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Virus and pulmonary fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760414/fragment-derived-inhibitors-of-human-n-myristoyltransferase-block-capsid-assembly-and-replication-of-the-common-cold-virus
#1
Aurélie Mousnier, Andrew S Bell, Dawid P Swieboda, Julia Morales-Sanfrutos, Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado, James A Brannigan, Joseph Newman, Markus Ritzefeld, Jennie A Hutton, Anabel Guedán, Amin S Asfor, Sean W Robinson, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Anthony J Wilkinson, Sebastian L Johnston, Robin J Leatherbarrow, Tobias J Tuthill, Roberto Solari, Edward W Tate
Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the pathogens most often responsible for the common cold, and are a frequent cause of exacerbations in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Here we report the discovery of IMP-1088, a picomolar dual inhibitor of the human N-myristoyltransferases NMT1 and NMT2, and use it to demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of host-cell N-myristoylation rapidly and completely prevents rhinoviral replication without inducing cytotoxicity. The identification of cooperative binding between weak-binding fragments led to rapid inhibitor optimization through fragment reconstruction, structure-guided fragment linking and conformational control over linker geometry...
May 14, 2018: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#2
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742226/influenza-a-non-h1n1-associated-with-acute-respiratory-failure-and-acute-renal-failure-in-a-previously-vaccinated-cystic-fibrosis-patient
#3
Louise Piva Penteado, Cecília Susin Osório, Antônio Balbinotto, Paulo de Tarso Roth Dalcin
In the 2014 - 2015 season, most influenza infections were due to A (H3N2) viruses. More than two-thirds of circulating A (H3N2) viruses are antigenically and genetically different (drifted) from the A (H3N2) vaccine component of 2014 - 2015 northern and southern Hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of seasonal influenza A non-H1N1 infection that occurred in June 2015 in an adult cystic fibrosis patient with severe lung disease previously vaccinated with the anti-flu trivalent vaccine...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598007/aav6-mediated-il-10-expression-in-the-lung-ameliorates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
Fumio Kurosaki, Ryosuke Uchibori, Yoshihide Sehara, Yasushi Saga, Masashi Urabe, Hiroaki Mizukami, Koichi Hagiwara, Akihiro Kume
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibroproliferative disorder with limited therapeutic options. An aberrant wound healing process in response to repetitive lung injury has been suggested for its pathogenesis, and a number of cytokines including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 play pivotal roles in the induction and progression of fibrosis. Thus, the regulation of these pro-inflammatory conditions may reduce the progression of IPF and ameliorate its symptoms in patients. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), a pleiotropic cytokine, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in numerous biological settings...
March 29, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548656/clinical-significance-of-changes-in-torque-teno-virus-dna-titer-after-chemotherapy-in-patients-with-primary-lung-cancer
#5
Tetsuro Sawata, Masashi Bando, Masayuki Nakayama, Naoko Mato, Hideaki Yamasawa, Masaharu Takahashi, Hiroaki Okamoto, Yukihiko Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that viral infections are related to lung cancer. We previously reported the involvement of Torque teno virus (TTV) in patients with lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of TTV in lung cancer growth, and its influence on changes in TTV DNA titers due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in lung cancer patients are poorly understood. METHODS: Serum TTV DNA titers were measured in serum samples obtained from patients with lung cancer...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512688/in-vivo-effects-of-the-nlrp1-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway-on-latent-respiratory-virus-infection
#6
Yong-Huai Li, Xiang Wei, Shuang Ji, Shu-Yu Gui, Su-Mei Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat protein (NLRP)1/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways on latent viral infection of the respiratory tract. A total of 55 BALB/c mice were assigned to the control, bleomycin (BLM)‑treated, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), MCMV+BLM and MCMV+BLM+CD4+ T‑cell groups. The viral loads were detected in the salivary glands, kidney, liver and lung tissues via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The weight, lung coefficient and hydroxyproline (HYP) were detected...
June 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508628/drug-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#7
Michael McGee, Nicholas Whitehead, Jennifer Martin, Nicholas Collins
INTRODUCTION: While pulmonary arterial hypertension remains an uncommon diagnosis, various therapeutic agents are recognized as important associations. These agents are typically categorized into "definite", "likely", "possible", or "unlikely" to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, based on the strength of evidence. OBJECTIVE: This review will focus on those therapeutic agents where there is sufficient literature to adequately comment on the role of the agent in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501253/clinical-significance-of-respiratory-virus-detection-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-interstitial-lung-diseases
#8
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Masaki Tamura, Yukari Ogawa, Sunao Mikura, Mitsuru Sada, Miku Oda, Takayasu Watanabe, Kosuke Ohkuma, Manami Inoue, Kojiro Honda, Masato Watanabe, Takuma Yokoyama, Masachika Fujiwara, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: The impact of viral infections on acute exacerbations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and/or non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILDs) has been scarcely described. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the frequency of virus infections in patients with IPF or non-IPF ILDs including idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) or connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated pneumonia, and its influence on their short-term mortality. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients with acute exacerbation of IPF and non-IPF ILDs who were admitted to the hospital during the last 3 years, and examined the respiratory samples obtained from nasopharyngeal, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426026/lung-health-in-era-of-climate-change-and-dust-storms
#9
REVIEW
Michael D Schweitzer, Andrew S Calzadilla, Oriana Salamo, Arash Sharifi, Naresh Kumar, Gregory Holt, Michael Campos, Mehdi Mirsaeidi
Dust storms are strong winds which lead to particle exposure over extensive areas. These storms influence air quality on both a local and global scale which lead to both short and long-term effects. The frequency of dust storms has been on the rise during the last decade. Forecasts suggest that their incidence will increase as a response to the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Elderly people, young children, and individuals with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases are at the greatest risk for health effects of dust storms...
May 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275576/-clinical-features-of-acute-diffuse-pulmonary-exudative-disorders
#10
L Y Mi, C J Ban, Y Liu, N Bao, B Sun, M Zhu, Y H Ren, H P Dai
Objective: To analyze the clinical features of acute diffuse pulmonary exudative disorders. Methods: The data were collected from patients who were hospitalized in respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University during January 2009 to December 2011, and had acute clinical course with imaging findings of diffuse pulmonary infiltrated shadows (similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)). The causes of disease and clinical features were analyzed...
November 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245055/high-proportion-of-abnormal-pap-smear-tests-and-cervical-dysplasia-in-women-with-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Christine Rousset-Jablonski, Quitterie Reynaud, Raphaëlle Nove-Josserand, Isabelle Ray-Coquard, Yahia Mekki, François Golfier, Isabelle Durieu
OBJECTIVES: Insufficient gynecological follow-up and cervical screening has been reported in women with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some of these patients will require a pulmonary transplantation, known to be associated with a higher risk of cervical dysplasia. The aim of this study was to explore the results of cervical screening in adult women with CF, and to report the prevalence of abnormal pap smear tests in this population. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of sexually active women with CF who attended a gynecological consultation in Lyon University CF referral center between June 2014 and December 2015...
February 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234569/a-case-of-localized-pulmonary-calcification-presenting-as-a-persistent-mass-lesion-in-an-immunosuppressed-patient-following-treatment-of-a-pseudomonas-pneumonia
#12
Matthew J Cecchini, Dominic L Shepherd, Jessica G Shepherd
We report a case of a persistent right upper lobe opacity following treatment for a Pseudomonas infection in an immunosuppressed patient with a recent renal transplantation. The patient underwent a surgical lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis of the mass. The lesion was composed of extensive calcifications deposited throughout the lung with associated fibrosis. The patient had a history of a remote parathyroidectomy for hyperparathyroidism; however, the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the calcium levels were still mildly elevated...
October 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222500/long-term-outcomes-in-survivors-of-epidemic-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#13
Jiajia Chen, Jie Wu, Shaorui Hao, Meifang Yang, Xiaoqing Lu, Xiaoxiao Chen, Lanjuan Li
Patients who survive influenza A (H7N9) virus infection are at risk of physical and psychological complications of lung injury and multi-organ dysfunction. However, there were no prospectively individualized assessments of physiological, functional and quality-of-life measures after hospital discharge. The current study aims to assess the main determinants of functional disability of these patients during the follow-up. Fifty-six influenza A (H7N9) survivors were investigated during the 2-year after discharge from the hospital...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068280/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-iranian-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Hossein Keyvani, Mohsen Moghoofei, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Shayan Mostafaei, Seyed-Ali Javad Mousavi, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Maryam Esghaei
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal lung disease. One of the risk factors involved in the acquisition of IPF is viral infections, especially respiratory viruses. In the present study, we investigated the detection of respiratory viruses and the possible relationship between these viruses and IPF. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was supported by the Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran. A total of 40 respiratory samples (five nasopharyngeal and 35 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens) were obtained from IPF patients referred to IUMS hospitals between April 2015 and December 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052141/murine-gammaherpesvirus-68-a-small-animal-model-for-gammaherpesvirus-associated-diseases
#15
Sihan Dong, J Craig Forrest, Xiaozhen Liang
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) is a naturally occurring pathogen of murid rodents that is genetically related to the human gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Viral, immunologic, and disease parameters following experimental infection of laboratory mice with MHV68 closely resemble what occurs during primary EBV infection of humans, which suggests that MHV68 infection of mice offers a small animal model to study in general the pathogenesis of gammaherpesvirus infections...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977842/sirtuin-6-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-during-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-inactivating-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling
#16
Kunming Tian, Panpan Chen, Zhiping Liu, Shutian Si, Qian Zhang, Yong Mou, Lianyong Han, Qin Wang, Xue Zhou
Sirt6 which is implicated in the control of aging, cancer, and metabolism, has been shown to have anti-fibrosis function in heart and liver. However, whether Sirt6 inhibits idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis remains elusive. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, forced expression of Sirt6 significantly abrogated TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like phenotype and cell behaviors in A549 cells...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953449/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-extrahepatic-manifestations-in-lung-and-heart-and-antiviral-therapy-related-cardiopulmonary-toxicity
#17
Syeda Zainab Ilyas, Rabia Tabassum, Haroon Hamed, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ishtiaq Qadri
Besides liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs). HCV exhibits lymphotropism that is responsible for various EHM. An important characteristic of HCV is escape from the immune system, which enables it to produce chronic infections and autoimmune disorders along with accumulation of circulating immune complexes. These EHMs have large spectrum, because they affect many organs such as heart, lungs, kidney, brain, thyroid, and skin...
November 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860146/il-17-in-the-lung-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#18
Stephen J Gurczynski, Bethany B Moore
The IL-17 family of cytokines has emerged over the last two decades as a pleiotropic group of molecules that function in a wide variety of both beneficial and detrimental (pathological) processes, mainly in mucosal barrier tissue. The beneficial effects of IL-17 expression are especially important in the lung, where exposure to foreign agents is abundant. IL-17A plays an important role in protection from both extracellular bacteria and fungi, as well as viruses that infect cells of the mucosal tracts. IL-17 coregulated cytokines, such as IL-22, are involved in maintaining epithelial cell homeostasis and participate in epithelial cell repair/regeneration following inflammatory insults...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834662/human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-heart-failure-in-sub-saharan-africa-evolution-in-the-epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-antiretroviral-era
#19
REVIEW
Ntobeko A B Ntusi, Mpiko Ntsekhe
The survival of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically increased in recent times. This review focuses on HIV-associated heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In HIV infected persons, heart failure may be related to pathology of the pericardium, the myocardium, the valves, the conduction system, or the coronary and pulmonary vasculature. HIV-associated heart failure can be because of direct consequences of HIV infection, autoimmune reactions, pro-inflammatory cytokines, opportunistic infections (OIs) or neoplasms, use of ART or therapy for OIs and presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors...
September 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#20
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen, which contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with IAV [IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2] as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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