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E D Batista, E Detmann, S C Valadares Filho, E C Titgemeyer, R F D Valadares
In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach...
January 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sen Yin, Ming Liu, Jian-Qiang Kong
UDP-L-rhamnose (UDP-Rha) is an important sugar donor for the synthesis of rhamnose-containing compounds in plants. However, only a few enzymes and their encoding genes involved in UDP-Rha biosynthesis are available in plants. Here, two genes encoding rhamnose synthase (RhS) and bi-functional UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose (UDP-4K6DG) 3, 5-epimerase/UDP-4-keto-L-rhamnose (UDP-4KR) 4-keto-reductase (UER) were isolated from Ornithogalum caudatum based on the RNA-Seq data. The OcRhS1 gene has an ORF (open reading frame) of 2019 bp encoding a tri-functional RhS enzyme...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Martin Nyaaba Adokiya, J Koku Awoonor-Williams, Claudia Beiersmann, Olaf Müller
OBJECTIVES: The integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) and district health information management system II (DHIMS2) strategies were implemented in 2002 and 2012 respectively to improve surveillance data reporting and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reporting completeness and timeliness of the IDSR system at the sub-national level in northern Ghana. METHODS: This was an observational study in Upper East Region (UER). Weekly and monthly disease surveillance reports on completeness and timeliness were downloaded and analysed for 2012 and 2013 from the DHIMS2 in UER, the two Kassena-Nankana districts and their nine health facilities representing public, private and mission providers...
March 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Andrew M Courtwright, Stacey Salomon, Anne Fuhlbrigge, Miguel Divo, Ivan O Rosas, Phillip C Camp, Hari H Mallidi, Patrick Burkett, Souheil El-Chemaly, David J Wolfe, Hilary J Goldberg
Unplanned early rehospitalization (UER), defined as an unscheduled admission within 30 days of a hospital discharge, is associated with graft loss and recipient mortality in some solid organ transplants but has not been investigated in lung transplant. In this retrospective study, we collected socio-demographic and clinical factors to determine predictors and outcomes of UER in the first year following lung transplantation. There were 193 patients who underwent lung transplantation and survived to discharge during the 7...
September 2016: Clinical Transplantation
T Mutsvangwa, K L Davies, J J McKinnon, D A Christensen
The objective of this study was to determine how interactions between dietary crude protein (CP) and rumen-degradable protein (RDP) concentrations alter urea-nitrogen recycling, nitrogen (N) balance, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (711±21kg of body weight; 91±17d in milk at the start of the experiment) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments and 29-d experimental periods...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Gamaleldin I Harisa, Mohamed M Badran, Saeed A AlQahtani, Fars K Alanazi, Sabry M Attia
Chitosan nanogels (CNG) are developed as one of the most promising carriers for cancer targeting. However, these carriers are rapidly eliminated from circulation by reticuloendothelial system (RES), which limits their application. Therefore, erythrocytes (ER) loaded CNG as multifunctional carrier may overcome the massive elimination of nanocarriers by RES. In this study, erythrocytes loaded pravastatin-chitosan nanogels (PR-CNG-ER) were utilized as a novel drug carrier to target liver cancer. Thus, PR-CNG formula was developed in nanosize, with good entrapment efficiency, drug loading and sustained release over 48 h...
January 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
U Agarwal, Q Hu, B J Bequette
Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design...
October 2015: Journal of Animal Science
Emma R Salis, Mikkel K Soelbeck, David M Reith, Benjamin J Wheeler, Roland S Broadbent, Natalie J Medlicott
AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure urinary C-peptide concentrations, and then calculate C-peptide clearance (Cl), and excretion rate (UER) in neonates. In addition, the effect of gestational age (GA) and blood glucose levels (BGL) on C-peptide UER were investigated. METHODS: Insulin concentrations in plasma and C-peptide concentrations were measured in plasma and urine, in 20 neonates. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used for insulin and C-peptide measurements, with urine diluted to 40% with bovine serum albumin 1% in phosphate buffered saline...
January 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ramnik V Patel, Marina Brimioulle, Dhaval Govani, Talaat Youssef
We report a case of juvenile allergic urethritis secondary to double concentrate orange squash of a famous brand in a 3-year-old boy who developed bilateral urethro-ejaculatory reflux (UER) and severe urethral, perineal and scrotal pain referred to both lower limbs intermittently predominantly during and after micturition-simulating features of bilateral intermittent testicular torsion. Accurate history, urinalysis, ultrasound, colour Doppler and food challenge were helpful in diagnosis. Topical steroids, antihistaminic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory medications together with withdrawal of the allergen produced complete recovery...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Xin Qi, Wenbiao Hu, Andrew Page, Shilu Tong
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have examined the associations of suicide with meteorological variables (MVs) and socioeconomic status but the results are inconsistent. This study assessed whether MVs and unemployment were associated with suicide in eight Australian capital cities. METHODS: Data on suicide, population and unemployment rate (UER) between 1985 and 2005 were from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. MVs was provided by Australian Bureau of Meteorology...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
S K Gill, J Hankey, A Wright, S Marczak, K Hemming, D M Allerton, P Ansley-Robson, R J S Costa
The study aimed to determine circulatory endotoxin concentration, cytokine profile, and gastrointestinal symptoms of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=17) in response to a 24-h continuous ultra-marathon competition (total distance range: 122-208 km) conducted in temperate ambient conditions (0-20 °C) in mountainous terrain. Body mass and body temperature were measured, and venous blood samples were taken before and immediately after competition. Samples were analysed for gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, C-reactive protein, cytokine profile, and plasma osmolality...
July 2015: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Samantha K Gill, Ana Teixeira, Luis Rama, Jonato Prestes, Fatima Rosado, Joanne Hankey, Volker Scheer, Krystal Hemmings, Paula Ansley-Robson, Ricardo J S Costa
Exertional-heat stress has the potential to disturb intestinal integrity, leading to enhanced permeability of enteric pathogenic micro-organisms and associated clinical manifestations. The study aimed to determine the circulatory endotoxin concentration and cytokine profile of ultra-endurance runners (UER, n=19) and a control group (CON, n=12) during a five stage 230km ultra-marathon (mean ± SD: 27h38min ± 3h55min) conducted in hot and dry environmental conditions (30ºC to 40ºC and 31% to 40% relative humidity)...
2015: Exercise Immunology Review
Martin Nyaaba Adokiya, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Inuwa Yau Barau, Claudia Beiersmann, Olaf Mueller
BACKGROUND: Well-functioning surveillance systems are crucial for effective disease control programs. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was developed and adopted in 1998 for Africa as a comprehensive public health approach and subsequently, Ghana adopted the IDSR technical guidelines in 2002. Since 2012, the IDSR data is reported through the new District Health Information Management System II (DHIMS2) network. The objective was to evaluate the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system in northern Ghana...
2015: BMC Public Health
Evelyn Sakeah, Lois McCloskey, Judith Bernstein, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Samuel Mills, Henry V Doctor
BACKGROUND: The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is very high. In Ghana maternal mortality ratio was 380 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, yet in 2010 only 68 percent of mothers in Ghana gave birth with the assistance of skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted a strategy that involved using the integrated Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program and training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER)...
December 17, 2014: Reproductive Health
Jack R Wall, Hooshang Lahooti, Ilhem El Kochairi, Simon D Lytton, Bernard Champion
Although ophthalmopathy is mainly associated with Graves' hyperthyroidism, milder eye changes are also found in about 25% of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The recent finding of negative thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) antibodies, as measured in the Thyretain™ thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) reporter bioassay, in patients with euthyroid Graves' disease raises the possibility that TSHR antibodies are not the cause of ophthalmopathy in all situations. Here, we have tested serum from patients with HT with and without ophthalmopathy or isolated upper eyelid retraction (UER) for TSHR antibodies, using the TSI reporter bioassay and collagen XIII as a marker of autoimmunity against the orbital fibroblast...
2014: Clinical Ophthalmology
John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Elias Kavinah Sory, Frank K Nyonator, James F Phillips, Chen Wang, Margaret L Schmitt
Ghana's Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) initiative is envisioned to be a national program to relocate primary health care services from subdistrict health centers to convenient community locations. The initiative was launched in 4 phases. First, it was piloted in 3 villages to develop appropriate strategies. Second, the approach was tested in a factorial trial, which showed that community-based care could reduce childhood mortality by half in only 3 years. Then, a replication experiment was launched to clarify appropriate activities for implementing the fourth and final phase-national scale up...
March 2013: Global Health, Science and Practice
Evelyn Sakeah, Lois McCloskey, Judith Bernstein, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Samuel Mills, Henry V Doctor
BACKGROUND: In Ghana, between 1,400 and 3,900 women and girls die annually due to pregnancy related complications and an estimated two-thirds of these deaths occur in late pregnancy through to 48 hours after delivery. The Ghana Health Service piloted a strategy that involved training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). CHO-midwives collaborated with community members to provide skilled delivery services in rural areas...
2014: BMC Health Services Research
Ricardo J S Costa, Samantha K Gill, Joanne Hankey, Alice Wright, Slawomir Marczak
The present study aimed to assess the adequacy of energy, macronutrients and water intakes of ultra-endurance runners (UER) competing in a 24 h ultra-marathon (distance range: 122-208 km). The ad libitum food and fluid intakes of the UER (n 25) were recorded throughout the competition and analysed using dietary analysis software. Body mass (BM), urinary ketone presence, plasma osmolality (POsmol) and volume change were determined at pre- and post-competition time points. Data were analysed using appropriate t tests, with significance set at P <0·05...
August 14, 2014: British Journal of Nutrition
Evelyn Sakeah, Henry V Doctor, Lois McCloskey, Judith Bernstein, Kojo Yeboah-Antwi, Samuel Mills
BACKGROUND: The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER)...
2014: BMC Public Health
Lan-Ling Huang, Chang-Franw Lee, Ching-Lin Hsieh, Mei-Hsiang Chen
The purpose of this study was to survey occupational therapists for the usage problems and for their improvement needs for upper extremity rehabilitation equipment (UERE). A questionnaire was given to experienced occupational therapists from 113 hospitals that provide occupational therapy services with three or more professional full-time therapists. A total of 48 hospitals sent back questionnaires, and 184 valid questionnaires were received. Most of the UERE had two major problems: The base of the equipment was unstable, and the equipment was uninteresting to use...
December 2013: Occupational Therapy International
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