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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822051/new-basal-insulins-a-clinical-perspective-of-their-use-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-and-novel-treatment-options-beyond-basal-insulin
#1
REVIEW
Patrick F Frias, Juan Pablo Frias
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to review advances in basal insulin formulations and new treatment options for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic targets despite optimized basal insulin therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in basal insulin formulations have resulted in products with increasingly favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including flatter, peakless action profiles, less inter- and intra-patient variability, and longer duration of activity...
August 18, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821595/a-computational-model-of-1-5-ag-dynamics-during-pregnancy
#2
Seyedeh M Zekavat, Slava Butkovich, Grace J Young, David M Nathan, Danny Petrasek
The importance of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) as an intermediate biomarker for diabetic pregnancy is multi-fold: (1) it serves as a reliable indicator of moderate-level glycemic control, especially during early gestation; (2) it has been associated with increased risk of diabetes, independent of HbA1c and fasting glucose; and (3) it is an independent risk factor for the development of eclampsia during pregnancy. However, the clinical use of this biomarker during pregnancy has been underutilized due to physiological changes in glomerular filtration rate, plasma volume, and other hemodynamic parameters which have been hypothesized to bias gestational serum 1,5-AG concentrations...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821468/design-and-development-of-a-stepped-care-behavioral-intervention-to-support-parents-of-young-children-newly-diagnosed-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
Marisa E Hilliard, Carrie Tully, Maureen Monaghan, Jichuan Wang, Randi Streisand
One of the most common chronic conditions of childhood, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children is increasing. Early childhood development complicates optimal T1D management and glycemic outcomes. Parents are at risk for elevated psychological distress, especially immediately following diagnosis. Few empirically supported interventions are available to support parents and promote optimal T1D management during this vulnerable period. This paper reports on the development and study design of First STEPS: Study of Type 1 in Early childhood and Parenting Support...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820780/clinical-effectiveness-of-intravenous-exenatide-infusion-in-perioperative-glycemic-control-after-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-phase-ii-iii-randomized-trial
#4
Guillaume Besch, Andrea Perrotti, Frederic Mauny, Marc Puyraveau, Maude Baltres, Guillaume Flicoteaux, Lucie Salomon du Mont, Benoit Barrucand, Emmanuel Samain, Sidney Chocron, Sebastien Pili-Floury
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of intravenous exenatide compared to insulin in perioperative blood glucose control in coronary artery bypass grafting surgery patients. METHODS: Patients more than 18 yr old admitted for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were included in a phase II/III nonblinded randomized superiority trial. Current insulin use and creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml/min were exclusion criteria. Two groups were compared: the exenatide group, receiving exenatide (1-h bolus of 0...
August 18, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819457/type-1-diabetes-urinary-proteomics-and-protein-network-analysis-support-perturbation-of-lysosomal-function
#5
Harinder Singh, Yanbao Yu, Moo-Jin Suh, Manolito G Torralba, Robert D Stenzel, Andrey Tovchigrechko, Vishal Thovarai, Derek M Harkins, Seesandra V Rajagopala, Whitney Osborne, Fran R Cogen, Paul B Kaplowitz, Karen E Nelson, Ramana Madupu, Rembert Pieper
While insulin replacement therapy restores the health and prevents the onset of diabetic complications (DC) for many decades, some T1D patients have elevated hemoglobin A1c values suggesting poor glycemic control, a risk factor of DC. We surveyed the stool microbiome and urinary proteome of a cohort of 220 adolescents and children, half of which had lived with T1D for an average of 7 years and half of which were healthy siblings. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene did not reveal significant differences in gut microbial alpha-diversity comparing the two cohorts...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819193/experiments-suggesting-extra-digestive-effects-of-enteral-pancreatic-amylase-and-its-peptides-on-glucose-homeostasis-in-a-pig-model
#6
Stefan G Pierzynowski, Kateryna Goncharova, Peter C Gregory, Björn Weström, Sergiy E Podpryatov, Sergii S Podpriatov, Jarosław Woliński, Hlib Repich, Nils Wierup, Liudmyla Lozinska
The studies presented were designed to highlight the impact of pancreatic enzymes on glycemic control and insulin response. Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were monitored after intravenous, oral or direct gut glucose tolerance tests (GTT) in 6 pigs with an intact gastrointestinal tract and in 12 pigs following duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery. In the intact pigs, pancreatic enzymes (Creon®) given orally 1 h prior to the GTT, lowered the blood glucose levels during the oral and meal GTT and reduced the plasma insulin response during the intravenous and meal GTT...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818994/efficacy-and-safety-of-diacerein-in-patients-with-inadequately-controlled-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Claudia R L Cardoso, Nathalie C Leite, Fernanda O Carlos, Andréia A Loureiro, Bianca B Viegas, Gil F Salles
OBJECTIVE: To assess, in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, the efficacy and safety of diacerein, an immune modulator anti-inflammatory drug, in improving glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighty-four patients with HbA1c between 7.5 and 9.5% (58-80 mmol/mol) were randomized to 48-week treatment with placebo (n = 41) or diacerein 100 mg/day (n = 43). The primary outcome was the difference in mean HbA1c changes during treatment...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817863/prevention-detection-and-management-of-diabetes-in-south-dakota
#8
Amy L Hogue, Mark K Huntington
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in prevalence nationwide and in South Dakota, with an especially high prevalence in its American Indian population. Screening is not recommended for type 1 DM, but is for type 2 DM and pre-diabetes in certain populations. Fasting glucose, two-hour glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c are appropriate screening options. Treatment can include diabetic self-management education programs and medications. In addition to glycemic control, other cardiovascular risk factors must be reduced in these patients and specific testing and consultations should be performed to detect complications such as nephropathy or retinopathy...
2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816532/comparing-clinical-outcomes-and-costs-for-different-treatment-intensification-approaches-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-on-basal-insulin-adding-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-vs-adding-rapid-acting-insulin-or-increasing-basal-insulin
#9
Philip Levin, Tao Fan, Xue Song, Damion Nero, Brian Davis, Bong-Chul Chu
Objective-Not all patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the recommended glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels after adequate titration of basal insulin (BI). Current intensification approaches include addition of rapid-acting insulin (RAI) or a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), but it is not clear which strategy results in better long-term outcomes. Methods-This retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data in the US MarketScan database compared glycemic control and healthcare resource utilization and costs 12 months after adding GLP-1 RA to BI vs adding RAI or increasing BI doses...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#10
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815415/type-2-diabetes-with-comorbid-depression-in-relation-to-cognitive-impairment-an-opportunity-for-prevention
#11
David A Zhang, Vicky Lam, Vanessa Chu, Ming Li
Studies show poor glycemic control is associated with increased risk of dementia among patients with Type 2 diabetes, indicating potential for prevention of dementia with improved glycemia. Emerging evidence suggests that a relationship between short-term glycemic control and cognitive function exists in Type 2 diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms relating diabetic dementia are lacking, as other concurrent conditions, such as depression, may also increase the risk of dementia in Type 2 diabetes. We examined the effects of glycemic control and depression on cognitive function in 88 patients (mean age, 67 ± 4 years) whose A1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) levels, comorbid depression, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were recorded at baseline...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815303/effect-of-barley-supplementation-on-the-fecal-microbiota-caecal-biochemistry-and-key-biomarkers-of-obesity-and-inflammation-in-obese-db-db-mice
#12
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, David A Mills, Kevin Murphy, Giuliana Noratto
PURPOSE: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. METHODS: Obese db/db mice were fed diets with and without barley during 8 weeks; lean mice were used as lean controls. Fecal microbiota was evaluated using 16S marker gene sequencing in a MiSeq instrument; several markers of caecal biochemistry, obesity, and inflammation were also evaluated using standard techniques...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814394/dynamics-of-intrapericardial-and-extrapericardial-fat-tissues-during-long-term-dietary-induced-moderate-weight-loss
#13
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse.Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens.Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814245/benefits-of-sglt2-inhibitors-beyond-glycemic-control-a-focus-on-metabolic-cardiovascular-and-renal-outcomes
#14
Molly G Minze, Kayley Will, Brian T Terrell, Robin L Black, Brian K Irons
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new pharmacotherapeutic class for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate beneficial effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors on metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal outcomes. METHODS: A Pub-Med search (1966 to July 2017) was performed of published English articles using keywords sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814244/history-prevalence-and-assessment-of-limited-joint-mobility-from-stiff-hand-syndrome-to-diabetic-foot-ulcer-prevention
#15
Piergiorgio Francia, Roberto Anichini, Giuseppe Seghieri, Alessandra De Bellis, Massimo Gulisano
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important global public health problems. Patients with DM may develop different dreaded complications during their lifetime, one of which is limited joint mobility (LJM). Joint abnormalities and LJM are problems that can arise at disease onset, and progressively worsen together with the disease. Because LJM shares causal factors with other chronic diabetes-induced complications, its study has been considered useful for monitoring the risk of developing other chronic complications due to DM such as vascular disease or diabetic foot...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814107/real-world-comparison-of-treatment-patterns-and-effectiveness-of-albiglutide-and-liraglutide
#16
Erin K Buysman, Mirko V Sikirica, Sarah W Thayer, Michael Bogart, Mary C DuCharme, Ashish V Joshi
AIM: To compare medication adherence, discontinuation and glycemic control in patients receiving albiglutide versus liraglutide. PATIENTS & METHODS: Administrative claims data and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) results were analyzed from a sample of adult health plan members with Type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Patients were matched 1:1 in the albiglutide (n = 2213) and liraglutide (n = 2213) overall cohorts and in 244 patients with HbA1c results from each treatment group...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812028/expression-profile-of-genes-potentially-associated-with-adequate-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Sâmia Cruz Tfaile Corbi, Alliny Souza Bastos, Rafael Nepomuceno, Thamiris Cirelli, Raquel Alves Dos Santos, Catarina Satie Takahashi, Cristiane S Rocha, Silvana Regina Perez Orrico, Claudia V Maurer-Morelli, Raquel Mantuaneli Scarel-Caminaga
Despite increasing research in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), there are few studies showing the impact of the poor glycemic control on biological processes occurring in T2D. In order to identify potential genes related to poorly/well-controlled patients with T2D, our strategy of investigation included a primary screen by microarray (Human Genome U133) in a small group of individuals followed by an independent validation in a greater group using RT-qPCR. Ninety patients were divided as follows: poorly controlled T2D (G1), well-controlled T2D (G2), and normoglycemic individuals (G3)...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811859/long-term-effect-of-alogliptin-on-glycemic-control-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-3-5-year-observational-study
#18
Kohzo Takebayashi, Tatsuhiko Suzuki, Rika Naruse, Kenji Hara, Mariko Suetsugu, Takafumi Tsuchiya, Toshihiko Inukai
BACKGROUND: The goal of the current study was to investigate the long-term effects (after 3 years or more) of alogliptin on glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the effect of alogliptin on glycemic control in the patients with type 2 diabetes who had participated in our previous 3-month study and who continued to take alogliptin for at least 36 months. RESULTS: The mean duration of alogliptin treatment was 42...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811858/effectiveness-of-ipragliflozin-for-reducing-hemoglobin-a1c-in-patients-with-a-shorter-type-2-diabetes-duration-interim-report-of-the-assign-k-study
#19
Kotaro Iemitsu, Takehiro Kawata, Takashi Iizuka, Masahiro Takihata, Masahiko Takai, Shigeru Nakajima, Nobuaki Minami, Shinichi Umezawa, Akira Kanamori, Hiroshi Takeda, Shogo Ito, Taisuke Kikuchi, Hikaru Amemiya, Mizuki Kaneshiro, Atsuko Mokubo, Tetsuo Takuma, Hideo Machimura, Keiji Tanaka, Taro Asakura, Akira Kubota, Sachio Aoyanagi, Kazuhiko Hoshino, Masashi Ishikawa, Yoko Matsuzawa, Mitsuo Obana, Nobuo Sasai, Hideaki Kaneshige, Fuyuki Minagawa, Tatsuya Saito, Kazuaki Shinoda, Masaaki Miyakawa, Yasushi Tanaka, Yasuo Terauchi, Ikuro Matsuba
BACKGROUND: Ipragliflozin is a selective sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor. The ASSIGN-K study is investigating the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the real-world clinical setting. METHODS: Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control despite diet and exercise with/without pharmacotherapy were enrolled in an investigator-driven, multicenter, prospective, observational study examining the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin treatment (50 mg/day for 52 weeks)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811856/serum-betatrophin-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes
#20
Kohzo Takebayashi, Kenji Hara, Tomoko Terasawa, Rika Naruse, Mariko Suetsugu, Takafumi Tsuchiya, Toshihiko Inukai
BACKGROUND: Betatrophin is a hormone mainly secreted by the liver that influences lipid metabolisms. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of canagliflozin (a sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor) on circulating betatrophin levels, and to investigate the correlation of various markers associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms with betatrophin in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into a control group (n = 15) and a canagliflozin-treated group (n = 15)...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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