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Virus and pulmonary fibrosis

Carla Bellinghausen, Gernot Gu Rohde, Paul Hm Savelkoul, Emiel Fm Wouters, Frank Rm Stassen
In the respiratory tract, viruses and bacteria can interact on multiple levels. It is well known that respiratory viruses, particularly influenza viruses, increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Numerous mechanisms, including compromised physical and immunological barriers, and changes in the microenvironment have hereby been shown to contribute to the development of secondary bacterial infections. In contrast, our understanding of how bacteria shape a response to subsequent viral infection is still limited...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Gregg A Duncan, James Jung, Andrea Joseph, Abigail L Thaxton, Natalie E West, Michael P Boyle, Justin Hanes, Jung Soo Suk
The stasis of mucus secretions in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to recurrent infections and pulmonary exacerbations, resulting in decreased survival. Prior studies have assessed the biochemical and biophysical features of airway mucus in individuals with CF. However, these measurements are unable to probe mucus structure on microscopic length scales relevant to key players in the progression of CF-related lung disease, namely, viruses, bacteria, and neutrophils. In this study, we quantitatively determined sputum microstructure based on the diffusion of muco-inert nanoparticle probes in CF sputum and found that a reduction in sputum mesh pore size is characteristic of CF patients with reduced lung function, as indicated by measured FEV1...
November 3, 2016: JCI Insight
Belinda J Thomas, Keiko Kan-O, Kate Loveland, Jack A Elias, Philip G Bardin
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and matrix homeostasis and is intimately involved in fibrosis. TGFB expression is increased in fibrotic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) but also in chronic inflammatory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. In addition to profibrotic activities, the molecule also exhibits profound immune-suppressive actions involving both innate and adaptive responses, but this aspect of TGFB biology is often overlooked...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Bárbara Nery Porto, Renato Tetelbom Stein
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) arise from the release of granular and nuclear contents of neutrophils in the extracellular space in response to different classes of microorganisms, soluble factors, and host molecules. NETs are composed by decondensed chromatin fibers coated with antimicrobial granular and cytoplasmic proteins, such as myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase (NE), and α-defensins. Besides being expressed on NET fibers, NE and MPO also regulate NET formation. Furthermore, histone deimination by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a central step to NET formation...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Panagis Galiatsatos, Michael T Melia, Leann L Silhan
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) results from a hypersensitivity response to airways colonization with Aspergillus fumigatus, and it occurs most often in individuals with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an indolent, but potentially progressive, disease in patients. In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ABPA is rare, and its description in the literature is limited to case reports. We describe the occurrence of ABPA in a 37-year-old woman with well controlled HIV infection...
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Aleksandra Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Irena Wojsyk-Banaszak, Katarzyna Jonczyk-Potoczna, Anna Breborowicz
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan fibroinflammatory condition with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates containing abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells. The immunopathogenesis of the disease and the potential role of triggering autoantigens or infectious factors have not been clearly defined. Immunoglobulin G4-related lung disease is a new and emerging condition in pediatric patients and to date, there have been only two reports regarding pulmonary manifestation of IgG4-RD in children recently published...
2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Giuseppe Cassinelli, Annamaria Naggi
The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of non-anticoagulant effects of heparins and their potential use in new therapeutic applications. Heparin and heparin derivatives have been tested in inflammatory, pulmonary and reproductive diseases, in cardiovascular, nephro- and neuro-tissue protection and repair, but also as agents against angiogenesis, atheroschlerosis, metastasis, protozoa and viruses. Targeting and inhibition of specific mediators involved in the inflammatory process, promoting some of the above mentioned pathologies, are reported along with recent studies of heparin conjugates and oral delivery systems...
June 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
M Fleshner, K N Olivier, P A Shaw, J Adjemian, S Strollo, R J Claypool, L Folio, A Zelazny, S M Holland, D R Prevots
SETTING: Tertiary referral center, National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality rate and its correlates among persons with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria (PNTM) disease. DESIGN: A retrospective review of 106 patients who were treated at the NIH Clinical Center and met American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for PNTM. Eligible patients were aged ⩾18 years and did not have cystic fibrosis or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
May 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Vanitha A Jagannath, G V Asokan, Zbys Fedorowicz, Tim W R Lee
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is the most common, life-threatening, recessively inherited disease of Caucasian populations. It is a multisystem disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein which is important in producing sweat, digestive juices and mucus.The impaired or absent function of this protein results in the production of viscous mucus within the lungs and an environment that is susceptible to chronic airway obstruction and pulmonary colonization by a range of pathogenic bacteria...
February 24, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Steven Maltby, Maximilian Plank, Hock L Tay, Adam Collison, Paul S Foster
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that modulate expression of the majority of genes by inhibiting protein translation. Growing literature has identified functional roles for miRNAs across a broad range of biological processes. As such, miRNAs are recognized as potential disease biomarkers and novel targets for therapies. While several miRNA-targeted therapies are currently in clinical trials (e.g., for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection and cancer), no therapies have targeted miRNAs in respiratory diseases in the clinic...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Silvia Naomi de Oliveira Uehara, Christini Takemi Emori, Renata Mello Perez, Maria Cassia Jacintho Mendes-Correa, Adalgisa de Souza Paiva Ferreira, Ana Cristina de Castro Amaral Feldner, Antonio Eduardo Benedito Silva, Roberto José Carvalho Filho, Ivonete Sandra de Souza E Silva, Maria Lucia Cardoso Gomes Ferraz
Brazil is one of the 22 countries that concentrates 80% of global tuberculosis cases concomitantly to a large number of hepatitis C carriers and some epidemiological risk scenarios are coincident for both diseases. We analyzed tuberculosis cases that occurred during α-interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C in reference centers in Brazil between 2001 and 2012 and reviewed their medical records. Eighteen tuberculosis cases were observed in patients submitted to hepatitis C α-interferon-based therapy. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus-negative...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vikas Goyal, Keith Grimwood, Julie Marchant, I Brent Masters, Anne B Chang
Bronchiectasis is described classically as a chronic pulmonary disorder characterized by a persistent productive cough and irreversible dilatation of one or more bronchi. However, in children unable to expectorate, cough may instead be wet and intermittent and bronchial dilatation reversible in the early stages. Although still considered an orphan disease, it is being recognized increasingly as causing significant morbidity and mortality in children and adults in both affluent and developing countries. While bronchiectasis has multiple etiologies, the final common pathway involves a complex interplay between the host, respiratory pathogens and environmental factors...
May 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Julie Bucher, Pierre-Yves Boelle, Dominique Hubert, Muriel Lebourgeois, Nathalie Stremler, Isabelle Durieu, François Bremont, Eric Deneuville, Bertrand Delaisi, Harriet Corvol, Laurence Bassinet, Dominique Grenet, Natacha Remus, Marie Véronique Vodoff, Véronique Boussaud, Françoise Troussier, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Odile Launay, Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus
BACKGROUND: Viral infections such as influenza are thought to impact respiratory parameters and to promote infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the real morbidity of the influenza virus in CF needs to be further investigated because previous studies were only observational. METHODS: CF patients were included in a case-control study (n = 44 cases and n = 371 controls) during the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza. Cases were patients with polymerase reaction chain-confirmed influenza A/H1N1 infection...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jin-Bao Huang, Hong-Yan Li, Jia-Fu Liu, Chang-Qing Lan, Qing-Hua Lin, Shu-Xing Chen, Hong-Ying Zhang, Xin-Hang Wang, Xu Lin, Jian-Guang Pan, Heng Weng
To date, data regarding the pulmonary histopathology of human H7N9 disease are scarce. We herein describe a patient with a severe case of avian influenza A (H7N9). A chest computerized tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse ground-glass opacities and consolidation throughout the lungs. A resection of pulmonary bullae in the right middle lobe was performed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) based on the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supportive technique on the 23(rd) day after the onset of symptoms because of a right pneumothorax persistent air leak...
December 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
Pulmonary exacerbations treated with intravenous antibiotics have significant, well-characterized negative consequences on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF). The impact of milder exacerbations in children with CF, commonly treated with oral antibiotics, are less well defined. Pulmonary exacerbations have multiple triggers, but viral infections are particularly common in children. Children with CF and healthy control subjects have similar frequencies of viral respiratory infections, but there is evidence of greater virus-related morbidity in patients with CF, likely due to a combination of increased viral load, more pronounced inflammatory response, and more pronounced impairment in mucociliary clearance...
November 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Bethany B Moore, Thomas A Moore
Viral infections are important contributors to exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; however, the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is less clear. This likely reflects that fact that IPF acute exacerbations are defined clinically as "noninfectious," and little attention has been paid to the outcomes of patients with IPF with diagnosed infections. However, accumulating evidence suggests that infections (both bacterial and viral) may influence disease outcomes either as exacerbating agents or initiators of disease...
November 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Aline Schögler, Ricardo J Muster, Elisabeth Kieninger, Carmen Casaulta, Caroline Tapparel, Andreas Jung, Alexander Moeller, Thomas Geiser, Nicolas Regamey, Marco P Alves
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties in the defence against pathogens. Its insufficiency is a widespread feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, which are repeatedly suffering from rhinovirus (RV)-induced pulmonary exacerbations.To investigate whether vitamin D has antiviral activity, primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF children were pre-treated with vitamin D and infected with RV16. Antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of vitamin D was assessed. RV and LL-37 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CF children infected with RV...
February 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Claire Andréjak, Laurence Delhaes
Recent development of high-throughput sequencing methods has shown that the human respiratory tract (including lower airways) is not sterile as formerly thought, but composed of a previously unappreciated complex microbial community referred as the lung microbiome and composed of bacteria, viruses and fungi. However, many questions remain unresolved, especially in terms of lung microbiome role, its interactions with host but also with environmental pathogens. Although data are still limited, links have already been demonstrated between lung microbiome and chronic respiratory diseases (such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis)...
November 2015: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Helena Back, Karin Ullman, Mikael Leijon, Robert Söderlund, Johanna Penell, Karl Ståhl, John Pringle, Jean-François Valarcher
Equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) is related to the human Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4) and has frequently been observed in equine populations worldwide. EHV-5 was previously assumed to be low to non-pathogenic; however, studies have also related the virus to the severe lung disease equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). Genetic information of EHV-5 is scanty: the whole genome was recently described and only limited nucleotide sequences are available. In this study, samples were taken twice 1 year apart from eight healthy horses at the same professional training yard and samples from a ninth horse that was diagnosed with EMPF with samples taken pre- and post-mortem to analyse partial glycoprotein B (gB) gene of EHV-5 by using next-generation sequencing...
January 2016: Journal of General Virology
Mathias Cousin, Nicolas Molinari, Vincent Foulongne, Davide Caimmi, Isabelle Vachier, Michel Abely, Raphael Chiron
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections lead to bronchial inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis, especially during pulmonary exacerbations. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of viral-associated pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis and failure to improve forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) after an appropriate treatment. METHODS: We lead a pilot study from January 2009 until March 2013. Children with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis were longitudinally evaluated three times: at baseline (Visit 1), at the diagnosis of pulmonary exacerbation (Visit 2), and after exacerbation treatment (Visit 3)...
March 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
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