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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449860/adaptive-genetic-divergence-despite-significant-isolation-by-distance-in-populations-of-taiwan-cow-tail-fir-keteleeria-davidiana-var-formosana
#1
Kai-Ming Shih, Chung-Te Chang, Jeng-Der Chung, Yu-Chung Chiang, Shih-Ying Hwang
Double digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) is a tool for delivering genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for non-model organisms useful in resolving fine-scale population structure and detecting signatures of selection. This study performs population genetic analysis, based on ddRADseq data, of a coniferous species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana , disjunctly distributed in northern and southern Taiwan, for investigation of population adaptive divergence in response to environmental heterogeneity...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449618/codon-based-co-occurrence-network-motifs-in-human-mitochondria
#2
Pramod Shinde, Camellia Sarkar, Sarika Jalan
The nucleotide polymorphism in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) tolled by codon position bias plays an indispensable role in human population dispersion and expansion. Herein, genome-wide nucleotide co-occurrence networks were constructed using data comprised of five different geographical regions and around 3000 samples for each region. We developed a powerful network model to describe complex mitochondrial evolutionary patterns among codon and non-codon positions. We found evidence that the evolution of human mitochondria DNA is dominated by adaptive forces, particularly mutation and selection, which was supported by many previous studies...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447131/dna-repair-deficiency-sensitizes-lung-cancer-cells-to-nad-biosynthesis-blockade
#3
Mehdi Touat, Tony Sourisseau, Nicolas Dorvault, Roman M Chabanon, Marlène Garrido, Daphné Morel, Dragomir B Krastev, Ludovic Bigot, Julien Adam, Jessica Frankum, Sylvère Durand, Clement Pontoizeau, Sylvie Souquère, Mei-Shiue Kuo, Sylvie Sauvaigo, Faraz Mardakheh, Alain Sarasin, Ken A Olaussen, Luc Friboulet, Frédéric Bouillaud, Gérard Pierron, Alan Ashworth, Anne Lombès, Christopher J Lord, Jean-Charles Soria, Sophie Postel-Vinay
Synthetic lethality is an efficient mechanism-based approach to selectively target DNA repair defects. ERCC1 deficiency is frequently found in non-small cell lung cancers, making this DNA repair protein an attractive target for exploiting synthetic lethal approaches in this disease. Using unbiased proteomic and metabolic high-throughput profiling on a unique in-house generated isogenic model of ERCC1 deficiency, we found marked metabolic rewiring of ERCC1-deficient populations, including decreased levels of the metabolite NAD+ and reduced expression of the rate-limiting NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445620/genetic-analysis-of-maternal-and-paternal-lineages-in-kabardian-horses-by-uniparental-molecular-markers
#4
Aliybek D Khaudov, Astemir S Duduev, Zaur A Kokov, Khazhismel K Amshokov, Mohamed Kh Zhekamukhov, Alexander M Zaitsev, Monika Reissmann
Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome help to understand the origin and distribution of maternal and paternal lineages. The Kabardian horse from Northern Caucasia which is well-known for strength, stamina and endurance in distance riding has a large gap in its breeding documentation especially in the recent past. A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses) and six mutations in Y chromosome (49 Kabardian stallions), respectively, were analyzed to get a better insight into breeding history, phylogenetic relationship to related breeds, maternal and paternal diversity and genetic structure...
2018: Open Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445193/uncoupling-foxo3a-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-functions-in-cancer-cells-undergoing-metabolic-stress-and-chemotherapy
#5
Valentina Celestini, Tugsan Tezil, Luciana Russo, Candida Fasano, Paola Sanese, Giovanna Forte, Alessia Peserico, Martina Lepore Signorile, Giovanna Longo, Domenico De Rasmo, Anna Signorile, Raffaella Maria Gadaleta, Natasha Scialpi, Mineko Terao, Enrico Garattini, Tiziana Cocco, Gaetano Villani, Antonio Moschetta, Valentina Grossi, Cristiano Simone
While aberrant cancer cell growth is frequently associated with altered biochemical metabolism, normal mitochondrial functions are usually preserved and necessary for full malignant transformation. The transcription factor FoxO3A is a key determinant of cancer cell homeostasis, playing a dual role in survival/death response to metabolic stress and cancer therapeutics. We recently described a novel mitochondrial arm of the AMPK-FoxO3A axis in normal cells upon nutrient shortage. Here, we show that in metabolically stressed cancer cells, FoxO3A is recruited to the mitochondria through activation of MEK/ERK and AMPK, which phosphorylate serine 12 and 30, respectively, on FoxO3A N-terminal domain...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444484/application-of-a-new-targeted-low-density-microarray-and-conventional-biomarkers-to-evaluate-the-health-status-of-marine-mussels-a-field-study-in-sardinian-coast-italy
#6
Susanna Sforzini, Caterina Oliveri, Andrea Orrù, Giannina Chessa, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Awadhesh N Jha, Aldo Viarengo, Mohamed Banni
In the present study, we investigated the health status of marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) caged and deployed at three different sites on the Sardinian coastline characterized by different levels of contamination: Fornelli (F, the reference site), Cala Real (CR), and Porto Torres (PT). A new low density oligonucleotide microarray was used to investigate global gene expression in the digestive gland of mussels. Target genes were selected to cover most of the biological processes involved in the stress response in bivalve mollusks (e...
February 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434868/cytotoxic-effect-of-efavirenz-in-bxpc-3-pancreatic-cancer-cells-is-based-on-oxidative-stress-and-is-synergistic-with-ionizing-radiation
#7
Markus Hecht, Thomas Harrer, Verena Körber, Eric O Sarpong, Fabian Moser, Nora Fiebig, Manuela Schwegler, Michael Stürzl, Rainer Fietkau, Luitpold V Distel
The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) Efavirenz is frequently used in human immunodeficiency virus treatment, but also efficient against cancer in mouse models. Its radiosensitizing effect makes it a promising drug for combination with radiotherapy. The efficacy of Efavirenz combined with irradiation was assessed with immunostaining of DNA-damage markers and colony formation assays in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells. Gene expression and protein phosphorylation of the Efavirenz-sensitive BxPC-3 cells was compared to the resistant primary fibroblasts SBL-5...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420656/technical-adequacy-of-bisulfite-sequencing-and-pyrosequencing-for-detection-of-mitochondrial-dna-methylation-sources-and-avoidance-of-false-positive-detection
#8
Chie Owa, Matthew Poulin, Liying Yan, Toshi Shioda
The existence of cytosine methylation in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a controversial subject. Because detection of DNA methylation depends on resistance of 5'-modified cytosines to bisulfite-catalyzed conversion to uracil, examined parameters that affect technical adequacy of mtDNA methylation analysis. Negative control amplicons (NCAs) devoid of cytosine methylation were amplified to cover the entire human or mouse mtDNA by long-range PCR. When the pyrosequencing template amplicons were gel-purified after bisulfite conversion, bisulfite pyrosequencing of NCAs did not detect significant levels of bisulfite-resistant cytosines (brCs) at ND1 (7 CpG sites) or CYTB (8 CpG sites) genes (CI95 = 0%-0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418047/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-the-female-germline-implications-to-fertility-and-inheritance-of-mitochondrial-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Marcos Roberto Chiaratti, Bruna Martins Garcia, Karen Freire Carvalho, Thiago Simões Machado, Fernanda Karina Silva da Ribeiro, Carolina Habermann Macabelli
Mitochondria play a fundamental role during development of the female germline. They are fragmented, round and small. Despite these characteristics suggesting that they are inactive, there is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunctions are a major cause of infertility and generation of aneuploidies in humans. In addition, mitochondria and their own genomes (mitochondrial DNA - mtDNA) may become damaged with time, which might be one reason why aging leads to infertility. As a result, mitochondria have been proposed as an important target for evaluating oocyte and embryo quality, and developing treatments for female infertility...
February 8, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416919/mechanism-of-action-of-the-atypical-retinoid-st1926-in-colorectal-cancer-dna-damage-and-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE
#10
Rana Abdel-Samad, Patrick Aouad, Hala Gali-Muhtasib, Zeinab Sweidan, Raed Hmadi, Humam Kadara, Egildo Luca D'Andrea, Alessandra Fucci, Claudio Pisano, Nadine Darwiche
Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third cause of cancer-related deaths with a relatively low survival rate. Resistance to standard chemotherapy represents a major hurdle in disease management; therefore, developing new therapeutic agents demands a thorough understanding of their mechanisms of action. One of these compounds is ST1926, an adamantyl retinoid that has shown potent antitumor activities in several human cancer models. Here, we show that ST1926 selectively suppressed the proliferation of CRC cells while sparing normal counterparts, and significantly reduced tumor volume in a xenograft cancer mouse model...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408632/complete-elimination-of-a-pathogenic-homoplasmic-mtdna-mutation-in-one-generation
#11
Lauren Brady, Bekim Sadikovic, C Anthony Rupar, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological conditions and are maternally inherited through a complex process which is not fully understood. Genetic counselling for mitochondrial conditions secondary to a mtDNA mutation can be challenging as it is not currently possible to accurately predict the mutational load/heteroplasmy of the mutation which could be passed to the offspring. In general, one expects that the higher the level of heteroplasmy the more likely that the same mtDNA mutation will be seen in the offspring...
February 1, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397923/improved-cryosurvival-of-stallion-spermatozoa-after-colloid-centrifugation-is-independent-of-the-addition-of-seminal-plasma
#12
Essraa M Al-Essawe, Anders Johannisson, Manuela Wulf, Christine Aurich, Jane M Morrell
Addition of seminal plasma (SP) prior to cryopreservation may influence stallion sperm cryosurvival. The objective of this study was to investigate the addition of pooled SP from "good" or "bad" freezer stallions to spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation (SLC) prior to cryopreservation on post-thaw sperm quality. Semen from 12 stallions was collected; 5 mL was frozen as control (C) and the remainder was processed by SLC to remove SP and was divided into three aliquots: i) SLC sample without SP (SLC); ii) SLC plus pooled SP from "good freezer" stallions (SLC-GF); iii) SLC plus pooled SP from "bad freezer" stallions (SLC-BF)...
February 1, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391551/a-conserved-motif-within-cox-2-allows-broad-detection-of-economically-important-fruit-flies-diptera-tephritidae
#13
Fan Jiang, Liang Liang, Zhihong Li, Yanxue Yu, Jun Wang, Yuping Wu, Shuifang Zhu
The genera Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus and Rhagoletis in the family Tephritidae order Diptera are economically important, worldwide distributed and cause damage to a large number of commercially produced fruits and vegetables. China had regulated these five genera as quarantine pests, including the species Carpomya vesuviana. An accurate molecular method not depending on morphology able to detect all the quarantine fruit flies simultaneously is required for quarantine monitoring. This study contributes a comparative analysis of 146 mitochondrial genomes of Diptera species and found variable sites at the mt DNA cox2 gene only conserved in economically important fruit flies species...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381905/genetic-diversity-analysis-of-thai-indigenous-chickens-based-on-complete-sequences-of-mitochondrial-dna-d-loop-region
#14
Piyanat Teinlek, Kannika Siripattarapravat, Chanin Tirawattanawanich
Objective: Complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of four Thai indigenous chicken varieties, including Pra-dhu-hang-dam (PD), Leung-hang-khao (LK), Chee (CH) and Dang (DA) were explored for genetic diversity and relationships with their potential ancestor and possible associates so to address chicken domestication in Thailand. Methods: A total of 220 complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of the 4 Thai indigenous chicken varieties were obtained by Sanger direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of 1231-1232 base pair in size...
January 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371703/mitochondrial-dna-selection-in-human-germ-cells
#15
Di Chen, Amander T Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363102/mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-and-purifying-selection-in-the-mammalian-female-germ-line
#16
REVIEW
Stephen P Burr, Mikael Pezet, Patrick F Chinnery
Inherited mutations in the mitochondrial (mt)DNA are a major cause of human disease, with approximately 1 in 5000 people affected by one of the hundreds of identified pathogenic mtDNA point mutations or deletions. Due to the severe, and often untreatable, symptoms of many mitochondrial diseases, identifying how these mutations are inherited from one generation to the next has been an area of intense research in recent years. Despite large advances in our understanding of this complex process, many questions remain unanswered, with one of the most hotly debated being whether or not purifying selection acts against pathogenic mutations during germline development...
January 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353449/blastulation-timing-is-associated-with-differential-mitochondrial-content-in-euploid-embryos
#17
Jacqueline R Ho, Nabil Arrach, Katherine Rhodes-Long, Wael Salem, Lynda K McGinnis, Karine Chung, Kristin A Bendikson, Richard J Paulson, Ali Ahmady
PURPOSE: Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and assessment of mitochondrial content (MC) are current methods for selection of the best embryos for transfer. Studies suggest that time-lapse morphokinetics (TLM) may also be helpful for selecting embryos more likely to implant. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between TLM parameters and MC to determine if they could be used adjunctively in embryo selection. We also examined the relationship between MC with ploidy and blastulation...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353346/singleplex-quantitative-real-time-pcr-for-the-assessment-of-human-mitochondrial-dna-quantity-and-quality
#18
Corey Goodwin, Denice Higgins, Shanan S Tobe, Jeremy Austin, Andrew Wotherspoon, Michelle E Gahan, Dennis McNevin
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can provide a means for forensic identity testing when genotyping of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) targets is not possible due to degradation or lack of template. For degraded samples, an indication of the quantity and quality of mtDNA is essential to allow selection of appropriately sized targets for hypervariable region (HVR) analysis, which may conserve sample and resources. Three human-specific mtDNA targets of increasing length (86, 190 and 452 base pairs) were amplified by singleplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), capable of providing an index of mtDNA degradation from fragment length information...
January 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351884/crucial-role-of-chelatable-iron-in-silver-nanoparticles-induced-dna-damage-and-cytotoxicity
#19
Agnieszka Grzelak, Maria Wojewódzka, Sylwia Meczynska-Wielgosz, Mariusz Zuberek, Dominika Wojciechowska, Marcin Kruszewski
Damage to mitochondria and subsequent ROS leakage is a commonly accepted mechanism of nanoparticle toxicity. However, malfunction of mitochondria results in generation of superoxide anion radical (O2•-), which due to the relatively low chemical reactivity is rather unlikely to cause harmful effects triggered by nanoparticles. We show that treatment of HepG2 cells with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) resulted in generation of H2O2 instead of O2•-, as measured by ROS specific mitochondrial probes. Moreover, addition of a selective iron chelator diminished AgNPs toxicity...
January 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349448/a-study-on-platinum-iv-species-containing-an-estrogen-receptor-modulator-to-reverse-tamoxifen-resistance-of-breast-cancer
#20
Weiwei Hu, Jian Zhao, Wuyang Hua, Shaohua Gou
Several dual-action Tam-Pt(iv) complexes derived from tamoxifen (Tam) and platinum(ii) drugs were designed and synthesized for targeting estrogen receptors (ERs) and DNA. These novel compounds not only exhibited potent cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells, but also reversed the tamoxifen resistance of TamR-MCF-7 cancer cells. Computational docking assays together with cellular uptake data demonstrated that the ER ligand portion of these conjugates plays a targeting role in ER-positive tumor cells and promotes the uptake of platinum via an estrogen receptor-mediated pathway...
January 19, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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