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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240511/meeting-the-nutritional-needs-of-premature-babies-their-future-is-in-our-hands
#1
Arieh Riskin
The goals of early nutrition in preterm infants are to provide all the necessary vital nutrients, achieve extra-uterine growth rates similar to fetuses of the same gestational age, and support functional neurodevelopmental outcomes that are comparable to those of infants born at term. It is vital to provide nutrition that will maximally support brain growth and development, but over-feeding with accelerated growth, fat accumulation and long-term metabolic consequences should also be avoided. Because the morbidity associated with prematurity increases nutritional and energetic demands, the basic approach is of providing early intensive nutrition...
December 2, 2017: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222098/longitudinal-study-of-the-occurrence-persistence-and-contamination-routes-of-listeria-monocytogenes-genotypes-on-three-finnish-dairy-cattle-farms
#2
Hanna Castro, Anniina Jaakkonen, Marjaana Hakkinen, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
The molecular epidemiology of Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in a longitudinal study of three Finnish dairy farms during 2013 -- 2016. Totals of 186 bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, 224 milk filter socks (MFS), and 1702 samples of the barn environment were analyzed and isolates of L. monocytogenes were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. L. monocytogenes occurred throughout the year in all sample types, and the prevalence in MFS increased significantly during the indoor season. L. monocytogenes was more prevalent in MFS (29%) than in BTM samples (13%)...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219134/does-infant-feeding-method-influence-the-incidence-and-pattern-of-morbidities-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-nigerian-infants
#3
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212397/growth-and-neurodevelopment-in-very-preterm-infants-receiving-a-high-enteral-volume-feeding-regimen-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Claus Klingenberg, Fredrik Kragh Muraas, Catherine Elde Isaksen, Tina Nilsen, Marte Torgersen, Cecilie Melum-Hansen
AIM: To evaluate a feeding regimen routinely providing > 180 ml/kg/d fortified human milk to very preterm infants and impact on in-hospital growth, osteopenia and neurodevelopment. METHOD: Retrospective population-based descriptive study of infants < 30-week gestation admitted within 24 h of birth and discharged during the 6-year period 2005 to 2010. Growth and neurodevelopment was assessed until 2 years corrected age, and cerebral palsy up to 4 years corrected age Results: Ninety-nine infants below 30-week gestation were admitted within 24 h of birth during the 6-year period, of which 84 (85%) survived to discharge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205630/health-care-professionals-approach-in-feeding-term-small-for-gestational-age-infants-and-its-potential-implications-to-later-growth-outcomes
#5
Le Ye Lee, Leilani Muhardi, Fook-Choe Cheah, Sarayut Supapannachart, Inga C Teller, Jacques Bindels, Eline M van Der Beek, Ruurd M van Elburg
AIM: To understand feeding practices, nutrition management and postnatal growth monitoring of term small-for-gestational age (tSGA) infants in Southeast Asia. METHODS: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven respondents from Malaysia (37%), Thailand (27%), Singapore (18%) and other Asian countries (19%) participated in the survey...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195063/metabolic-and-endocrine-role-of-adipose-tissue-during-lactation
#6
J P McNamara, K Huber
The adipose tissue serves an essential role for survival and reproduction in mammals, especially females. It serves primarily as an energy storage organ and is directly linked to the reproductive success of mammals. In wild animals, adipose tissue function is linked to seasonality of the food supply to support fetal growth and milk production. Adipose tissue depots in ruminants and non-ruminants can secrete many signal molecules (adipokines) that act as hormones and as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The visceral adipose tissue especially appears to be more endocrinologically active than other adipose depots...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192576/-mothers-in-the-netherlands-do-not-have-to-feel-guilty-about-bottle-feeding-their-babies
#7
P J J Sauer
Human milk provides optimal nutrition for the term new-born infant. This milk might give the infant certain advantages over formula milk, and the potential advantages are reviewed in this commentary. It is concluded that there are advantages to breastfeeding, but that these are limited for an infant in an industrialised country receiving adequate formula milk. Breastfeeding should be encouraged, but there is insufficient reason for a mother who either is not able or not willing to breastfeed to feel guilty about not doing so...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189760/electrochemical-immunosensor-for-the-detection-of-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2-in-palm-kernel-cake-and-feed-samples
#8
Farah Asilah Azri, Jinap Selamat, Rashidah Sukor
Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals...
November 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183385/an-investigation-into-aflatoxin-m-1-in-slaughtered-fattening-pigs-and-awareness-of-aflatoxins-in-vietnam
#9
Hu Suk Lee, Johanna Lindahl, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Nguyen Viet Khong, Vuong Bui Nghia, Huyen Nguyen Xuan, Delia Grace
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite formed after aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is consumed by humans and animals; it can be detected in urine, milk and blood. It is well recognized that AFB1 is toxic to humans and other animals. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies aflatoxins as group 1 carcinogens and AFM1 as group 2B carcinogen. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure of pigs to aflatoxins as well as to assess the public awareness of aflatoxins among people in five provinces in Vietnam...
November 28, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166375/gastric-emptying-of-different-meal-volumes-of-identical-composition-in-preterm-infants-a-time-series-analysis
#10
Sharon L Perrella, Anna R Hepworth, Zoya Gridneva, Karen N Simmer, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants' meals typically progress to higher volumes over time. Knowledge of gastric emptying (GE) responses to differing meal volumes may inform enteral feeding management. We examined the effect of meal volume and composition on preterm GE. METHODS: Forty infants were studied at 33.3±1.4 (29.7-35.6) weeks postmenstrual age when fully enteral fed (target 150 ml/kg/day). Intra-individual comparisons of GE were made for paired meals of 100 and 75% prescribed volume and identical composition of mother's own milk (n=21) and pasteurized donor human milk (n=19)...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164128/peptides-released-from-foremilk-and-hindmilk-proteins-by-breast-milk-proteases-are-highly-similar
#11
Søren D Nielsen, Robert L Beverly, David C Dallas
Human milk contains active proteases that initiate hydrolysis of milk proteins within the mammary gland. Milk expressed at the beginning of feeding is known as foremilk and that at the end of feeding is known as hindmilk. As hindmilk contains higher fat, vitamins A and E, and higher calories than foremilk, feeding only hindmilk initially and reserving foremilk for later are practiced in some neonatal intensive care units. This study investigated the difference in peptide profiles, predicted milk protease activities, and bioactive peptides between foremilk and hindmilk...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161535/effect-of-dedicated-lactation-support-services-on-breastfeeding-outcomes-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-neonates
#12
Sharareh Gharib, Molly Fletcher, Richard Tucker, Betty Vohr, Beatrice E Lechner
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is associated with major benefits for high-risk infants born prematurely, yet this population faces significant challenges to breastfeeding. Lactation services provide successful interventions, yet the impact of lactation services on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants is understudied. Research aim: The provision of full-time lactation support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) will improve quantitative breastfeeding measures in premature infants...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161528/changes-in-speech-language-pathology-students-attitudes-toward-breastfeeding-during-a-pediatric-dysphagia-course
#13
Jamie Mahurin-Smith
BACKGROUND: Speech-language pathologists provide infant feeding assessment and intervention; their training in breastfeeding management is highly variable. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate student attitudes toward breastfeeding and self-identified factors in attitude change. METHODS: Before and after their course in pediatric dysphagia, two cohorts of graduate students in speech-language pathology ( N = 36) completed an assignment designed to capture qualitative and quantitative data on changes in their attitudes toward breastfeeding...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155570/chemistry-antimicrobial-mechanisms-and-antibiotic-activities-of-cinnamaldehyde-against-pathogenic-bacteria-in-animal-feeds-and-human-foods
#14
Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151400/review-optimizing-ruminant-conversion-of-feed-protein-to-human-food-protein
#15
G A Broderick
Ruminant livestock have the ability to produce high-quality human food from feedstuffs of little or no value for humans. Balanced essential amino acid composition of meat and milk from ruminants makes those protein sources valuable adjuncts to human diets. It is anticipated that there will be increasing demand for ruminant proteins in the future. Increasing productivity per animal dilutes out the nutritional and environmental costs of maintenance and rearing dairy animals up to production. A number of nutritional strategies improve production per animal such as ration balancing in smallholder operations and small grain supplements to ruminants fed high-forage diets...
November 20, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149869/characterisation-of-sucking-dynamics-of-breastfeeding-preterm-infants-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Donna T Geddes, Kok Chooi, Kathryn Nancarrow, Anna R Hepworth, Hazel Gardner, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Full breastfeeding is the ultimate aim for preterm infants to ensure they receive the full benefits of human milk however, preterm infants face a number of challenges associated with their immaturity and associated morbidities. In order to facilitate oral feeding, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the sucking dynamics of the breastfed infant. The aim of this study was to measure and describe the sucking dynamics of the preterm breastfeeding infant. METHODS: A prospective cross sectional observational study was carried out at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth...
November 17, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146940/development-and-physiological-effects-of-an-artificial-diet-for-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#17
Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra, Silvia Lomeu Rodrigues, Simone Brutman Mansur, Sofia Pimenta de Oliveira, Eric Pearce Caragata, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia spreads rapidly through populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and strongly inhibits infection with key human pathogens including the dengue and Zika viruses. Mosquito control programs aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses are ongoing in multiple countries, yet there is a dearth of mass rearing infrastructure specific to Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. One example is the lack of a blood meal substitute, which accounts for the Wolbachia-specific physiological changes in infected mosquitoes, that allows the bacterium to spread, and block viral infections...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131337/effect-of-farming-system-on-donkey-milk-composition
#18
Emanuela Valle, Luisa Pozzo, Marzia Giribaldi, Domenico Bergero, Maria Silvia Gennero, Daniela Dezzutto, Amy McLean, Giorgio Borreani, Mauro Coppa, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Donkey milk is considered a functional food for sensitive consumers, such as children allergic to cow milk. No information is available regarding the effect of farming systems on the quality of donkey milk. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the farming system and lactation stage on gross composition, fat-soluble vitamins and fatty acids (FA) in donkey milk. RESULTS: Individual milk samples were collected from lactating jennies (n=53) on the six of the largest farms located in North West Italy...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130703/nutritional-practices-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-national-survey
#19
Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón, Ricardo Closa, María Gormaz, Marcos Linés, Eduardo Narbona, Gerardo Rodríguez-Martínez, José Uberos, Carlos Zozaya, María L Couce
BACKGROUND: Significant efforts have been made to improve the nutritional support of very preterm infants. Large surveys may help to know the nutritional practices for preterm infants in neonatal units and identify if they are in line with the current guidelines. METHODS: A multicentre nationwide web-based survey on clinical feeding practices in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants was conducted in tertiary neonatal hospitals that admit infants with a birth weight < 1,500 g and/or a gestational age of < 32 weeks...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130702/-short-medium-and-long-term-benefits-of-human-milk-intake-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#20
Bibiana Chinea Jiménez, Yumana Awad Parada, Antonio Villarino Marín, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón Marcos
AIM: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of human milk feeding during the first weeks of life in very low birth weight infants on weight gain at discharge, length of hospitalization, postmenstrual age at discharge and nutritional assessment, growth and neurodevelopment at two and five years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Longitudinal study of very-low-birth-weight infants (< 1,500 grams) admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of La Paz University Hospital, from January 1st 2009 to December 31st 2009, followed in the follow-up clinic...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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