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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333293/intra-individual-purifying-selection-on-mitochondrial-dna-variants-during-human-oogenesis
#1
Sara De Fanti, Saverio Vicario, Martin Lang, Domenico Simone, Cristina Magli, Donata Luiselli, Luca Gianaroli, Giovanni Romeo
Study Question: Does selection for mtDNA mutations occur in human oocytes? Summary Answer: We provide statistical evidence in favor of the existence of purifying selection for mtDNA mutations in human oocytes acting between the expulsion of the first and second polar bodies (PBs). What is Known Already: Several lines of evidence in Metazoa, including humans, indicate that variation within the germline of mitochondrial genomes is under purifying selection...
March 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333210/levels-of-trophectoderm-mitochondrial-dna-do-not-predict-the-reproductive-potential-of-sibling-embryos
#2
Nathan R Treff, Yiping Zhan, Xin Tao, Meir Olcha, Michael Han, Jessica Rajchel, Liza Morrison, Scott J Morin, Richard T Scott
STUDY QUESTION: What is the predictive value of trophectoderm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quantity for blastocyst reproductive potential? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study demonstrates that, within a given cohort, mtDNA quantitation does not distinguish between embryos that implant and embryos that do not implant after double embryo transfer (DET). WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: An association between implantation failure and increased quantities of mtDNA has been observed in two studies but not in a third...
February 23, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329425/perpendicular-axes-of-differentiation-generated-by-mitochondrial-introgression
#3
Hernán E Morales, Paul Sunnucks, Leo Joseph, Alexandra Pavlova
Differential introgression of mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA generates discordant patterns of geographic variation and can promote population divergence and speciation. We examined a potential case of mitochondrial introgression leading to two perpendicular axes of differentiation. The Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis, a widespread Australian bird, shows a deep mitochondrial split that is perpendicular to north-south nuclear DNA and plumage colour differentiation. We propose a scenario to explain this pattern: (1) the two nuclear and mitochondrial genomes differentiated in concert during north-south population divergence; (2) later, their histories disconnected after two mitochondrial introgression events resulting in a deep mitochondrial split perpendicular to the nuclear DNA structure...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328323/an-adaptable-high-throughput-technology-enabling-the-identification-of-specific-transcription-modulators
#4
Tim Bergbrede, Emily Hoberg, Nils-Göran Larsson, Maria Falkenberg, Claes M Gustafsson
Mitochondria harbor the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, which under aerobic conditions produces the bulk of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondrial genome encodes key components of the OXPHOS system, and it is transcribed by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, POLRMT. The levels of mitochondrial transcription correlate with the respiratory activity of the cell. Therefore, compounds that can increase or decrease mitochondrial gene transcription may be useful for fine-tuning metabolism and could be used to treat metabolic diseases or certain forms of cancer...
April 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327596/genetic-polymorphisms-of-54-mitochondrial-dna-snp-loci-in-chinese-xibe-ethnic-minority-group
#5
Chun-Mei Shen, Li Hu, Chun-Hua Yang, Cai-Yong Yin, Zhi-Dan Li, Hao-Tian Meng, Yu-Xin Guo, Ting Mei, Feng Chen, Bo-Feng Zhu
We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of 54 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in Chinese Xibe ethnic minority group. A total of 137 unrelated healthy volunteers from Chinese Xibe group were the objects of our study. Among the selected loci, there were 51 variable positions including transitions and transversions, and single nucleotide transitions were common (83.93%) versus transversions. These variations defined 64 different mtDNA haplotypes exclusive of (CA)n and 9 bp deletion variation. The haplotype diversity and discrimination power in Xibe population were 0...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321271/parkin-in-cancer-mitophagy-related-unrelated-tasks
#6
EDITORIAL
Nabil Eid, Yoichi Kondo
Dysfunctional mitochondria may produce excessive reactive oxygen species, thus inducing DNA damage, which may be oncogenic if not repaired. As a major role of the PINK1-Parkin pathway involves selective autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria via a process termed mitophagy, Parkin-mediated mitophagy may be a tumor-suppressive mechanism. As an alternative mechanism for tumor inhibition beyond mitophagy, Parkin has been reported to have other oncosuppressive functions such as DNA repair, negative regulation of cell proliferation and stimulation of p53 tumor suppressor function...
March 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319176/insight-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-temporin-sha-a-new-broad-spectrum-antiparasitic-and-antibacterial-agent
#7
Zahid Raja, Sonia André, Feten Abbassi, Vincent Humblot, Olivier Lequin, Tahar Bouceba, Isabelle Correia, Sandra Casale, Thierry Foulon, Denis Sereno, Bruno Oury, Ali Ladram
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising drugs to kill resistant pathogens. In contrast to bacteria, protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania, were little studied. Therefore, the antiparasitic mechanism of AMPs is still unclear. In this study, we sought to get further insight into this mechanism by focusing our attention on temporin-SHa (SHa), a small broad-spectrum AMP previously shown to be active against Leishmania infantum. To improve activity, we designed analogs of SHa and compared the antibacterial and antiparasitic mechanisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306501/mapping-new-residents-of-the-mitochondrial-nucleoid
#8
Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy
In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Han et al. (2017) used a powerful combination of quantitative ratiometric mass spectrometry with APEX peroxidase-catalyzed proximity biotinylation to selectively highlight proteins associated with mitochondrial DNA above the background of contaminants and matrix proteins. In addition to identifying novel nucleoid factors, this study extends the APEX strategy to the proteomic mapping of non-membrane-bound multiprotein complexes.
March 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302478/molecular-mechanisms-of-discrotophos-induced-toxicity-in-hepg2-cells-the-role-of-csa-in-oxidative-stress
#9
You-Cheng Hseu, Tung-Wei Hsu, Heng-Dao Lin, Chin Hui Chen, Ssu Ching Chen
Dicrotophos (Dic), an insecticide and acaricide, is used against a variety of sucking, boring and chewing pests. It was proven that Dic induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of this compound were still unclear. First of all, the cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage were confirmed. Next, using RNA-seq for detecting differential expressed genes (DEGs) in cells treated with 50 μM Dic for 24 h, we showed that the dysregulation of these genes, irrespective of up (1298 genes) or down (2125 genes) regulation, could be attributed to some diverse pathways/metabolisms using KEGG analysis, particularly in DNA damage responses (DDRs) such as oxidative phosphorylation, nucleotide excision repair and cell cycle arrest...
March 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295945/parallel-evolution-of-genes-controlling-mitonuclear-balance-in-short-lived-annual-fishes
#10
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Alessandro Cellerino
The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan)...
March 11, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292971/selective-replacement-of-mitochondrial-dna-increases-cardioprotective-effect-of-chronic-continuous-hypoxia-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Jan Neckar, Anna Svatonova, Romana Weissova, Zdenek Drahota, Pavlina Zajickova, Iveta Brabcova, David Kolar, Petra Alanova, Jana Vasinova, Jan Silhavy, Marketa Hlavackova, Katerina Tauchmannova, Marie Milerova, Bohuslav Ostadal, Ludek Cervenka, Jitka Zurmanova, Martin Kalous, Olga Novakova, Jiri Novotny, Michal Pravenec, Frantisek Kolar
Mitochondria play an essential role in improved cardiac ischemic tolerance conferred by adaptation to chronic hypoxia. In the present study, we analyzed effects of continuous normobaric hypoxia (CNH) on mitochondrial functions, including the sensitivity of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to opening, and infarct size in hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in conplastic SHR-mtBN strain characterized by the selective replacement of the mitochondrial genome of SHR with that of more ischemia-resistant Brown Norway (BN) strain...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291352/understanding-the-molecular-determinant-of-reversible-human-monoamine-oxidase-b-inhibitors-containing-2h-chromen-2-one-core-structure-based-and-ligand-based-derived-3-d-qsar-predictive-models
#12
Milan Mladenovic, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Adele Pirolli, Manuela Sabatino, Rino Ragno
Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of aryalkylamines neurotransmitters with concomitant reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the enzyme's malfunction can induce oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and mediates development of Parkinson's disease. Thus, MAO B emerges as a promising target for developing pharmaceuticals potentially useful to treat this vicious neurodegenerative condition. Aiming to contribute to the development of drugs with the reversible mechanism of MAO B inhibition only, herein, an extended in silico-in vitro procedure for the selection of novel MAO B inhibitors is demonstrated, including: (1) definition of optimized and validated structure-based (SB) 3-D QSAR models derived from available co-crystallized inhibitor-MAO B complexes; (2) elaboration of structure-activity relationships (SAR) features for either irreversible or reversible MAO B inhibitors to characterize and improve coumarin-based inhibitor activity (Protein Data Bank ID: 2V61) as the most potent reversible lead compound; (3) definition of structure-based (SB) and ligand-based (LB) alignment rules assessments by which virtually any untested potential MAO B inhibitor might be evaluated; (4) predictive ability validation of the best 3-D QSAR model through SB/LB modeling of four coumarin-based external test sets (267 compounds); (5) design and SB/LB alignment of novel coumarin-based scaffolds experimentally validated through synthesis and biological evaluation in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289821/single-dose-local-anesthetics-exhibit-a-type-dose-and-time-dependent-chondrotoxic-effect-on-chondrocytes-and-cartilage-a-systematic-review-of-the-current-literature
#13
REVIEW
Peter Cornelius Kreuz, Matthias Steinwachs, Peter Angele
PURPOSE: Many studies have shown that local anesthetics may impede chondrocyte metabolism. However, the influence of a single-dose local anesthetics is controversial. The aim of this metaanalysis was to review the literature for studies investigating the cytotoxic effects of single-dose local anesthetics on chondrocytes and cartilage. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed using established search engines (Medline, Embase) to identify studies, investigating the influence of single-dose local anesthetics on cartilage...
March 13, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286206/simplified-qpcr-method-for-detecting-excessive-mtdna-damage-induced-by-exogenous-factors
#14
Artem P Gureev, Ekaterina A Shaforostova, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
Damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a meaningful biomarker for evaluating genotoxicity of drugs and environmental toxins. Existing PCR methods utilize long mtDNA fragments (∼8-10kb), which complicates detecting exact sites of mtDNA damage. To identify the mtDNA regions most susceptible to damage, we have developed and validated a set of primers to amplify ∼2kb long fragments, while covering over 95% of mouse mtDNA. We have modified the detection method by greatly increasing the enrichment of mtDNA, which allows us solving the problem of non-specific primer annealing to nuclear DNA...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286102/historical-gene-flow-and-profound-spatial-genetic-structure-among-golden-pheasant-populations-suggested-by-multi-locus-analysis
#15
Ke He, Hong-Yi Liu, Yun-Fa Ge, Shao-Ying Wu, Qiu-Hong Wan
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a good marker system for geographical genetics since they are functional genes in the immune system that are likely to affect the fitness of the individual, and the survival and evolutionary potential of a population in a changing environment. Golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) is a wild Phasianidae distributed in central and north China. In this study, we used a locus-specific genotyping technique for MHC IIB genes of golden pheasant. Combining with microsatellites (simple sequence repeat, SSR) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region, we investigated the demographic history and illuminate genetic structure of this bird in detail...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284223/genetic-diversity-of-taenia-saginata-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-from-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-and-northeastern-thailand-based-on-mitochondrial-dna
#16
Oranuch Sanpool, Rutchanee Rodpai, Pewpan M Intapan, Lakkhana Sadaow, Tongjit Thanchomnang, Sakhone Laymanivong, Wanchai Maleewong, Hiroshi Yamasaki
BACKGROUND: Taenia saginata is a tapeworm found in cattle worldwide. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographical populations of T. saginata not only helps to understand the origin, transmission and spread of this organism, but also to evaluate the selection pressures acting on T. saginata and how it is responding to them. However, there are few reports of the genetic variability of T. saginata populations in different regions of the world, including Lao PDR and Thailand. We report the genetic diversity of T...
March 11, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283480/leveraging-increased-cytoplasmic-nucleoside-kinase-activity-to-target-mtdna-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-aml
#17
Sanduni U Liyanage, Rose Hurren, Veronique Voisin, Gaëlle Bridon, Xiaoming Wang, ChangJiang Xu, Neil MacLean, Thirushi P Siriwardena, Marcela Gronda, Dana Yehudai, Shrivani Sriskanthadevan, Daina Avizonis, Aisha Shamas-Din, Mark D Minden, Gary D Bader, Rebecca Laposa, Aaron D Schimmer
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) biosynthesis requires replication factors and adequate nucleotide pools from the mitochondria and cytoplasm. We performed gene expression profiling analysis of 542 human AML samples and identified 55% with upregulated mtDNA biosynthesis pathway expression compared to normal hematopoietic cells. Genes that support mitochondrial nucleotide pools, including mitochondrial nucleotide transporters and a subset of cytoplasmic nucleoside kinases, were also increased in AML compared to normal hematopoietic samples...
March 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#18
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270093/machine-learning-classifier-for-identification-of-damaging-missense-mutations-exclusive-to-human-mitochondrial-dna-encoded-polypeptides
#19
Antonio Martín-Navarro, Andrés Gaudioso-Simón, Jorge Álvarez-Jarreta, Julio Montoya, Elvira Mayordomo, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesini
BACKGROUND: Several methods have been developed to predict the pathogenicity of missense mutations but none has been specifically designed for classification of variants in mtDNA-encoded polypeptides. Moreover, there is not available curated dataset of neutral and damaging mtDNA missense variants to test the accuracy of predictors. Because mtDNA sequencing of patients suffering mitochondrial diseases is revealing many missense mutations, it is needed to prioritize candidate substitutions for further confirmation...
March 7, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253846/digging-up-the-roots-of-an-insular-hotspot-of-genetic-diversity-decoupled-mito-nuclear-histories-in-the-evolution-of-the-corsican-sardinian-endemic-lizard-podarcis-tiliguerta
#20
Daniele Salvi, Catarina Pinho, D James Harris
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean islands host a disproportionately high level of biodiversity and endemisms. Growing phylogeographic evidence on island endemics has unveiled unexpectedly complex patterns of intra-island diversification, which originated at diverse spatial and temporal scales. We investigated multilocus genetic variation of the Corsican-Sardinian endemic lizard Podarcis tiliguerta with the aim of shedding more light on the evolutionary processes underlying the origin of Mediterranean island biodiversity...
March 2, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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