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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922270/decision-making-in-pediatric-transport-team-dispatch-using-script-concordance-testing
#1
Prakadeshwari Rajapreyar, Karen Marcdante, Liyun Zhang, Pippa Simpson, Michael T Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare decision-making in dispatching pediatric transport teams by Medical Directors of pediatric transport teams (serving as experts) to that of Pediatric Intensivists and Critical Care fellows who often serve as Medical Control physicians. Understanding decision-making around team composition and dispatch could impact clinical management, cost effectiveness, and educational needs. DESIGN: Survey was developed using Script Concordance Testing guidelines...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921588/integrating-prior-information-into-microwave-tomography-part-2-impact-of-errors-in-prior-information-on-microwave-tomography-image-quality
#2
Douglas Kurrant, Anastasia Baran, Joe LoVetri, Elise Fear
PURPOSE: The authors have developed a method to combine a patient-specific map of tissue structure and average dielectric properties with microwave tomography. The patient-specific map is acquired with radar-based techniques and serves as prior information for microwave tomography. The impact that the degree of structural detail included in this prior information has on image quality was reported in a previous investigation. The aim of the present study is to extend this previous work by identifying and quantifying the impact that errors in the prior information have on image quality, including the reconstruction of internal structures and lesions embedded in fibroglandular tissue...
September 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921580/integrating-prior-information-into-microwave-tomography-part-1-impact-of-detail-on-image-quality
#3
Douglas Kurrant, Anastasia Baran, Joe LoVetri, Elise Fear
PURPOSE: The authors investigate the impact that incremental increases in the level of detail of patient-specific prior information have on image quality and the convergence behavior of an inversion algorithm in the context of near-field microwave breast imaging. A methodology is presented that uses image quality measures to characterize the ability of the algorithm to reconstruct both internal structures and lesions embedded in fibroglandular tissue. The approach permits key aspects that impact the quality of reconstruction of these structures to be identified and quantified...
September 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918445/pre-emptive-intestinal-transplant-the-surgeon-s-point-of-view
#4
REVIEW
Augusto Lauro, Ignazio R Marino, Kishore R Iyer
Pre-emptive transplantation is a well-established practice for certain types of end-organ failure such as in the use of kidney transplantation. For irreversible intestinal failure, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) remains the gold standard, due to the suboptimal long-term results of intestinal transplantation. As such, the only role for pre-emptive transplantation, if at all, will be for patients identified to be at high risk of complications and mortality while on definitive long-term TPN. In these patients, the timing of early listing and transplantation could become life-saving, taking into account that mortality on the waiting list is still the highest for intestinal candidates...
September 16, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918194/cleaning-and-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-approach-for-effective-safety-assessment
#5
Melissa J Vincent, Ann Parker, Andrew Maier
Research indicates a correlative relationship between asthma and use of consumer cleaning products. We conduct a systematic review of epidemiological literature on persons who use or are exposed to cleaning products, both in occupational and domestic settings, and risk of asthma or asthma-like symptoms to improve understanding of the causal relationship between exposure and asthma. A scoring method for assessing study reliability is presented. Although research indicates an association between asthma and the use of cleaning products, no study robustly investigates exposure to cleaning products or ingredients along with asthma risk...
September 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918078/assessment-of-environmental-impacts-and-operational-costs-of-the-implementation-of-an-innovative-source-separated-urine-treatment
#6
Elorri Igos, Mathilde Besson, Tomás Navarrete Gutiérrez, Ana Barbara Bisinella de Faria, Enrico Benetto, Ligia Barna, Aras Ahmadi, Mathieu Spérandio
Innovative treatment technologies and management methods are necessary to valorise the constituents of wastewater, in particular nutrients from urine (highly concentrated and can have significant impacts related to artificial fertilizer production). The FP7 project, ValuefromUrine, proposed a new two-step process (called VFU) based on struvite precipitation and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to recover ammonia, which is further transformed into ammonium sulphate. The environmental and economic impacts of its prospective implementation in the Netherlands were evaluated based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and operational costs...
September 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917311/a-new-lyophilized-tachyzoite-based-elisa-to-diagnose-besnoitia-spp-infection-in-bovids-and-wild-ruminants-improves-specificity
#7
P García-Lunar, L M Ortega-Mora, G Schares, C Diezma-Díaz, G Álvarez-García
Recent studies have reported that routinely used whole or soluble Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoite (TZ) extract-based ELISAs potentially give rise to a high number of false-positive results, which may compromise control and the epidemiological studies of bovine besnoitiosis. Thus, western blot (WB) has been recommended as a confirmatory test. In the present study, a new ELISA test that employs lyophilized tachyzoites for the first time (BbSALUVET ELISA 2.0) was developed and validated with cattle sera (n=606) under a worst-case scenario...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917209/ecological-risk-estimation-of-organophosphorus-pesticides-in-riverine-ecosystems
#8
Sze Yee Wee, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Pesticides are of great concern because of their existence in ecosystems at trace concentrations. Worldwide pesticide use and its ecological impacts (i.e., altered environmental distribution and toxicity of pesticides) have increased over time. Exposure and toxicity studies are vital for reducing the extent of pesticide exposure and risk to the environment and humans. Regional regulatory actions may be less relevant in some regions because the contamination and distribution of pesticides vary across regions and countries...
September 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916293/is-there-ever-a-role-for-the-unilateral-do-not-attempt-resuscitation-order-in-pediatric-care
#9
Jonathan M Marron, Emma Jones, Joanne Wolfe
Care for children as they near the end of life is difficult and very complex. More difficult still are the decisions regarding what interventions are and are not indicated during these trying times. Occasionally, families of children who are nearing the end of life disagree with the assessment of the medical team regarding these interventions. In rare cases, the medical team can be moved to enact a do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) order against the wishes of the patient's parents. This manuscript presents one such illustrative case and discusses the ethical issues relevant to such challenging clinical scenarios...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916210/modelling-multi-site-transmission-of-the-human-papillomavirus-and-its-impact-on-vaccination-effectiveness
#10
P Lemieux-Mellouki, M Drolet, M Jit, G Gingras, M Brisson
OBJECTIVE: Previous HPV models have only included genital transmission, when evidence suggests that transmission between several anatomical sites occurs. We compared model predictions of population-level HPV vaccination effectiveness against genital HPV16 infection in women, using a 1) uni-site (genital site), and a 2) multi-site model (genital and one extragenital site). METHODS: We developed a uni-site and a multi-site deterministic HPV transmission model, assuming natural immunity was either site-specific or systemic...
August 25, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912340/donor-recipient-identification-in-para-and-poly-phyletic-trees-under-alternative-hiv-1-transmission-hypotheses-using-approximate-bayesian-computation
#11
Ethan O Romero-Severson, Ingo Bulla, Nick Hengartner, Inês Bártolo, Ana Abecasis, José M Azevedo-Pereira, Nuno Taveira, Thomas Leitner
Diversity of the founding population of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) transmissions raises many important biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues. In up to 40% of sexual infections there is clear evidence for multiple founding variants, which can influence the efficacy of putative prevention methods and the reconstruction of epidemiologic histories. To infer who-infected-whom and to compute the probability of alternative transmission scenarios, while explicitly taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account, we created an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) method based on a set of statistics measuring phylogenetic topology, branch lengths, and genetic diversity...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912062/simulation-of-a-dynamical-ecotourism-system-with-low-carbon-activity-a-case-from-western-china
#12
Yuan He, Ping Huang, Hong Xu
Currently, sustainable tourism is becoming more and more important in developing ecological economies. To achieve low-carbon development, some industries, such as logistics and municipal solid waste, have already taken action, but tourism has not attached sufficient importance to this issue. This paper designs an ecotourism system including tourism, carbon waste (solid waste and sewage), and ecology (water supply and green areas) to simulate low-carbon ecotourism through a quantitative approach. This paper explores the tourism system as well as some interactive factors and studies their quantitative relationship based on historical data...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910743/is-scena-a-good-approach-for-side-stream-integrated-treatment-from-an-environmental-and-economic-point-of-view
#13
Stefano Longo, Nicola Frison, Daniele Renzi, Francesco Fatone, Almudena Hospido
The environmental and economic benefits and burdens of including the first Short Cut Enhanced Nutrient Abatement (SCENA) into a real municipal wastewater treatment plant were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC). The implications of accomplishing nitrogen (N) removal and phosphorus (P) recovery via nitrite in the side stream were assessed taking into account the actual effluent quality improvement, the changes in the electricity and chemical consumption, N2O, CO2 and CH4 emissions and the effects of land application of biosolids, among others...
September 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910537/analysis-of-mechanics-of-side-impact-test-defined-in-un-ece-regulation-129
#14
Pawel Baranowski, Krzysztof Damaziak, Lukasz Mazurkiewicz, Jerzy Malachowski, Artur Muszynski, Dario Vangi
OBJECTIVE: This article discusses differences between a side impact procedure described in UN/ECE Regulation 129 and scenarios observed in real world cases. METHODS: Numerical simulations of side impact tests utilizing different boundary conditions are used to compare the severity of the Regulation 129 test and the other tests with different kinematics of child resistant systems (CRS). In the simulations, the authors use a validated finite element (FE) model of real world CRS together with a fully deformable numerical model of the Q3 anthropomorphic test device (ATD) by Humanetics Innovative Solution, Inc...
September 14, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903876/persistence-of-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-sequence-types-in-spite-of-a-control-program-for-enzootic-pneumonia-in-pigs
#15
Gudrun Overesch, Peter Kuhnert
Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs caused by Mycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae has successfully been combatted in Switzerland. A control program was fully implemented in 2004 which is based on total depopulation strategies of affected fattening farms as well as partial depopulation on breeding farms. Thereby, the number of cases has dropped drastically from more than 200 in 2003 to two cases in 2013. Currently monitoring is done based on clinical observation and subsequent diagnostic of coughing pigs. Moreover, in case of more than 10% gross pathological lesions per slaughter batch laboratory confirmation for EP is compulsory...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903865/economic-evaluation-of-the-eradication-program-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-in-the-swiss-dairy-sector
#16
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902854/an-experimental-study-of-the-online-information-paradox-does-en-route-information-improve-road-network-performance
#17
Kasun P Wijayaratna, Vinayak V Dixit, Laurent Denant-Boemont, S Travis Waller
This study investigates the empirical presence of a theoretical transportation paradox, defined as the "Online Information Paradox" (OIP). The paradox suggests that, for certain road networks, the provision of online information deteriorate travel conditions for all users of that network relative to the situation where no online information is provided to users. The analytical presence of the paradox was derived for a specific network structure by using two equilibrium models, the first being the Expected User Equilibrium (EUE) solution (no information scenario) and the other being the User Equilibrium with Recourse (UER) solution (with information scenario)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900674/who-is-willing-to-participate-in-low-risk-pragmatic-clinical-trials-without-consent
#18
Rafael Dal-Ré, Antonio J Carcas, Xavier Carné
PURPOSE: General notification offers a possible alternative to written informed consent for pragmatic randomized controlled trials (pRCTs). It involves patients being informed through brochures, posters, and letters that research is being conducted simultaneously to providing clinical care and that patients will be enrolled in pRCTs without study-specific consent. A previous survey found that a substantial minority of respondents endorsed general notification. We aimed to know who is willing to enroll in this type of trials using general notification rather than written consent...
September 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899625/cost-effectiveness-of-hpv-vaccination-in-the-context-of-high-cervical-cancer-incidence-and-low-screening-coverage
#19
Triin Võrno, Katrin Lutsar, Anneli Uusküla, Lee Padrik, Terje Raud, Rainer Reile, Oliver Nahkur, Raul-Allan Kiivet
BACKGROUND: Estonia has high cervical cancer incidence and low screening coverage. We modelled the impact of population-based bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent HPV vaccination alongside cervical cancer screening. METHODS: A Markov cohort model of the natural history of HPV infection was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating a cohort of 12-year-old girls with bivalent, quadrivalent or nonavalent vaccine in two doses in a national, school-based vaccination programme...
September 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894542/perceptions-of-an-integrated-curriculum-among-dental-students-in-a-public-university-in-saudi-arabia
#20
Khulood Sami Hussein
BACKGROUND: Being aware of the limits of traditional discipline-based education, the Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) tasked basic medical science faculty members with developing a new integrated curriculum for undergraduate dental students to be applied in the 2014/2015 academic year. OBJECTIVE: To determine the students' perceptions of the restructured curriculum and elicit student suggestions for improvement. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to all first-year dental undergraduate students (n=192) enrolled in the academic year of 2014/2015...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
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