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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324597/the-burden-of-chronic-heart-failure-in-primary-care-in-italy
#1
Carlo Piccinni, Ippazio Cosimo Antonazzo, Monica Simonetti, Marco Giovanni Mennuni, Damiano Parretti, Claudio Cricelli, Delia Colombo, Mihaela Nica, Iacopo Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major public health concern. From a public health perspective, the epidemiology of CHF needs to be distinguished from that of its related acute form. Data stemming from primary care are crucial to better know and update the prevalence and incidence rates of CHF. AIM: To update the epidemiology of CHF in an Italian primary care setting and to describe socio-demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of these patients...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323642/a-bayesian-approach-for-three-dimensional-markerless-tumor-tracking-using-kv-imaging-during-lung-radiotherapy
#2
Chun-Chien Shieh, Vincent Caillet, Michelle Dunbar, Paul J Keall, Jeremy T Booth, Nicholas Hardcastle, Carol Haddad, Thomas Eade, Ilana Feain
The ability to monitor tumor motion without implanted markers can potentially enable broad access to more accurate and precise lung radiotherapy. A major challenge is that kilovoltage (kV) imaging based methods are rarely able to continuously track the tumor due to the inferior tumor visibility on 2D kV images. Another challenge is the estimation of 3D tumor position based on only 2D imaging information. The aim of this work is to address both challenges by proposing a Bayesian approach for markerless tumor tracking for the first time...
March 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317129/towards-robust-adaptive-radiation-therapy-strategies
#3
Michelle Böck, Anders Forsgren, Kjell Eriksson, Björn Hårdemark
PURPOSE: To set up a framework combining robust treatment planning with adaptive reoptimization in order to maintain high treatment quality, to respond to interfractional geometric variations and to identify those patients who will benefit the most from an adaptive fractionation schedule. METHODS: The authors propose robust adaptive strategies based on stochastic minimax optimization for a series of simulated treatments on a one-dimensional patient phantom. The plan applied during the first fractions should be able to handle anticipated systematic and random errors...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314970/-is-surgical-treatment-ever-indicated-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-and-if-so-based-on-which-scientific-rationale
#4
M Burger
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is a common event in renal cell carcinoma. Surgical resection of metastases may be feasible in two scenarios: aiming at palliation, which may be feasible due to reduced radiosensitivity of renal cell cancer, and aiming at prolonging survival, which may be feasible given the rather good prognosis of some patterns of metastasis. OBJECTIVE: This review intends to reflect on current evidence for surgical resection of metastases in both scenarios...
March 17, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314238/paternity-testing-and-other-inference-about-relationships-from-dna-mixtures
#5
Peter J Green, Julia Mortera
We present methods for inference about relationships between contributors to a DNA mixture and other individuals of known genotype: a basic example would be testing whether a contributor to a mixture is the father of a child of known genotype. The evidence for such a relationship is evaluated as the likelihood ratio for the specified relationship versus the alternative that there is no relationship. We analyse real casework examples from a criminal case and a disputed paternity case; in both examples part of the evidence was from a DNA mixture...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314191/robust-detection-and-segmentation-of-cell-nuclei-in-biomedical-images-based-on-a-computational-topology-framework
#6
Rodrigo Rojas-Moraleda, Wei Xiong, Niels Halama, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Steven Dooley, Luis Salinas, Dieter W Heermann, Nektarios A Valous
The segmentation of cell nuclei is an important step towards the automated analysis of histological images. The presence of a large number of nuclei in whole-slide images necessitates methods that are computationally tractable in addition to being effective. In this work, a method is developed for the robust segmentation of cell nuclei in histological images based on the principles of persistent homology. More specifically, an abstract simplicial homology approach for image segmentation is established. Essentially, the approach deals with the persistence of disconnected sets in the image, thus identifying salient regions that express patterns of persistence...
March 6, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302052/standardizing-effect-size-from-linear-regression-models-with-log-transformed-variables-for-meta-analysis
#7
Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Aurelio Tobías, Daniel Redondo, Elena Molina-Portillo, María José Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is very useful to summarize the effect of a treatment or a risk factor for a given disease. Often studies report results based on log-transformed variables in order to achieve the principal assumptions of a linear regression model. If this is the case for some, but not all studies, the effects need to be homogenized. METHODS: We derived a set of formulae to transform absolute changes into relative ones, and vice versa, to allow including all results in a meta-analysis...
March 17, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301484/health-facility-service-availability-and-readiness-for-intrapartum-and-immediate-postpartum-care-in-malawi-a-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Naoko Kozuki, Lolade Oseni, Angella Mtimuni, Reena Sethi, Tambudzai Rashidi, Fannie Kachale, Barbara Rawlins, Shivam Gupta
This analysis seeks to identify strengths and gaps in the existing facility capacity for intrapartum and immediate postpartum fetal and neonatal care, using data collected as a part of Malawi's Helping Babies Breath program evaluation. From August to September 2012, the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program (MCHIP) conducted a cross-sectional survey in 84 Malawian health facilities to capture current health facility service availability and readiness and health worker capacity and practice pertaining to labor, delivery, and immediate postpartum care...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300378/comparison-of-linear-and-nonlinear-programming-approaches-for-worst-case-dose-and-minmax-robust-optimization-of-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-dose-distributions
#9
Maryam Zaghian, Wenhua Cao, Wei Liu, Laleh Kardar, Sharmalee Randeniya, Radhe Mohan, Gino Lim
Robust optimization of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) takes uncertainties into account during spot weight optimization and leads to dose distributions that are resilient to uncertainties. Previous studies demonstrated benefits of linear programming (LP) for IMPT in terms of delivery efficiency by considerably reducing the number of spots required for the same quality of plans. However, a reduction in the number of spots may lead to loss of robustness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance in terms of plan quality and robustness of two robust optimization approaches using LP and nonlinear programming (NLP) models...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298899/decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-the-role-of-aversion-to-ambiguity-for-therapeutic-inertia-among-neurologists-discutir-ms
#10
Gustavo Saposnik, Angel P Sempere, Daniel Prefasi, Daniel Selchen, Christian C Ruff, Jorge Maurino, Philippe N Tobler
OBJECTIVES: Limited information is available on physician-related factors influencing therapeutic inertia (TI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Our aim was to evaluate whether physicians' risk preferences are associated with TI in MS care, by applying concepts from behavioral economics. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, participants answered questions regarding the management of 20 MS case scenarios, completed 3 surveys, and 4 experimental paradigms based on behavioral economics...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296798/all-cause-mortality-in-hiv-positive-adults-starting-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-correcting-for-loss-to-follow-up
#11
Nanina Anderegg, Leigh F Johnson, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Keri N Althoff, Eric Balestre, Matthew Law, Denis Nash, Bryan E Shepherd, Constantin T Yiannoutsos, Matthias Egger
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality in HIV-positive patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to discuss different approaches to calculating correction factors to account for loss to follow-up. METHODS: A total of 222 096 adult HIV-positive patients who started ART 2009-2014 in clinics participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS collaboration in 43 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and North America were included...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295674/skin-hydration-analysis-by-experiment-and-computer-simulations-and-its-implications-for-diapered-skin
#12
M Saadatmand, K J Stone, V N Vega, S Felter, S Ventura, G Kasting, J Jaworska
BACKGROUND: Experimental work on skin hydration is technologically challenging, and mostly limited to observations where environmental conditions are constant. In some cases, like diapered baby skin, such work is practically unfeasible, yet it is important to understand potential effects of diapering on skin condition. To overcome this challenge, in part, we developed a computer simulation model of reversible transient skin hydration effects. METHODS: Skin hydration model by Li et al...
March 13, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294645/cost-effectiveness-of-combination-daclatasvir-sofosbuvir-for-the-treatment-of-genotype-3-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-the-united-states
#13
Catherine Saint-Laurent Thibault, Divya Moorjaney, Michael L Ganz, Bruce Sill, Shalini Hede, Yong Yuan, Boris Gorsh
BACKGROUND: A phase III trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of Daklinza (daclatasvir or DCV) in combination with sofosbuvir (SOF) for treatment of genotype (GT) 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. AIM: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of DCV+SOF versus SOF in combination with ribavirin (RBV) over a 20-year time horizon from the payer perspective in the United States (US). METHODS: A published Markov model was adapted to reflect US demographic characteristics, treatment patterns, costs of drug acquisition, monitoring, disease and adverse event management, and mortality risks...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294642/cost-effectiveness-of-sequenced-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-with-targeted-immune-modulators
#14
Jeroen P Jansen, Devin Incerti, Alex Mutebi, Desi Peneva, Joanna MacEwan, Bradley Stolshek, Primal Kaur, Mahdi Gharaibeh, Vibeke Strand
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or Janus kinase/STAT pathway inhibitors (collectively referred to as bDMARDs) versus conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) from the US societal perspective for treatment of patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate responses to cDMARDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an individual patient simulation model that assesses the impact of treatments on disease based on clinical trial data and real-world evidence...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292706/effect-of-airflow-and-material-models-on-tissue-displacement-for-surgical-planning-of-pharyngeal-airways-in-pediatric-down-syndrome-patients
#15
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, Goutham Mylavarapu, Robert J Fleck, Raouf S Amin, Sally R Shott, Ephraim J Gutmark
Pharyngeal narrowing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results from flow-induced displacement of soft tissue. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of airflow parameters and material model on soft tissue displacement for planning surgical treatment in pediatric patients with OSA and Down syndrome (DS). Anatomically accurate, three-dimensional geometries of the pharynx and supporting tissue were reconstructed for one pediatric OSA patient with DS using magnetic resonance images. Six millimeters of adenoid tissue was virtually removed based on recommendations from the surgeon, to replicate the actual adenoidectomy...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292505/unintentional-methadone-and-buprenorphine-exposures-in-children-developing-prevention-messages
#16
Lauren Schwartz, Maria Mercurio-Zappala, Mary Ann Howland, Robert S Hoffman, Mark K Su
OBJECTIVES: To develop key messages for methadone and buprenorphine safety education material based on an analysis of calls to the NYC Poison Control Center (NYC PCC) and designed for distribution to caregivers of young children. METHODS: Retrospective review of all calls for children 5 years of age and younger involving methadone or buprenorphine from January 1, 2000, to June 15, 2014. A data abstraction form was completed for each case to capture patient demographics, exposure and caller sites, caller relation to patient, qualitative information regarding the exposure scenario, the product information, if naloxone was given, and the medical outcome of the case...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292482/cost-savings-from-reduced-hospitalizations-with-use-of-home-noninvasive-ventilation-for-copd
#17
Steven Coughlin, Fred W Peyerl, Sibyl H Munson, Aditi J Ravindranath, Teofilo L Lee-Chiong
BACKGROUND: Although evidence suggests significant clinical benefits of home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for management of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), economic analyses supporting the use of this technology are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of adopting home NIV, as part of a multifaceted intervention program, for severe COPD. METHODS: An economic model was developed to calculate savings associated with the use of Advanced NIV (averaged volume assured pressure support with autoexpiratory positive airway pressure; Trilogy100, Philips Respironics, Inc...
March 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292204/a-national-survey-of-the-management-of-patients-with-incidental-meningioma-in-the-united-kingdom
#18
Mujtaba H Mohammad, Emmanuel Chavredakis, Rasheed Zakaria, Andrew Brodbelt, Michael D Jenkinson
BACKGROUND: Incidental meningiomas are increasingly being diagnosed due to widespread use of brain imaging. Treatment options include surveillance, surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, but the natural history of these tumours is not fully understood and there are no accepted management guidelines to aid clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to assess current practice in the United Kingdom and identify areas of variation for further study. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to all members of the Society of British Neurosurgeons (SBNS)...
March 15, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290956/multidisciplinary-in-situ-simulation-based-training-as-a-postpartum-hemorrhage-quality-improvement-project
#19
Monica A Lutgendorf, Carmen Spalding, Elizabeth Drake, Dennis Spence, Jason O Heaton, Kristina V Morocco
BACKGROUND: Postpartum hemorrhage is a common obstetric emergency affecting 3 to 5% of deliveries, with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Effective management of postpartum hemorrhage requires strong teamwork and collaboration. We completed a multidisciplinary in situ postpartum hemorrhage simulation training exercise with structured team debriefing to evaluate hospital protocols, team performance, operational readiness, and real-time identification of system improvements...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289915/numerical-modeling-of-hemodynamics-scenarios-of-patient-specific-coronary-artery-bypass-grafts
#20
Francesco Ballarin, Elena Faggiano, Andrea Manzoni, Alfio Quarteroni, Gianluigi Rozza, Sonia Ippolito, Carlo Antona, Roberto Scrofani
A fast computational framework is devised to the study of several configurations of patient-specific coronary artery bypass grafts. This is especially useful to perform a sensitivity analysis of the hemodynamics for different flow conditions occurring in native coronary arteries and bypass grafts, the investigation of the progression of the coronary artery disease and the choice of the most appropriate surgical procedure. A complete pipeline, from the acquisition of patient-specific medical images to fast parameterized computational simulations, is proposed...
March 13, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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