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human milk feeding

Bethany A Matus, Kayla M Bridges, John V Logomarsino
BACKGROUND: Individualized feeding care plans and safe handling of milk (human or formula) are critical in promoting growth, immune function, and neurodevelopment in the preterm infant. Feeding errors and disruptions or limitations to feeding processes in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are associated with negative safety events. Feeding errors include contamination of milk and delivery of incorrect or expired milk and may result in adverse gastrointestinal illnesses. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effect(s) of centralized milk preparation, use of trained technicians, use of bar code-scanning software, and collaboration between registered dietitians and registered nurses on feeding safety in the NICU...
June 21, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants require high protein intake to achieve adequate growth and development. Although breast milk feeding has many benefits for this population, the protein content is highly variable, and inadequate to support rapid infant growth. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether protein-supplemented human milk compared with unsupplemented human milk, fed to preterm infants, improves growth, body composition, cardio-metabolic, and neurodevelopmental outcomes, without significant adverse effects...
June 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: As preterm infants do not experience the nutrient accretion and rapid growth phase of the third trimester of pregnancy, they are vulnerable to postnatal nutritional deficits, including of fat. Consequently, they require higher fat intakes compared to their full term counterparts to achieve adequate growth and development. Human milk fat provides the major energy needs of the preterm infant and also contributes to several metabolic and physiological functions. Although human milk has many benefits for this population, its fat content is highly variable and may be inadequate for their optimum growth and development...
June 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Máté Durst, Katalin Könczöl, Tamás Balázsa, Mark D Eyre, Zsuzsanna E Tóth
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dysfunction in reward-related aspects of feeding, and consequent overeating in humans, is a major contributor to obesity. Intrauterine undernutrition and overnutrition are among the predisposing factors, but the exact mechanism of how overeating develops is still unclear. Consummatory behavior is regulated by the medial shell (mSh) of the accumbens nucleus (Nac) through direct connections with the rostral part of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Our aim was to investigate whether an altered Nac-LHA circuit may underlie hyperphagic behavior...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jinglan Huang, Li Zhang, Jun Tang, Jing Shi, Yi Qu, Tao Xiong, Dezhi Mu
OBJECTIVE: To summarise current evidence evaluating the effects of human milk on the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. DESIGN: We searched for studies on human milk and BPD in English and Chinese databases on 26 July 2017. Furthermore, the references of included studies were also screened. The inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis were the following: (1) preterm infants (<37 weeks); (2) human milk; (3) comparing with formula feeding; (4) the outcome included BPD; and (5) the type of study was randomised controlled trial (RCT) or cohort study...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Goele Jans, Roland Devlieger, Vicky De Preter, Lieveke Ameye, Kristien Roelens, Matthias Lannoo, Bart Van der Schueren, Johan Verhaeghe, Christophe Matthys
Background: The breast-milk composition in the first 6 wk postpartum of women who have undergone bariatric surgery (BS) is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine 1) the breast-milk macronutrient and vitamin A composition in women who had and who had not undergone BS and 2) the impact of maternal diet on the breast-milk composition. We hypothesized that the milk of women who had undergone BS would be less energy dense and have a lower vitamin A concentration than that of other women...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Taylor Z Mann, Lisa B Haddad, Tonya R Williams, Susan L Hills, Jennifer S Read, Deborah L Dee, Eric J Dziuban, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Since the Zika virus epidemic in the Americas began in 2015, Zika virus transmission has occurred throughout the Americas. However, limited information exists regarding possible risks of transmission of Zika virus and other flaviviruses through breast feeding and human milk. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence regarding flaviviruses detection in and transmission through milk, specifically regarding Zika virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
June 8, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Emma Tonkin, Jacqueline Miller, Maria Makrides, Andrew J McPhee, Scott A Morris, Robert A Gibson, Carmel T Collins
Protein intakes of preterm infants are frequently below recommendations, but few studies report accurate intakes due to the difficulty of analysing human milk clinically. This observational analysis from a randomised trial of infants born.
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Deborah L O'Connor, Alex Kiss, Christopher Tomlinson, Nicole Bando, Ann Bayliss, Douglas M Campbell, Alan Daneman, Jane Francis, Kirsten Kotsopoulos, Prakesh S Shah, Simone Vaz, Brock Williams, Sharon Unger
Background: Human milk-based fortifiers (HMBFs) are being adopted in neonatal care to enrich the nutrients in human milk for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants despite being costly and there being limited efficacy data. No randomized clinical trial has evaluated the use of HMBF compared with bovine milk-based fortifiers (BMBFs) in the absence of formula feeding. Objective: To determine if HMBF compared with BMBF for routine nutrient enrichment of human milk improves feeding tolerance, reduces morbidity, reduces fecal calprotectin (a measure of gut inflammation), and supports the growth of infants <1250 g...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amy B Hair, David J Rechtman, Martin L Lee, Victoria Niklas
OBJECTIVE: Articles previously published by Sullivan et al. and Cristofalo et al. were reanalyzed using the proportion of cow milk-based nutrition received to determine whether that affected clinical outcomes during hospitalization for infants birth weight 500-1250 g. Abrams et al. showed in the same cohort incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), NEC requiring surgery and sepsis increased proportionally to the amount of dietary cow milk. METHODS: The data from the two studies conducted under essentially the same protocol were combined yielding a cohort of 260 infants receiving a diet ranging from 0% to 100% cow milk...
June 7, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Rene Kaden, Sevinc Ferrari, Tomas Jinnerot, Martina Lindberg, Tara Wahab, Moa Lavander
BACKGROUND: Brucella abortus is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent, tempting for the development of a rapid diagnostic method to enable adequate treatment and prevent further spread. Enrichment of the bacteria is often used as a first step in diagnostics to increase the bacterial number above the detection limit of the real-time PCR. The enrichment of Brucella spp. takes at least 3 days, which might be avoidable if sensitive PCR methods can be used. Since many matrices contain PCR inhibitors, the limit of detection (LOD) must be determined for each separate matrix...
June 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Natascha Köstlin, Carolin Schoetensack, Julian Schwarz, Bärbel Spring, Alexander Marmé, Rangmar Goelz, Gerhard Brodbeck, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Nosocomial bacterial infections (NBI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are among the main reasons for death in preterm infants. Both are often caused by bacteria coming from the infected infant's gut and feeding with breast milk (BM) seems beneficial in their pathogenesis. However, mechanisms causing the protective effect of BM are only incompletely understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are myeloid cells with suppressive activity on other immune cells, recently described to play a role in mediating maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy and immune adaptation in newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Diana Escuder-Vieco, Irene Espinosa-Martos, Juan M Rodríguez, Nieves Corzo, Antonia Montilla, Pablo Siegfried, Carmen R Pallás-Alonso, Leónides Fernández
Donor milk is the best alternative for the feeding of preterm newborns when mother's own milk is unavailable. For safety reasons, it is usually pasteurized by the Holder method (62.5°C for 30 min). Holder pasteurization results in a microbiological safe product but impairs the activity of many biologically active compounds such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, cytokines, growth factors, hormones or oxidative stress markers. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization has been proposed as an alternative for a better preservation of some of the biological components of human milk although, at present, there is no equipment available to perform this treatment under the current conditions of a human milk bank...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jacqueline Miller, Emma Tonkin, Raechel A Damarell, Andrew J McPhee, Machiko Suganuma, Hiroki Suganuma, Philippa F Middleton, Maria Makrides, Carmel T Collins
This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesised the post-1990 literature examining the effect of human milk on morbidity, specifically necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), late onset sepsis (LOS), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopment in infants born ≤28 weeks' gestation and/or publications with reported infant mean birth weight of ≤1500 g. Online databases including Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, and comparisons were grouped as follows: exclusive human milk (EHM) versus exclusive preterm formula (EPTF), any human milk (HM) versus EPTF, higher versus lower dose HM, and unpasteurised versus pasteurised HM...
May 31, 2018: Nutrients
Qianqian Zhang, Mario Calus, Mirte Bosse, Goutam Sahana, Mogens Sandø Lund, Bernt Guldbrandtsen
Domestic animals can serve as model systems of adaptive introgression and their genomic signatures. In part their usefulness as model systems is due to their well-known histories. Different breeding strategies such as introgression and artificial selection have generated numerous desirable phenotypes and superior performance in domestic animals. The Modern Danish Red Dairy Cattle is studied as an example of an introgressed population. It originates from crossing the traditional Danish Red Dairy Cattle with the Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds, both known for high milk production...
May 30, 2018: Genetics
Wenting Dai, Quanjuan Wang, Fengqi Zhao, Jianxin Liu, Hongyun Liu
BACKGROUND: Bovine milk is an important nutrient source for humans. Forage plays a vital role in dairy husbandry via affecting milk quality and quantity. However, the differences in mammary metabolism of dairy cows fed different forages remain elucidated. In this study, we utilized transcriptomic RNA-seq and iTRAQ proteomic techniques to investigate and integrate the differences of molecular pathways and biological processes in the mammary tissues collected from 12 lactating cows fed corn stover (CS, low-quality, n = 6) and alfalfa hay (AH, high-quality, n = 6)...
May 29, 2018: BMC Genomics
Claude Billeaud, Carole Boué-Vaysse, Leslie Couëdelo, Philippe Steenhout, Jonathan Jaeger, Cristina Cruz-Hernandez, Laurent Ameye, Jacques Rigo, Jean-Charles Picaud, Elie Saliba, Nicholas P Hays, Frédéric Destaillats
Preterm infants require fortification of human milk (HM) with essential fatty acids (FA) to ensure adequate post-natal development. As part of a larger randomized controlled study, we investigated FA metabolism in a subset of 47 clinically stable preterm infants (birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age ≤32 weeks). Infants were randomized to receive HM supplemented with either a new HM fortifier (nHMF; n = 26) containing 12.5 g medium-chain FA (MCFA), 958 mg linoleic acid (LA), 417 mg α-linolenic acid (ALA), and 157 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per 100 g of powder (in compliance with the latest guidelines) or a fat-free HMF (cHMF; n = 21)...
May 29, 2018: Nutrients
Didier Tshamala, Anita Pelecanos, Mark W Davies
AIM: To determine the proportion of very preterm infants who were exclusively fed breast milk at the time of discharge home, before and after the availability of pasteurised donor human milk (PDHM). METHODS: This was an observational retrospective cohort study with historical comparison, comparing two cohorts (<32 weeks gestational age or very low birthweight) before and after the availability of donor human milk. The main explanatory variable was the PDHM cohort: pre-PDHM or post-PDHM...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Veronica Lolli, Angela Marseglia, Gerardo Palla, Emanuela Zanardi, Augusta Caligiani
Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPFAs) are unusual fatty acids of microbial origin, recently detected in milk and dairy products. CPFAs have been demonstrated to be interesting molecular markers for authentication of dairy products obtained without ensiled feeds. Moreover, they can also be recognized as a new secondary component of human diet. Information is lacking on the presence of cyclic fatty acids in other food sources. Cyclopropane fatty acids have been detected by GC-MS analysis in cheese and other animal fats in concentration ranging from 200 to 1000 mg/kg fat, but in some cases, the complex fatty acid profile and the possible presence of interfering peaks make the separation not straightforward and the quantification uneasy...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Rathinam Murugeswari, Chinnamani Valli, Raman Karunakaran, Venkatasubramanian Leela, Amaresan Serma Saravana Pandian
Background and Aim: In Tamil Nadu, a southern state of India, rice is readily available at a low cost, hence, is cooked (cooking akin to human consumption) and fed irrationally to cross-bred dairy cattle with poor productivity. Hence, a study was carried out with the objective to examine the prevalence of acidosis sequelae to rice-based feeding regimen and assess its magnitude. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted in all the 32 districts of Tamil Nadu, by randomly selecting two blocks per districts and from each block five villages were randomly selected...
April 2018: Veterinary World
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