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"resistance training"

Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Gilberto C Laurentino, Jeremy P Loenneke
The principle of progressive overload must be adhered to for individuals to continually increase muscle size with resistance training. While the majority of trained individuals adhere to this principle by increasing the number of sets performed per exercise session, this does not appear to be an effective method for increasing muscle size once a given threshold is surpassed. Opposite the numerous studies examining differences in training loads and sets of exercise performed, a few studies have assessed the importance of training frequency with respect to muscle growth, none of which have tested very high frequencies of training (e...
October 17, 2016: Sports Medicine
Alex S Ribeiro, Brad J Schoenfeld, Steven J Fleck, Fábio L C Pina, Matheus A Nascimento, Edilson S Cyrino
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance training (RT) performed in a pyramid (PR) versus a traditional (TD) system on muscular strength, muscle mass, and hormonal responses in older women. Twenty-five older women (67.6 ± 5.1 years, 65.9 ± 11.1 kg, 154.7 ± 5.8 cm, and 27.5 ± 4.5 kg m) performed both a TD and PR system RT program in a balanced crossover design. The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8-12 RM with a constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR system consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incrementally higher loads for each set...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hailee L Wingfield, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Malia N Melvin, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Anthony C Hackney, Mark A Weaver, Eric D Ryan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. METHODS: Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Daniela Bassi, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Vivian Maria Arakelian, Flávia Cristina Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, José Carlos Bonjorno Júnior, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
BACKGROUND: Concurrent aerobic and resistance training (CART) programs have been widely recommended as an important strategy to improve physiologic and functional performance in patients with chronic diseases. However, the impact of a personalized CART program in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) requires investigation. Therefore, the primary aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of CART programs on metabolic profile, glycemic control, and exercise capacity in patients with diabetes...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Ran Wang, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. METHODS: Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Pamela S Hinton, Peggy Nigh, John Thyfault
PURPOSE: We previously reported that 12months of resistance training (RT, 2×/wk, N=19) or jump training (JUMP, 3×/wk, N=19) increased whole body and lumbar spine BMD and increased serum bone formation markers relative to resorption in physically active (≥4h/wk) men (mean age: 44±2y; median: 44y) with osteopenia of the hip or spine. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the effects of the RT or JUMP intervention on potential endocrine mediators of the exercise effects on bone, specifically IGF-I, PTH and sclerostin...
October 12, 2016: Bone
Eve Normandin, Elizabeth Chmelo, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh, Barbara J Nicklas
PURPOSE: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is greatest in older obese adults and effective evidence-based treatment strategies are lacking. This study determined the efficacy of adding caloric restriction (CR) for weight loss to resistance training (RT) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in older overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We performed a 5-month randomized controlled trial in 126 older (65-79 yrs) overweight and obese (Body Mass Index: 27-35 kg/m) men and women who were assigned to progressive 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT with (RT+CR) or without caloric restriction (RT)...
October 13, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Farzad Zehsaz, Negin Farhangi, Mehri Ghahramani
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the 16-week exercise training program on serum omentin-1 in relation to change in insulin resistance in obese male children. METHODS: Thirty-two obese male children, aged 9 to 12 years, were randomly assigned into Exercise Group (ExG; n=16) and Control Group (CG; n=16). ExG participated in a 16-week exercise training program which combined various forms of aerobic activities and resistance training...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Gert Ulrich, Mario Parstorfer
PURPOSE: There is limited data on postactivation potentiation (PAP) effects following plyometric conditioning contractions (CC), especially in the upper body. Therefore, the study compared plyometric CC with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CC aiming to improve upper body power performance due to a PAP-effect. METHODS: Sixteen resistance-trained males completed three experimental trials in a randomized order which composed of either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON) or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Matheus Amarante DO Nascimento, Aline M Gerage, Renata S Januário, Fábio L Pina, Luís A Gobbo, Jerry L Mayhew, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the aging process tends to lead to sarcopenia and osteoporosis which reduce the quality of life in older women. Resistance training (RT) is widely supported as a means of delaying or offsetting the decline in muscle strength and loss of bone mineral content in older women. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effects of a 12-wk RT program (3 times a week) with dietary intake maintenance on muscle strength and body composition of healthy, sedentary older women...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Joseph J Knapik, Daniel W Trone, Susan McGraw, Ryan A Steelman, Krista G Austin, Harris R Lieberman
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
Brittany R Counts, Lindy M Rossow, Kevin T Mattocks, J Grant Mouser, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Jeremy P Loenneke
Low-load resistance exercise with the blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to increase muscle size similar to that of traditional high-load resistance training. Throughout the BFR literature, there is a vast difference between the quantity of young females included in the literature compared to young males, older males and older females. Therefore, the purpose of this minireview is to discuss the underrepresentation of young females in the BFR literature and review the potential physiologic reasons as to why they may have been excluded...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Kestutis Skucas, Vaida Pokvytyte
BACKGROUND: Of the research was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of combined dry land strength and resistance swimming training for increasing upper body strength, swimming performance and stroking parameters in swimmers with paraplegia and to determine correlation between these parameters. METHODS: The preliminary, the second (after 4 weeks), the third (after 8 weeks) and the last (after 12 weeks) testing were performed. The measurements consisted of the following assessments: the assessment of isometric strength in dry land (tension force), the assessment of swimming performance and stroke parameters during 50m backstroke, the assessment of strength during tethered swimming (tension force)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Erika Zemková, Ol'ga Kyselovičová, Michal Jeleň, Zuzana Kováčiková, Gábor Ollé, Gabriela Štefániková, Tomáš Vilman, Miroslav Baláž, Timea Kurdiová, Jozef Ukropec, Barbara Ukropcová
The authors evaluated the effect of 3 months of resistance and aerobic training (3 sessions/week) on body balance in a group of 25 overweight and obese individuals. Prior to and after the training, they performed static and task-oriented balance tests under various conditions. Mean center of pressure (CoP) velocity and mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis registered during a one-legged stance significantly decreased after the resistance training (19.1%, p = .024; 29.3%, p = .009). Mean trace length of the CoP in the y-axis decreased significantly also during a bipedal stance on a foam surface with eyes open and closed (10...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Brittany R Counts, Jeremy P Loenneke
In this paper we revisit a topic originally discussed in 1955, namely the lack of direct evidence that muscle hypertrophy from exercise plays an important role in increasing strength. To this day, long-term adaptations in strength are thought to be primarily contingent on changes in muscle size. Given this assumption, there has been considerable attention placed on programs designed to allow for maximization of both muscle size and strength. However, the conclusion that a change in muscle size affects a change in strength is surprisingly based on little evidence...
October 7, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
P Mensberg, S Nyby, P G Jørgensen, H Storgaard, M T Jensen, J Sivertsen, J J Holst, B Kiens, E A Richter, F K Knop, T Vilsbøll
AIMS: Exercise as well as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment improves glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of exercise in combination with a GLP-1RA (liraglutide) or placebo for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Thirty-three overweight, dysregulated and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 16 weeks of exercise and liraglutide or exercise and placebo. Both groups had three supervised 60-minute training sessions per week including spinning and resistance training...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts, Vincent J Dalbo, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Kristina L Kendall, Jordan R Moon, Jeffrey R Stout
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the chronic effects of different whey protein forms on body composition and performance when supplemented with resistance training. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (N = 56, 21.4 ± 0.4 years, 79.5 ± 1.0 kg) participated in an 8-week resistance training regimen (2 upper-body sessions and 2 lower-body sessions per week) and received one of 4 double-blinded treatments: 30 g/serving carbohydrate placebo (PLA) or 30 g/serving protein from either (a) 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC), (b) high-lactoferrin-containing WPC (WPC-L), or (c) extensively hydrolyzed WPC (WPH)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Stuart M Phillips
Protein supplementation during resistance exercise training augments hypertrophic gains. Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
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