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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429097/immunomodulatory-and-therapeutic-role-of-cinnamomum-verum-extracts-in-collagen-induced-arthritic-balb-c-mice
#1
Mirza Muhammad Fahd Qadir, Attya Bhatti, Muhammad Usman Ashraf, Mansur Abdullah Sandhu, Sidrah Anjum, Peter John
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cinnamomum verum (CV), also known as 'Dalchini', is the dry bark of the Cinnamomum verum (L.) plant, and has been used as a traditional Pakistani medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation in patients suffering from arthritic rheumatism. It contains alkaloids, triterpenes, Cinnamaldehyde and other volatile oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying biological effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) and methyl alcohol (MeOH) extracts from CV on collagen type-II induced arthritic (CIA) mice...
April 20, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#2
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427428/quality-issues-with-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-accessories-and-buffer-packaging-findings-from-a-5-country-private-sector-project-in-africa
#3
Steven A Harvey, Sandra Incardona, Nina Martin, Cristina Lussiana, Elizabeth Streat, Stephanie Dolan, Nora Champouillon, Daniel J Kyabayinze, Robert Mugerwa, Grace Nakanwagi, Nancy Njoki, Ratsimandisa Rova, Jane Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Use of antigen-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has increased exponentially over the last decade. WHO's Global Malaria Programme, FIND, and other collaborators have established a quality assurance scheme to guide product selection, lot verification, transport, storage, and training procedures. Recent concerns over the quality of buffer packaging and test accessories suggest a need to include these items in product assessments. This paper describes quality problems with buffer and accessories encountered in a project promoting private sector RDT use in five African countries and suggests steps to avoid or more rapidly identify and resolve such problems...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426943/how-strong-is-the-evidence-for-using-blood-biomarkers-alone-to-screen-for-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#4
Helen Howlett, Sarah Abernethy, Nigel W Brown, Judith Rankin, William K Gray
Accurate and early identification of women at risk from alcohol consumption during pregnancy allows education and support programmes to be targeted at those most in need. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to compare the efficacy of blood analysis and maternal self-report in detecting at risk women during pregnancy. This review investigated diagnostic accuracy. We searched four databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo and CINAHL) for relevant articles and conducted hand searches of recent issues of key journals in the field...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#5
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425438/mitochondrial-dna-copy-number-in-peripheral-blood-cell-and-hypertension-risk-among-mining-workers-a-case-control-study-in-chinese-coal-miners
#6
L Lei, J Guo, X Shi, G Zhang, H Kang, C Sun, J Huang, T Wang
Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425416/gnpat-rs11558492-is-not-a-major-modifier-of-iron-status-study-of-italian-hemochromatosis-patients-and-blood-donors
#7
Federico Greni, Luca Valenti, Raffaella Mariani, Irene Pelloni, Raffaela Rametta, Fabiana Busti, Giulia Ravasi, Domenico Girelli, Silvia Fargion, Stefania Galimberti, Alberto Piperno, Sara Pelucchi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: HFE-related Hemochromatosis (HH) is characterized by marked phenotype heterogeneity, probably due to the combined action of acquired and genetic factors. Among them, GNPAT rs11558492 was proposed as genetic modifier of iron status, but results are still controversial. To shed light on these discrepancies, we genotyped 298 Italian p.C282Y homozygotes and 169 healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Allele and genotype frequencies were analysed and compared with those reported in Exome Variant Server (EVS)...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425264/rho-rho-kinase-signalling-in-chronically-alcohol-fed-mice
#8
Havva Kubat, Ahmet Sencer Yurtsever, Kansu Büyükafşar
BACKGROUND/AIM: The effects of chronic ethanol consumption on male sexual function are debateable, and its effects on the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway are unknown. Therefore, we investigated smooth muscle reactivity and Rho/Rho-kinase signalling in the corpus cavernosum of ethanol-fed mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanol was added to drinking water at 5% concentration in the first 2 days with 5% increment every subsequent 2 days, up to a final concentration of 20% for 45 days...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425102/fatal-overdose-of-gamma-hydroxybutyrate-acid-after-ingestion-of-1-4-butanediol
#9
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Raphael Cornez, Christophe Demarly, Gilles Tournel, Valery Hédouin
We report a case of fatal intoxication from 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), which was ingested by a young and "naïve" gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) consumer during a party with the co-ingestion of alcohol, cannabis, and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine. The following drug concentrations were found using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry on autopsy samples and on a cup and a glass found at the scene: 20,350 mg/L (bottle) for 1,4-BD; 1020 mg/L (femoral blood), 3380 mg/L (cardiac blood), 47,280 mg/L (gastric content), and 570 mg/L (vitreous humor) for GHB...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424436/-dyslipidemia-and-cardiovascular-risk-assessment-in-hiv-positive-patients
#10
Serhat Uysal, Mürşide Tuncel Başoğlu, Bahar Boydak, Deniz Gökengin
OBJECTIVE: Dyslipidemia is a major complication of antiretroviral treatment. Aim of the present study was to screen baseline lipid levels and cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive patients and analyze change in those parameters after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: HIV-positive patients who presented at our clinic between April 2011 and August 2012 were included. Study included 19 female (22.1%) and 67 male (77.9%) patients (mean age 39...
March 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421623/a-preliminary-investigation-of-the-effect-of-acute-alcohol-on-dopamine-transmission-as-assessed-by-11-c-phno
#11
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Alan A Wilson, Isabelle Boileau, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies exploring the effect of acute alcohol on dopamine (DA) levels have yielded inconsistent results, with only some studies suggesting increased synaptic DA levels after an alcohol challenge. The D2 /D3 agonist radiotracer, [(11) C]-(+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin ([(11) C]-(+)-PHNO), has greater sensitivity to synaptic DA fluctuation than previously used antagonist radiotracers and is in principle more suitable for imaging alcohol-induced changes in DA...
April 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421282/associations-between-a-mediterranean-diet-pattern-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-european-adolescents
#12
Aline Arouca, Nathalie Michels, Luis A Moreno, Esther M González-Gil, Ascensión Marcos, Sonia Gómez, Ligia Esperanza Díaz, Kurt Widhalm, Dénes Molnár, Yannis Manios, Frederic Gottrand, Antonio Kafatos, Mathilde Kersting, Michael Sjöström, Alejandro de la O, Marika Ferrari, Inge Huybrechts, Marcela Gonzalez-Gross, Stefaan De Henauw
AIM: To test whether the Mediterranean diet score and each food-subgroup is associated with inflammatory biomarkers in European adolescents. METHODS: In 464 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, inflammation markers, and food intake determined by two computerized 24-h recalls. The Mediterranean diet score and its food-subgroups (Vegetables, Fruits and Nuts, Pulses, Cereal and Roots, Monounsaturated/Saturated fat ratio, Dairy, Fish, Meat and Alcohol) were evaluated...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418820/case-241-hemiparkinsonism-hemiatrophy-spect-with-99m-tc-trodat-1-and-muscle-mr-imaging-abnormalities
#13
Thiago Cardoso Vale, Flávia Cristina de Lima Pinto, José Luiz Pedroso, Marília Alves Dos Reis, Ilza Rosa Batista, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, René Leandro Magalhães Rivero, Renato Adam Mendonça, Orlando G Barsottini
History A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with a history of progressive mild left-sided weakness and slowness of movements. Symptoms began 4 years earlier, and the patient noticed a progressive decline in his daily routine due to gait difficulties in the past year. There was no history of head trauma, surgery, drug therapy, smoking, or alcohol abuse, nor was there any relevant family history. Examination revealed normal cognition (29 of 30 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination and 27 of 30 points on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment) and normal cerebellar, sensory, cranial nerve, and autonomic function...
May 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414989/role-of-cortical-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-depression-and-tricyclic-antidepressants
#14
Bruk Getachew, Sheketha R Hauser, Antonei B Csoka, Robert E Taylor, Yousef Tizabi
INTRODUCTION: Although a role for alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha-2 ARs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and depression is suggested, very little information on a direct interaction between alcohol and these receptors is available. METHODS: In this study adult female Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression, were exposed to alcohol vapor 3h daily for 10days (blood alcohol concentration ∼150mg%) followed by daily injection of 10mg/kg of imipramine (IMP, a selective norepinephrine NE/serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or nomifensine (NOMI, a selective NE/dopamine reuptake inhibitor)...
April 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414683/recurrent-hypertriglyceridemic-pancreatitis-htgp-and-the-use-of-insulin-drip-as-treatment
#15
T Tran, N Lee
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pancreatitis by definition is a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis and is commonly associated with alcoholism in the US. Another cause of chronic pancreatitis is hypertriglyceridemia (HTGP);, occurring in 1-5 percent of cases. The incidence of HTGP is higher in patients with diabetes and HIV, usually requiring triglyceride levels > 1000 mg/dL. CASE: A 33 year old man with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes and recurrent pancreatitis, first diagnosed 5 years prior, presented as a transfer from an outside hospital for a recurrent episode of HTGP...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414056/protective-effects-of-glycyrrhizic-acid-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#16
Xue Sun, Xingping Duan, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaodong Ma, Huijun Sun, Kexin Liu, Qiang Meng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413167/impact-of-a-new-law-to-reduce-the-legal-blood-alcohol-concentration-limit-a-poisson-regression-analysis-and-descriptive-approach
#17
Beatriz Nistal-Nuño
BACKGROUND: In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 lowered the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for impaired drivers from 0.1% to 0.08% and the BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.05% to 0.03%, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of this enactment on road traffic injuries and fatalities in Chile. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were analyzed using a descriptive and a Generalized Linear Models approach, type of Poisson regression, to analyze deaths and injuries in a series of additive Log-Linear Models accounting for the effects of law implementation, month influence, a linear time trend and population exposure...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Research in Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#18
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412824/assessment-of-lean-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-a-middle-income-country-prevalence-and-its-association-with-metabolic-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Mohammadreza Naderian, Shadi Kolahdoozan, Amir Sina Sharifi, Gholamreza Garmaroudi, Mehdi Yaseri, Hossein Poustchi, Amir Ali Sohrabpour
BACKGROUND: Recent data has proven that the WHO (world health organization) cut-off for obesity is not applicable to the Asian population. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of lean NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) in the capital of Iran and extract probable predictors for this growing health issue in this population. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study on apparently healthy subjects over 18 years of age. The participants were interviewed for baseline demographic and clinical information...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412576/the-occurrence-of-alcohol-drugs-by-toxicological-examination-of-selected-drivers-in-hong-kong
#20
Wing-Chi Cheng, Kwok-Leung Dao
The study is to investigate the extent of alcohol/drug(s) use among selected drivers, i.e. fatally injured drivers from traffic accidents (2006-2015), drink driving (2006-2015) and drug driving (2010-2015) cases, in Hong Kong. Between 2006 and 2015, specimens from a total of 223 fatally injured drivers were received for toxicological examination. Except for one driver, all other drivers with positive findings were male. Alcohol and/or drugs were detected in 60 (27%) cases where alcohol alone was detected in 40 cases (18%) while drugs with/without alcohol were detected in 20 cases (9%)...
April 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
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