-Beiro, Borhan R Saeed, Rachel Blume, Linda Manta, Volker Eckstein, Tilmann Bochtler, Patrick Wuchter, Marieke Essers, Anna Jauch, Andreas Trumpp, Anna Marciniak-Czochra, Anthony D Ho, Christoph Lutz
In patients with acute myeloid leukemia and low percentages of aldehyde-dehydrogenase-positive cells, non-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells can be separated from leukemic cells. By relating hematopoietic stem cell frequencies to outcome we detected poor overall- and disease-free survival of patients with low hematopoietic stem cell frequencies. Serial analysis of matched diagnostic and follow-up samples further demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells increased after chemotherapy in patients that achieved durable remissions...
May 26, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547013/new-cfd-tools-to-evaluate-nasal-airflow
#4
M A Burgos, E Sanmiguel-Rojas, C Del Pino, M A Sevilla-García, F Esteban-Ortega
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool to analyse airflow. As currently CFD is not a usual tool for rhinologists, a group of engineers in collaboration with experts in Rhinology have developed a very intuitive CFD software. The program MECOMLAND(®) only required snapshots from the patient's cross-sectional (tomographic) images, being the output those results originated by CFD, such as airflow distributions, velocity profiles, pressure, temperature, or wall shear stress. This is useful complementary information to cover diagnosis, prognosis, or follow-up of nasal pathologies based on quantitative magnitudes linked to airflow...
May 25, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546583/hybridizing-feature-selection-and-feature-learning-approaches-in-qsar-modeling-for-drug-discovery
#5
Ignacio Ponzoni, Víctor Sebastián-Pérez, Carlos Requena-Triguero, Carlos Roca, María J Martínez, Fiorella Cravero, Mónica F Díaz, Juan A Páez, Ramón Gómez Arrayás, Javier Adrio, Nuria E Campillo
Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling using machine learning techniques constitutes a complex computational problem, where the identification of the most informative molecular descriptors for predicting a specific target property plays a critical role. Two main general approaches can be used for this modeling procedure: feature selection and feature learning. In this paper, a performance comparative study of two state-of-art methods related to these two approaches is carried out. In particular, regression and classification models for three different issues are inferred using both methods under different experimental scenarios: two drug-like properties, such as blood-brain-barrier and human intestinal absorption, and enantiomeric excess, as a measurement of purity used for chiral substances...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545628/comparison-of-the-appropriateness-of-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-men-versus-women
#6
Ali Alsamarah, Asha Bansari, Hesham Nasser, Wajiha Raza, Issa Alsamarah, Anastasiya Bagrova, David E Winchester
After a decade of appropriate use criteria publication, the degree and predictors of inappropriate use in women compared with men are not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation comparing appropriateness categories (appropriate, maybe appropriate, and rarely appropriate) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) between June 2011 and September 2014 in predominantly inpatient setting. Of 1,475 cases reviewed, 747 (50.6%) were women, and they were more likely to have rarely appropriate use 118 (15...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545395/characterizing-the-roles-of-changing-population-size-and-selection-on-the-evolution-of-flux-control-in-metabolic-pathways
#7
Alena Orlenko, Peter B Chi, David A Liberles
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genotype-phenotype map is fundamental to our understanding of genomes. Genes do not function independently, but rather as part of networks or pathways. In the case of metabolic pathways, flux through the pathway is an important next layer of biological organization up from the individual gene or protein. Flux control in metabolic pathways, reflecting the importance of mutation to individual enzyme genes, may be evolutionarily variable due to the role of mutation-selection-drift balance...
May 25, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542182/modelling-the-transmission-and-control-strategies-of-varicella-among-school-children-in-shenzhen-china
#8
Xiujuan Tang, Shi Zhao, Alice P Y Chiu, Hanwu Ma, Xu Xie, Shujiang Mei, Dongfeng Kong, Yanmin Qin, Zhigao Chen, Xin Wang, Daihai He
OBJECTIVES: Varicella (chickenpox) is a highly transmissible childhood disease. Between 2010 and 2015, it displayed two epidemic waves annually among school populations in Shenzhen, China. However, their transmission dynamics remain unclear and there is no school-based vaccination programme in Shenzhen to-date. In this study, we developed a mathematical model to compare a school-based vaccination intervention scenario with a baseline (i.e. no intervention) scenario. METHODS: Data on varicella reported cases were downloaded from the Infectious Disease Reporting Information Management System...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541891/critical-closing-pressure-during-controlled-increase-in-intracranial-pressure-comparison-of-three-methods
#9
Katarzyna Kaczmarska, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Agnieszka Uryga, Leanne Calviello, Georgios Varsos, Zofia Czosnyka, Marek Czosnyka
Critical closing pressure (CrCP) is the arterial blood pressure (ABP) threshold, below which small arterial vessels collapse and cerebral blood flow ceases. Here we aim to compare three methods for CrCPestimation in scenario of a controlled increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), induced by infusion tests performed in patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). METHODS: Computer recordings of directly-measured ICP, ABP and transcranial Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), from 37 NPH patients undergoing infusion tests, were retrospectively analyzed...
May 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540142/rapid-cycle-deliberate-practice-in-medical-education-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Jillian Taras, Tobias Everett
Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice (RCDP) is a novel simulation-based education model that is currently attracting interest, implementation, exploration and research in medical education. In RCDP, learners rapidly cycle between deliberate practice and directed feedback within the simulation scenario until mastery is achieved. The objective of this systematic review is to examine the literature and summarize the existing knowledge on RCDP in simulation-based medical education. Fifteen resources met inclusion criteria; they were diverse and heterogeneous, such that we did not perform a quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis but rather a narrative review on RCDP...
April 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539186/a-survey-of-inpatient-practitioner-knowledge-of-penicillin-allergy-at-2-community-teaching-hospitals
#11
Mary L Staicu, Dipekka Soni, Kelly M Conn, Allison Ramsey
BACKGROUND: The negative effect of the penicillin allergy label on antibiotic use and patient outcomes has brought to light the need for thorough penicillin allergy assessments and heightened practitioner education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practitioner knowledge of penicillin allergy and the clinical approach to the patients with penicillin allergy. METHODS: An electronic survey was distributed to attending physicians, residents, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants practicing adult inpatient medicine at 2 community-based teaching hospitals from February to April 2016...
May 20, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538287/cost-utility-analysis-of-reconstruction-compared-with-primary-amputation-for-patients-with-severe-lower-limb-trauma-in-colombia
#12
Mateo Ceballos, Carlos Oliver Valderrama, Luis Esteban Orozco, Laura Sánchez, Juan Pablo Valderrama, Luz Helena Lugo
BACKGROUND: To establish, from the health system perspective, the cost-utility relationship of limb reconstruction compared with primary amputation for patients over 32 years with grade IIIB and IIIC severe lower limb trauma in Colombia, S.A. METHODS: A Markov model was built including different short-term and long-term states that represent the main events that a patient could experience after a lower limb amputation or a reconstruction. A 42-year time horizon was considered for the base case...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537036/modeling-of-policies-for-reduction-of-ghg-emissions-in-energy-sector-using-ann-case-study-croatia-eu
#13
Tomislav Bolanča, Tomislav Strahovnik, Šime Ukić, Mirjana Novak Stankov, Marko Rogošić
This study describes the development of tool for testing different policies for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy sector using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The case study of Croatia was elaborated. Two different energy consumption scenarios were used as a base for calculations and predictions of GHG emissions: the business as usual (BAU) scenario and sustainable scenario. Both of them are based on predicted energy consumption using different growth rates; the growth rates within the second scenario resulted from the implementation of corresponding energy efficiency measures in final energy consumption and increasing share of renewable energy sources...
May 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536918/-cognitive-errors-in-diagnostic-decision-making
#14
REVIEW
Martin Gäbler
Approximately 10-15% of our diagnostic decisions are faulty and may lead to unfavorable and dangerous outcomes, which could be avoided. These diagnostic errors are mainly caused by cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process.Our medical diagnostic decision-making is based on intuitive "System 1" and analytical "System 2" diagnostic decision-making and can be deviated by unconscious cognitive biases.These deviations can be positively influenced on a systemic and an individual level. For the individual, metacognition (internal withdrawal from the decision-making process) and debiasing strategies, such as verification, falsification and rule out worst-case scenarios, can lead to improved diagnostic decisions making...
May 23, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534685/biotin-interference-with-routine-clinical-immunoassays-understand-the-causes-and-mitigate-the-risks
#15
Shanika Samarasinghe, Farah Meah, Vinita Singh, Arshi Basit, Nicholas Emanuele, Mary Ann Emanuele, Alaleh Mazhari, Earle W Holmes
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this report are to review the mechanisms of biotin interference with streptavidin/biotin-based immunoassays, identify automated immunoassay systems vulnerable to biotin interference, describe how to estimate and minimize the risk of biotin interference in vulnerable assays, and review the literature pertaining to biotin interference in endocrine function tests. METHODS: The data in the manufacturer's "Instructions for Use" for each of the methods utilized by seven immunoassay system were evaluated...
May 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533412/extraordinarily-rapid-speciation-in-a-marine-fish
#16
Paolo Momigliano, Henri Jokinen, Antoine Fraimout, Ann-Britt Florin, Alf Norkko, Juha Merilä
Divergent selection may initiate ecological speciation extremely rapidly. How often and at what pace ecological speciation proceeds to yield strong reproductive isolation is more uncertain. Here, we document a case of extraordinarily rapid speciation associated with ecological selection in the postglacial Baltic Sea. European flounders (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic exhibit two contrasting reproductive behaviors: pelagic and demersal spawning. Demersal spawning enables flounders to thrive in the low salinity of the Northern Baltic, where eggs cannot achieve neutral buoyancy...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532596/costs-and-cost-efficacy-analysis-of-the-2017-gesida-spanish-national-aids-plan-recommended-guidelines-for-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-adults
#17
Antonio Rivero, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Antonio Javier Blasco, José Ramón Arribas, Víctor Asensi, Manuel Crespo, Pere Domingo, José Antonio Iribarren, Pablo Lázaro, José López-Aldeguer, Fernando Lozano, Esteban Martínez, Santiago Moreno, Rosario Palacios, Juan Antonio Pineda, Federico Pulido, Rafael Rubio, Jesús Santos, Javier de la Torre, Montserrat Tuset, Josep M Gatell
INTRODUCTION: GESIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan panel of experts have recommended preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis...
May 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531883/conventional-versus-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-for-the-diagnosis-of-hilar-mediastinal-lymph-adenopathies-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Martina Bonifazi, Irene Tramacere, Lina Zuccatosta, Federico Mei, Michele Sediari, Maria Cristina Paonessa, Stefano Gasparini
BACKGROUND: Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) are both valuable diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of hilar/mediastinal lesions. Although a superiority of EBUS-TBNA over c-TBNA may be expected, evidence-based data on a direct comparison between these 2 procedures are still lacking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test the superiority of EBUS-TBNA over c-TBNA in a randomized trial and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness profile of a staged strategy, including c-TBNA as initial test followed by EBUS-TBNA, in case of inconclusive results at rapid on-site evaluation...
May 23, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528935/influencing-nursing-knowledge-and-attitudes-to-positively-affect-care-of-patients-with-persistent-pain-in-the-hospital-setting
#19
Alyson Keen, Brian McCrate, Susan McLennon, Alexis Ellis, Donna Wall, Sarah Jones
Hospitalized patients with persistent pain are among the most challenging populations to effectively manage because of coexistence with acute pain. Nurses play a vital role in pain management; however, gaps in knowledge and detrimental attitudes exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted evidence-based pain education program to increase nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain management. One group, paired, pretest/posttest educational intervention. A convenience sample of nurses from three medical and surgical inpatient units were recruited...
June 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528311/rapid-screening-and-identification-of-chemical-hazards-in-surface-and-drinking-water-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-and-a-case-control-filter
#20
Sarit L Kaserzon, Amy L Heffernan, Kristie Thompson, Jochen F Mueller, Maria Jose Gomez Ramos
Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
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