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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661149/development-of-the-tonsillar-microbiome-in-pigs-from-newborn-through-weaning
#1
Luis Carlos Pena Cortes, Rhiannon M LeVeque, Julie Funk, Terence L Marsh, Martha H Mulks
BACKGROUND: Porcine tonsils are lympho-epithelial tissues, colonized by numerous bacteria and viruses, that act as a reservoir for both host-specific pathogens and zoonotic pathogens with a high potential of transmission to humans. There are no existing studies describing the development of the tonsillar microbiome. We sequenced 16S rRNA genes from tonsillar samples of pigs to follow the development of the microbial communities from birth through weaning. Samples derived from sows were also analyzed to determine potential sources for the tonsil microbiome in piglets...
April 16, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660800/physicochemical-quality-fatty-acid-composition-and-sensory-analysis-of-nellore-steers-meat-fed-with-inclusion-of-condensed-tannin-in-the-diet
#2
Susana M Gesteira, Ronaldo L Oliveira, Thadeu M Silva, Rebeca D X Ribeiro, Cláudio V D M Ribeiro, Elzania S Pereira, Dante P D Lanna, Luis F B Pinto, Tiago C Rocha, Jusaline F Vieira, Leilson R Bezerra
This study was conducted to test the effect of dietary tannin on the fatty acid profile and sensory attributes of meat from Nellore steers. Thirty-two Nellore bull male were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with condensed tannin extract as follows: 0, 10, 30, and 50 g/kg total DM basis. The physicochemical composition of the meat, lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile, flavor, tenderness, and overall acceptance were evaluated. There was a linear decrease (P ≤ 0.05) on lipid content, tenderness, cooking weight loss, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids in meat as tannin increased in the diets...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659347/social-justice-at-the-core-of-breastfeeding-protection-promotion-and-support-a-conceptualization
#3
Paige Hall Smith
Despite widespread awareness of the health benefits for both mothers and babies we are far from achieving universal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates globally are lower than recommended levels and there are concerns that some global breastfeeding efforts have stalled (1, 2). In addition, we see persistent disparities in breastfeeding rates by race, ethnicity, class and status (3). A growing literature documents how a range of injustices, including gender inequality (7), racism (8), poverty (9), and violence (10, 11) shape whether, how exclusive, and for how long mothers and others will be able to breastfeed or feed their infants human milk...
May 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643883/comparison-of-volume-and-frequency-advancement-feeding-protocols-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates
#4
Afaq Hussain, Abdur Rehman, Nazia Fatima
Objective: To determine the outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates receiving volume advancement versus frequency advancement feeding protocols. Methods: This controlled clinical trial was conducted in Children Hospital Multan within duration of 6 months from February 2017 to August 2017. VLBW neonates having weight < 1500 g at the time of birth were included. The protocol for frequency advancement (FA) group was to give 1 ml/kg human or pre-formula milk after every 8 hours and in volume advancement (VA) group after every 3 hours initially...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618272/does-fortification-of-pasteurized-donor-human-milk-increase-the-incidence-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-among-preterm-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Bethou Adhisivam, Dilesh Kohat, Vasanthan Tanigasalam, Vishnu Bhat, Nishad Plakkal, C Palanivel
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of fortified pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) versus unfortified PDHM on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and immediate outcome among preterm neonates. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital, south India included 80 healthy preterm neonates randomized to two groups (Group A and B). Neonates in Group A and B were fed with fortified PDHM and unfortified PDHM respectively...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611127/the-levels-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-human-milk-and-exposure-risk-to-breastfed-infants-in-petrochemical-industrialized-lanzhou-valley-northwest-china
#6
Li Wang, Aiping Liu, Yuan Zhao, Xi Mu, Tao Huang, Hong Gao, Jianmin Ma
We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603407/nutrition-support-team-guide-to-maternal-diet-for-the-human-milk-fed-infant
#7
Kathleen Copp, Emily A DeFranco, Jeanne Kleiman, Lynette K Rogers, Ardythe L Morrow, Christina J Valentine
BACKGROUND: Human milk feeding is encouraged for all infants; however, the mammary gland depends on maternal dietary intake of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), choline, and iodine. Nutrition support team knowledge of maternal feeding guidelines for these nutrient sources can therefore impact infant intake. We hypothesized that these key nutrients for lactation in the mother's diet would be less than the dietary guidelines in the United States. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of nutrition data collected during a randomized, controlled trial...
March 30, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603403/comparison-of-calorie-and-protein-intake-of-very-low-birth-weight-infants-receiving-mother-s-own-milk-or-donor-milk-when-the-nutrient-composition-of-human-milk-is-measured-with-a-breast-milk-analyzer
#8
Melanie Newkirk, Fauzia Shakeel, Prabhu Parimi, Pamela Rothpletz-Puglia, Rachael Patusco, Andrea Fleisch Marcus, Rebecca Brody
BACKGROUND: In premature infants, donor breast milk (DBM) is assumed to provide reduced nutrients vs. mother's own milk (MOM). This study examined calorie and protein delivery when very low birth weight infants were fed fortified MOM or DBM, with a known nutrient composition, relative to established nutrition recommendations and to determine if there were differences between the groups. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was conducted in 29 very low birth weight infants receiving MOM or DBM...
March 30, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602047/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-isolated-from-raw-cow-milk-in-argentina-molecular-typing-of-a-fumigatus-from-raw-cow-milk
#9
Gabriela A Pena, Verónica Alonso, Marina Velasco Manini, M Pellegrino, Lilia R Cavaglieri
Aspergillus fumigatus, the major etiological agent of human and animal aspergillosis, is a gliotoxinogenic species into section Fumigati commonly found in contaminated animal environments. In dairy herds, exposed areas of lactating cows, as mammalian glandule, can be easily contaminated by them. This study was aimed to identify A. fumigatus sensu lato strains (identified based on morphology) isolated from raw cow milk at species level, by morphological and molecular techniques, and to estimate their genetic variability...
March 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584924/an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-weight-gain-of-very-low-birth-weight-babies-with-or-without-addition-of-coconut-oil-to-breast-milk
#10
Sumitha Arun, Manish Kumar, Thomas Paul, Nihal Thomas, Sarah Mathai, Grace Rebekah, Niranjan Thomas
Background: Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579897/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-antimicrobials-in-biosolids-applied-on-agricultural-land-and-potential-translocation-into-food
#11
Rachel Clarke, Mark G Healy, Owen Fenton, Enda Cummins
The use of biosolids as a fertiliser may be an indirect route for contaminants into the food chain. One of the main concerns regarding the spreading of biosolids on agricultural land is the potential uptake of contaminants into plants which may bio-transfer into grazing animals that supply the food chain directly (e.g. meat and milk) and hence are subsequently consumed. The aim of this project was to create a quantitative risk assessment model to estimate the fate and translocation of triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) into the feed (grass) and food chain with subsequent human exposure...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571821/care-of-the-growth-restricted-newborn
#12
REVIEW
Bianca Carducci, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
With the first 1,000 days of life proving to be a critical window of opportunity for physical and cognitive growth and development, an optimal intrauterine environment is vital. If fetus needs are compromised prenatally, there is an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and infants being born premature, low birth weight (LBW), or small-for-gestational age (SGA). Specialized care of these high-risk infants is necessary in terms of preconception interventions, resuscitation, thermoregulation, nutritional support and kangaroo mother care...
February 26, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566974/donor-human-milk-and-risk-of-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-meta-analysis
#13
Marco Silano, Gregorio Paolo Milani, Giovanni Fattore, Carlo Agostoni
BACKGROUND & AIM: The prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a primary goal in the care of preterm and low birth-weight infants. Donor-banked milk (DM)-feeding has been reported to have a protective effect towards NEC with respect to formula-feeding. All the meta-analysis published so far, have been focused on the protective effect of DM on the overall risk of NEC, none of them focused on the risk of the most severe cases on NEC only, that are those requiring surgery. We conducted a meta-analysis of available evidences on the risk of developing surgical cases of NEC in DM-fed preterm and/or low birth weight infants with respect to those formula-fed...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530639/a-subchronic-feeding-safety-evaluation-of-transgenic-milk-containing-human-%C3%AE-defensin-3-on-reproductive-system-of-c57bl-6j-mouse
#14
Ming-Qing Gao, Ruiqi Zhang, Yange Yang, Yuru Luo, Ming Jiang, Yingli Zhang, Yong Zhang, Suzhu Qing
Bovine mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland which has been generally treated by antibiotic delivery. While the increasing drug-resistant bacteria and the high consumption of the antibiotic had become a noticeable concern. In a previous study, a mammary special vector expressing human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts to produce mastitis-resistant bovine. This investigation focused on potential unintended effects of transgenic milk containing hBD3 produced by these mastitis-resistant bovine on the reproductive system of C57BL/6J mice...
March 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529139/protein-use-and-weight-gain-quality-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants-fed-human-milk-or-formula
#15
Laura Morlacchi, Paola Roggero, Maria Lorella Giannì, Beatrice Bracco, Debora Porri, Enrico Battiato, Camilla Menis, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Fabio Mosca
Background: Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. Objective: We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510541/a-rapid-and-semi-quantitative-gold-nanoparticles-based-strip-sensor-for-polymyxin-b-sulfate-residues
#16
Yue Li, Liqiang Liu, Shanshan Song, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
Increasing attention is now being directed to the utilization of polymyxin B (PMB) as a last-line treatment for life-threatening infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, polymyxins resistance is also increasingly reported, leaving a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the establishment of rapid detection methods for PMB residues is highly essential to ensure public health. In this study, two monoclonal antibodies (mAb; 2A2 and 3C6) were obtained using PMB-bovine serum albumin as the immunogen and PMB-ovalbumin as the coating antigen, which were prepared with N -(γ-maleimidobutyryloxy) succinimide ester and glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agents, respectively...
March 5, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502383/nutritional-management-of-preterm-newborn-after-hospital-discharge-energy-and-nutrients
#17
Elisabetta Villa, Roberta Barachetti, Mario Barbarini
Preterm infants are at risk for poor growth while in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and after discharge from the NICU. The main objective is to reach the body composition and rate of growth of a normal fetus/infant of the same post-menstrual age during the first entire year of life. In case of human milk, the limited data do not provide convincing evidence that feeding preterm infants after discharge with multi-nutrient fortified human milk, compared with unfortified, affects important outcomes including growth rates during infancy...
December 22, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499686/variations-in-the-rancid-flavor-compounds-of-human-breastmilk-under-general-frozen-storage-conditions
#18
Hsiao-Ying Hung, Yu-Yun Hsu, Pei-Fang Su, Ying-Ju Chang
BACKGROUND: Human breastmilk provides the best nutrition for infants. When women or infants have difficulties in breastfeeding directly, breastmilk is usually pumped and frozen for later use. However, while frozen, breastmilk may develop a rancid flavor, which induces infant feeding stress and raises the mothers' concerns about the quality of frozen breastmilk. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the variations in the compounds that cause the rancid flavor of breastmilk during frozen storage...
March 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490909/cost-effectiveness-of-supplemental-donor-milk-versus-formula-for-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#19
Susan Trang, John A F Zupancic, Sharon Unger, Alex Kiss, Nicole Bando, Sabrina Wong, Sharyn Gibbins, Deborah L O'Connor
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost-effectiveness of supplemental donor human milk (DHM) versus preterm formula (PTF) for very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants from a societal perspective to 18 months' corrected age. METHODS: This prospective cost-effectiveness analysis of 363 VLBW infants was conducted for a randomized control trial. Infants recruited from October 2010 to December 2012 were fed DHM or PTF whenever mother's milk was unavailable. Formal health care costs for initial hospitalization and readmissions were obtained from standardized cost-accounting systems and physician fees...
February 28, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471796/impact-of-pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-disinfection-on-surface-contamination-in-a-hospital-facility-s-expressed-human-milk-feed-preparation-area
#20
Ricky Dippenaar, Johan Smith
BACKGROUND: Expressed human milk (EHM) feed preparation areas represent a potential source of unintentional nosocomial infection. Daily disinfection of environmental surfaces remains an essential intervention to mitigate nosocomial infections. The inefficiency of conventional cleaning and disinfection contributes to an increased risk for the acquisition of multi-drug resistant pathogens. "Non touch" technologies such as the pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UVD) light device have documented sustained reduction in surface bacterial colonization and reduced cross contamination...
February 23, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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