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E P Gunderson, L C Greenspan, M S Faith, S R Hurston, C P Quesenberry
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding (BF) may protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children exposed to maternal diabetes in utero, but its effects on infant growth among this high-risk group have rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate BF intensity and duration in relation to infant growth from birth through 12 months among offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Prospective cohort of 464 GDM mother-infant dyads (28% White, 36% Hispanic, 26% Asian, 8% Black, 2% other)...
April 24, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Angela Sheu, Yixian Chan, Angela Ferguson, Mohammad B Bakhtyari, Wendy Hawke, Chris White, Yuk Fun Chan, Patrick J Bertolino, Heng G Woon, Umaimainthan Palendira, Frederic Sierro, Sue Mei Lau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous adaptations of the maternal immune system are necessary during pregnancy to maintain immunological tolerance to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Several complications of pregnancy have been associated with dysregulation of these adaptive mechanisms. While gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with upregulation of circulating inflammatory factors linked to innate immunity, polarisation of the adaptive immune system has not been extensively characterised in this condition...
April 24, 2018: Diabetologia
Zhenluan Xue, Songjun Zeng, Jianhua Hao
Optical bioimaging by using the new short-wavelength infrared window (SWIR, also named as NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is emerged as a next generation imaging technique for disease diagnosis owing to the unprecedented improvements in imaging sensitivity and spatial resolution. However, it is challenging to search new imaging agents with highly biocompatible and bright narrow-band emission located in the 1500-1700 nm (referred as NIR-IIb) region. Here we developed high quality polyacrylic acid (PAA) modified NaYF4 :Gd/Yb/Er nanorods (PAA-NRs) with remarkably enhanced NIR-IIb emission and decent bio-compatibility for in vivo cerebral vascular bioimaging and small tumor visualization...
April 17, 2018: Biomaterials
Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Dorte Glintborg, Henriette Boye Kyhl, H David McIntyre, Richard Christian Jensen, Tina Kold Jensen, Dorte Møller Jensen, Marianne Andersen
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is common in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS may be associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). OBJECTIVES: To 1) review literature regarding PCOS and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and 2) present original data from Odense Child Cohort (OCC) regarding GDM in PCOS. METHODS: Literature search including original studies from 2000-18. OCC included 2,548 pregnant women, 9.5 % (n=241) had PCOS...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Daphna Komem, Lina Salman, Eyal Krispin, Nissim Arbib, Ron Bardin, Arnon Wiznitzer, Eran Hadar
AIMS: To assess the association of gestational weight gain or loss with adverse pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: Retrospective study of all women diagnosed with GDM, from July 2012 to December 2016, stratified by gestational weight change according to the institute of medicine recommendations. Primary maternal outcome was glycemic control and primary neonatal outcome was large or small for gestational age (LGA or SGA)...
April 21, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Yuanliu Wang, Honghui Li, Min Zheng, Yubi Wu, Ting Zeng, Jinjian Fu, Dingyuan Zeng
BACKGROUND: Although vitamin D (vitD) deficiency is a common problem in pregnant women, in China, few studies have focused on the relationship between maternal vitD deficiency throughout the three trimesters and subsequent neonatal outcomes in China. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, maternal serum and neonate cord blood samples were collected from 1978 mother-neonate pairs from Liuzhou city. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitD (25(OH)D) were 16...
2018: PloS One
J Liu, S-Z Wang, Q-L Wang, J-G Du, B-B Wang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the placental exosome levels of normal pregnant women and pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in different gestational stages, and further investigate the effects of exosomes on the release of cytokines from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 20 pregnant women, including 13 normal pregnant women and seven pregnant women with GDM were selected. Blood samples were collected during the three gestational stages (from week 11 to week 14 in the first trimester, from week 22 to week 24 in the second trimester, and from week 32 to week 36 in the third trimester)...
April 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Silvio Aime, Simona Baroni, Daniela Delli Castelli, Ernő Brücher, István Fábián, Sonia Colombo Serra, Alberto Fringuello Mingo, Roberta Napolitano, Luciano Lattuada, Fabio Tedoldi, Zsolt Baranyai
The relaxivity of Gd(HP-DO3A) was studied as a function of pH and buffer composition in order to identify the main factors of the observed relaxation enhancement due to the exchange of the coordinated hydroxyl proton. It was established that the paramagnetic relaxation time, T1M , of the coordinated hydroxyl proton is about 50% shorter than that of the protons in the coordinated water molecule. The control of the p K of the coordinated alcoholic -OH moiety in the ligand is fundamental to utilize the proton exchange enhanced relaxivity under physio/pathologic conditions...
April 24, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sumali S Hewage, Shweta R Singh, Claudia Chi, Jerry K Y Chan, Tong Wei Yew, Wee Meng Han, Joanne Yoong
IN BRIEF Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk for type 2 diabetes. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate health care providers' perceptions of care responsibilities and resources related to reducing type 2 diabetes risk among women with previous GDM in Singapore. Health care providers acknowledged a shared responsibility. They felt that they had less understanding of compliance with long-term maintenance of lifestyle change, exacerbated further by fragmentation of follow-up care. The application of more integrated patient-centered care models, combined with greater health literacy, is urgently required in this area...
April 2018: Clinical Diabetes: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
Polina Girchenko, Soile Tuovinen, Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Jari Lahti, Katri Savolainen, Kati Heinonen, Riikka Pyhälä, Rebecca M Reynolds, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Eero Kajantie, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Hannele Laivuori, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have linked maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) with suboptimal neurodevelopment in her offspring; however, the literature is not entirely consistent. Whether these effects are muddled by maternal self-reports of pre-pregnancy weight and height, or are driven or amplified by the well often comorbid hypertensive and diabetic pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders, remains unclear. We examined whether maternal early pregnancy obesity is associated with developmental delay in her offspring, and if the associations are driven or amplified by diabetic and hypertensive pregnancy and pre-pregnancy disorders...
April 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
María Augusta Guillén-Sacoto, Beatriz Barquiel, Natalia Hillman, María Ángeles Burgos, Lucrecia Herranz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of glycemic control in gestational on neonatal weight and metabolic complications of twin and singleton pregnancies. METHODS: An observational, retrospective study to monitor 120 twin and 240 singleton pregnancies in women with GDM. Maternal glycemic parameters during pregnancy (oral glucose tolerance test results, treatment, insulinization rate, mean HbA1c in the third trimester), and neonatal complications and weight were recorded...
April 20, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Xingli Deng, Yulin Yang, Hao Sun, Wenjin Qi, Yong Duan, Yuan Qian
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is the most extensively studied epigenetic modification which had been suspected to be involved in the progress of gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). It is vital to investigate the expression profile and methylation profile in the GDM adipose tissue samples to learn more about the relationship between the two profiles. METHODS: Illumina Human Methylation 450 k DNA Analysis Beadchip and whole Human Gene Expression Array were selected to screen for methylation and gene expression in the omental visceral adipose tissue of pregnant women...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Jung Hun Lee, Youe Ree Kim, Guy Mok Lee, Jong Hyun Ryu, Eun Young Cho, Young Hwan Lee, Kwon-Ha Yoon
PURPOSE: To study whether the measurement of hepatic fibrosis on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using the coefficient of variation (CV) might be correlated with the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 104 patients with and without CHB, who were divided into 4 groups: control group, CHB without liver cirrhosis (LC; Group I), CHB with LC (Group II), and CHB with LC and HCC (Group III)...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Huiying Kang, Miao Zhang, Minhui Ouyang, Ruolan Guo, Qinlin Yu, Qinmu Peng, Ningning Zhang, Yonghong Zhang, Yanlong Duan, Xiaolu Tang, Virendra Mishra, Fang Fang, Wei Li, Hao Huang, Yun Peng
OBJECTIVES: To investigate white matter (WM) microstructural alterations in type I Gaucher disease (type I GD) pediatric patients and explore the correlation between the disease duration and WM changes. METHODS: Twenty-two GD patients and twenty-two sex- and age-matched typical development (TD) children were recruited. Changes in WM were investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and applying atlas-based tract analysis. For all DTI measurements, independent-samples t-test was applied to report significant differences between type I GD and TD...
May 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Li Lin, Yumei Wei, Weiwei Zhu, Chen Wang, Rina Su, Hui Feng, Huixia Yang
BACKGROUND: Anaemia in pregnant women is a public health problem, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and related risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy in a large multicentre retrospective study (n = 44,002) and to determine the adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with or without anaemia. METHODS: The study is a secondary data analysis of a retrospective study named "Gestational diabetes mellitus Prevalence Survey (GPS) study in China"...
April 23, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Graziano Di Cianni, Emilia Lacaria, Cristina Lencioni, Veronica Resi
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus is a condition strongly related to the development of type 2 diabetes later in life, although the risk and the onset have not been fully identified yet. Although glucose tolerance returns to normal levels after delivery in the majority of women with GDM, this condition represents an early stage in the natural history of T2DM. In addition, women with previous GDM exhibit an increased cardiovascular risk profile and a raised incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes and pharmacological interventions might be able to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in pGDM women, although results are still not conclusive...
April 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kaberi Dasgupta, Helle Terkildsen Maindal, Karoline Kragelund Nielsen, Sharleen O'Reilly
AIM: Health behaviour change interventions have potential to reduce diabetes after pregnancy (DAP) rates following gestational diabetes (GDM). Recruitment success is arguably as important as intervention effectiveness, but receives less attention. We examined penetration into target populations and participation in DAP prevention interventions in women with a GDM history. METHODS: Five databases were searched for studies published up to December 2017. Studies were reviewed by at least three reviewers and data were qualitatively synthesized...
April 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
William K Boyes, Laura Degn, Barbara Jane George, Mary E Gilbert
Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for many aspects of neurodevelopment and can be disrupted by a variety of environmental contaminants. Sensory systems, including audition and vision are vulnerable to TH insufficiencies, but little data are available on visual system development at less than severe levels of TH deprivation. The goal of the current experiments was to explore dose-response relations between graded levels of TH insufficiency during development and the visual function of adult offspring. Pregnant Long Evans rats received 0 or 3 ppm (Experiment 1), or 0, 1, 2, or 3 ppm (Experiment 2) of propylthiouracil (PTU), an inhibitor of thyroid hormone synthesis, in drinking water from gestation day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PN) 21...
April 20, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma...
April 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Tao Lin, Jizheng Wang
Graphdiyne (GD) is a novel two-dimensional carbon material composed of sp and sp2 -hybridized carbon atoms. This kind of carbon allotrope has attracted more and more attention not only because of the distinctive porous structure but also because of its intriguing electronic properties such as high mobility and conductivity, good field emission properties, and tunable natural band gap. In this review, some representative applications of GD on a variety of optoelectronic devices are described. Starting from the methods of introducing GD into the devices, we analyze the interactions between GD and other device components, summarize the general mechanism of how GD improves performance of the devices, and provide a glimpse into the future of GD at the end...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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