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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196517/simultaneous-detection-of-bovine-and-porcine-dna-in-pharmaceutical-gelatin-capsules-by-duplex-pcr-assay-for-halal-authentication
#1
Jafar Nikzad, Soraya Shahhosseini, Maryam Tabarzad, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh, Maryam Torshabi
BACKGROUND: In the pharmaceutical industry, hard- and soft-shelled capsules are typically made from gelatin, commonly derived from bovine and porcine sources. To ensure that pharmaceutical products comply with halal regulations in Muslim countries (no porcine products allowed), development of a valid, reliable, quick, and most importantly, cost-effective tests are of utmost importance. METHODS: We developed a species-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting 149 bp porcine and 271 bp bovine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to simultaneously detect both porcine and bovine DNA (in one reaction at the same time) in gelatin...
February 14, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188893/ultra-deep-next-generation-mitochondrial-genome-sequencing-reveals-widespread-heteroplasmy-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#2
Paul S Kelly, Colin Clarke, Alan Costello, Craig Monger, Justine Meiller, Heena Dhiman, Nicole Borth, Michael J Betenbaugh, Martin Clynes, Niall Barron
Recent sequencing of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Chinese hamster genomes has dramatically advanced our ability to understand the biology of these mammalian cell factories. In this study, we focus on the powerhouse of the CHO cell, the mitochondrion. Utilizing a high-resolution next generation sequencing approach we sequenced the Chinese hamster mitochondrial genome for the first time and surveyed the mutational landscape of CHO cell mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Depths of coverage ranging from ~3,319X to 8,056X enabled accurate identification of low frequency mutations (>1%) revealing that mtDNA heteroplasmy is widespread in CHO cells...
February 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185987/real-time-pcr-strategy-for-the-identification-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-discrete-typing-units-directly-in-chronically-infected-human-blood
#3
Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Werner Apt, Inés Zulantay
The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. This parasite has a complex population structure comprised by six or seven major evolutionary lineages (discrete typing units or DTUs) TcI-TcVI and TcBat, some of which have apparently resulted from ancient hybridization events. Because of the existence of significant biological differences between these lineages, strain characterization methods have been essential to study T. cruzi in its different vectors and hosts...
February 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183804/reduced-mitochondrial-activity-in-colonocytes-facilitates-ampk%C3%AE-2-dependent-inflammation
#4
Sandra Heller, Harrison M Penrose, Chloe Cable, Debjani Biswas, Hani Nakhoul, Melody Baddoo, Erik Flemington, Susan E Crawford, Suzana D Savkovic
Intestinal inflammation is associated with low levels of mucosal ATP, highlighting the importance of mitochondrial function associated with ATP production in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the inflamed colon of humans and mice, we found decreased levels of mitochondrial complex cytochrome c oxidase I/IV and lower ATP levels. Thus, we generated colonic ρ(0) cells with reduced mitochondrial function linked to ATP production by selective depletion of mitochondrial DNA. In these cells, RNA sequencing revealed a substantial number of differentially expressed transcripts, among which 240 belonged to inflammatory pathways activated in human inflamed colon and TNF-α-treated cells (false discovery rate < 0...
February 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179110/oxidized-and-original-article-degraded-mitochondrial-polynucleotides-demps-especially-rna-are-potent-immunogenic-regulators-in-primary-mouse-macrophages
#5
Abhinav R Saxena, Linda Y Gao, Shachi Srivatsa, Elizabeth Z Bobersky, Sivakumar Periasamy, Danielle T Hunt, Kyle E Altman, Dana R Crawford
Certain mitochondrial components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or danger signals, triggering a proinflammatory response in target (usually immune) cells. We previously reported the selective degradation of mitochondrial DNA and RNA in response to cellular oxidative stress, and the immunogenic effect of this DNA in primary mouse astrocytes. Here, we extend these studies to assess the immunogenic role of both mitochondrial DNA and RNA isolated from hydrogen peroxide (HP) treated HA1 cells (designated "DeMPs" for degraded mitochondrial polynucleotides) using mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), a conventional immune cell type...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178941/implications-of-human-evolution-and-admixture-for-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy
#6
Lavanya Rishishwar, I King Jordan
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement (MR) therapy is a new assisted reproductive technology that allows women with mitochondrial disorders to give birth to healthy children by combining their nuclei with mitochondria from unaffected egg donors. Evolutionary biologists have raised concerns about the safety of MR therapy based on the extent to which nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are observed to co-evolve within natural populations, i.e. the nuclear-mitochondrial mismatch hypothesis...
February 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177693/effects-of-1-3-5-triphenyl-4-5-dihydro-1-i-h-i-pyrazole-derivatives-on-cell-cycle-and-apoptosis-in-human-acute-leukemia-cell-lines
#7
Lorena Santos-Bubniak, Pâmela Cristina Gaspar, Ana Carolina Rabello de Moraes, Alisson Bigolin, Rubia Karine Souza, Fátima Campos Buzzi, Rogério Correa, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Lizandra Czermainski Bretanha, Gustavo Amadeu Micke, Ricardo José Nunes, Maria Cláudia Santos-Silva
Pyrazoline is an important five-membered nitrogen heterocycle, which has been extensively researched. Ten derivatives were synthesized and tested for antileukemic effects on two human acute leukemia cell lines, K562 and Jurkat. The most cytotoxic compound 21 was chosen for investigation of cytotoxicity mechanisms. The results obtained with selectivity calculations revealed that compound 21 is more selective for acute leukemia (K562 and Jurkat cell lines) than to other tumor cell lines. Besides, compound 21 was not cytotoxic to normal cell lines, indicating a potential use in clinical tests...
November 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177689/selective-inhibition-of-hdac2-by-magnesium-valproate-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy
#8
Suchi Raghunathan, Ramesh Goyal, Bhoomika Mayur Patel
The regulatory paradigm in cardiac hypertrophy involves alterations in gene expression that is mediated by chromatin remodeling. Various data suggest that class I and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) play opposing roles in the regulation of hypertrophic pathways. To address this, we tested the effect of magnesium valproate (MgV), an HDAC inhibitor with 5 times more potency on Class I HDAC. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by Partial abdominal aortic constriction in wistar rats, and at end of 6 weeks, we evaluated hypertrophic, hemodynamic and oxidative stress parameters, and mitochondrial DNA concentration...
December 8, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171799/synergistic-antitumor-effect-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-and-doxorubicin-in-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma
#9
Huilai Zhang, Ling Dong, Qingqing Chen, Lingzhe Kong, Bin Meng, Huaqing Wang, Kai Fu, Xi Wang, Qiang Pan-Hammarström, Ping Wang, Xianhuo Wang
Chidamide (CS055) is a new and highly selective histone deacetylase inhibitor displaying significant single-agent activity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). But there is little known the synergistic effect between CS055 and chemotherapy. The purpose of this study is to explore the synergistic effect and molecular mechanisms of CS055 combination with Doxorubicin in PTCL cells. We found that CS055 showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition effects on PTCL cell. Meanwhile, the synergistic effect was significantly observed after combination treatment with lower drug-concentration of CS055 and Doxorubicin...
January 25, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151485/photo-activation-of-the-delocalized-lipophilic-cation-d112-potentiates-cancer-selective-ros-production-and-apoptosis
#10
Ning Yang, Michael Weinfeld, Hélène Lemieux, Ben Montpetit, Ing Swie Goping
Delocalized lipophilic cations (DLCs) selectively accumulate in cancer cell mitochondria and have long been explored for therapeutic applications. Although targeted effects to cancer cells are demonstrated in vitro, non-specific toxicities in vivo have hampered clinical development. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of action and enhancing selectivity are thus necessary next steps to improve these compounds and evaluate their suitability for further drug development. D112 is one such DLC with promising properties...
February 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139706/identification-of-mirna-lncrna-and-mrna-associated-cerna-networks-and-potential-biomarker-for-melas-with-mitochondrial-dna-a3243g-mutation
#11
Wei Wang, Qianqian Zhuang, Kunqian Ji, Bing Wen, Pengfei Lin, Yuying Zhao, Wei Li, Chuanzhu Yan
Researchers in the field of mitochondrial biology are increasingly unveiling of the complex mechanisms between mitochondrial dysfunction and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, roles of ncRNAs underlying mitochondrial myopathy remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to elucidate the regulating networks of dysregulated ncRNAs in Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes (MELAS) with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A3243G mutation, which might make contributions to the unveiling of the complex mechanisms underlying mitochondrial myopathy and, possibly, new tools applicable to clinical practice...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131805/tenofovir-alafenamide-taf-does-not-deplete-mitochondrial-dna-in-human-t-cell-lines-at-intracellular-concentrations-exceeding-clinically-relevant-drug-exposures
#12
Kirsten M Stray, Yeojin Park, Darius Babusis, Christian Callebaut, Tomas Cihlar, Adrian S Ray, Michel Perron
HIV-infected patients treated with certain nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have experienced adverse effects due to drug-related mitochondrial toxicity. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the NRTI tenofovir (TFV) with an improved safety profile compared to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Prior in vitro studies have demonstrated that the parent nucleotide TFV has no significant effects on mtDNA synthesis. This study investigated whether clinically relevant TAF and TDF exposures affect mtDNA content in human lymphocytes...
January 26, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122174/synthesis-qsar-studies-and-metabolic-stability-of-novel-2-alkylthio-4-chloro-n-5-oxo-4-5-dihydro-1-2-4-triazin-3-yl-benzenesulfonamide-derivatives-as-potential-anticancer-and-apoptosis-inducing-agents
#13
Beata Żołnowska, Jarosław Sławiński, Aneta Pogorzelska, Krzysztof Szafrański, Anna Kawiak, Grzegorz Stasiłojć, Mariusz Belka, Joanna Zielińska, Tomasz Bączek
A series of novel 2-alkylthio-4-chloro-N-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives 12-46 have been synthesized by the reaction of aminoguanidines with an appropriate alpha-oxo-acids hydrates in glacial acetic acid. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity against HeLa, HCT-116 and MCF-7 human tumor cell lines. Two compounds 33 and 34 displayed outstanding cytotoxic effect selectively toward HeLa cancer cells (IC50 = 19 μM) and did not exhibit toxicity to the non-cancerous HaCaT cells...
January 25, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120863/range-expansion-underlies-historical-introgressive-hybridization-in-the-iberian-hare
#14
João P Marques, Liliana Farelo, Joana Vilela, Dan Vanderpool, Paulo C Alves, Jeffrey M Good, Pierre Boursot, José Melo-Ferreira
Introgressive hybridization is an important and widespread evolutionary process, but the relative roles of neutral demography and natural selection in promoting massive introgression are difficult to assess and an important matter of debate. Hares from the Iberian Peninsula provide an appropriate system to study this question. In its northern range, the Iberian hare, Lepus granatensis, shows a northwards gradient of increasing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression from the arctic/boreal L. timidus, which it presumably replaced after the last glacial maximum...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119108/sex-biased-secondary-contact-obscures-ancient-speciation-onto-relictual-host-trees-in-central-california-moths-syndemis-tortricidae
#15
Daniel Rubinoff, Michael San Jose, Jerry A Powell
The tortricid moth genus Syndemis has ten described species, with two polyphagous species in Europe and North America respectively. We sequenced five nuclear and four mitochondrial genes for Syndemis samples across both continents and discovered unexpected, extensive diversification restricted to California. DNA evidence supports five new, undescribed, species endemic to California, while the rest of North America and Europe have only one species each. Further, the nuclear genes are less variable and yield contrasting phylogenetic signal compared to mitochondrial DNA for basal relationships between taxa across the genus...
January 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116966/functional-structural-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-mitochondrial-cytochrome-b-cytb-in-insects
#16
Samin Seddigh, Maryam Darabi
Cytochrome b (Cytb, EC 1.10. 2.2) is the only cytochrome coded by mitochondrial DNA and involved in electron transport in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In this study, characterization of cytb protein was identified on fifty-four insect protein sequences, from different orders. According to the conserved motifs obtained with MEME and MAST tools, eight motifs were common to all insects. The structural and functional analyses of 16 selected insects from different orders were performed with ProtParam, Compute PI, SOPMA, SignalP 4...
January 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116069/can-spatial-sorting-associated-with-spawning-migration-explain-evolution-of-body-size-and-vertebral-number-in-anguilla-eels
#17
Anders Forsman, Hanna Berggren
Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assembling phenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first build upon and develop the "neutral" version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguing that in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionary effects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not be independent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortative mating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variation in quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survival of spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancing traits...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115643/zno-nanoparticles-induced-reactive-oxygen-species-promotes-multimodal-cyto-and-epigenetic-toxicity
#18
Samrat Roy Choudhury, Josue Ordaz, Chiao-Ling Lo, Nur P Damayanti, Feng Zhou, Joseph Irudayaraj
In this study we evaluated and correlated the cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to epigenetic modifications, using human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells as a model system. Imaging of singlet and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ZnO-NPs treated live cells was performed followed by the evaluation of its effects on cytoskeletal, mitochondrial, and nuclear integrity, and on the expression of ROS responsive genes. Next, we determined the global and locus specific changes in DNA-methylation at the three genomic repeat sequences namely global LINE-1, subtelomeric D4Z4 and pericentromeric NBL2, and at the promoter of selected ROS responsive genes (AOX1, HMOX1, NCF2, SOD3)...
January 22, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114306/new-evidences-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy-by-putative-paternal-leakage-between-the-rock-partridge-alectoris-graeca-and-the-chukar-partridge-alectoris-chukar
#19
Andrea Gandolfi, Barbara Crestanello, Anna Fagotti, Francesca Simoncelli, Stefania Chiesa, Matteo Girardi, Eleonora Giovagnoli, Carla Marangoni, Ines Di Rosa, Livia Lucentini
The rock partridge, Alectoris graeca, is a polytypic species declining in Italy mostly due to anthropogenic causes, including the massive releases of the closely related allochthonous chukar partridge Alectoris chukar which produced the formation of hybrids. Molecular approaches are fundamental for the identification of evolutionary units in the perspective of conservation and management, and to correctly select individuals to be used in restocking campaigns. We analyzed a Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) fragment of contemporary and historical A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102676/novel-antitumor-platinum-ii-conjugates-containing-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-agent-diclofenac-synthesis-and-dual-mechanisms-of-antiproliferative-effects
#20
Francesco Paolo Intini, Juraj Zajac, Vojtech Novohradsky, Teresa Saltarella, Concetta Pacifico, Viktor Brabec, Giovanni Natile, Jana Kasparkova
One concept how to improve anticancer effects of conventional metallodrugs consists in conjugation of these compounds with other biologically (antitumor) active agents, acting by a different mechanism. Here, we present synthesis, biological effects, and mechanisms of action of new Pt(II) derivatives containing one or two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) ligands also known for their antitumor effects. The antiproliferative properties of these metallic conjugates show that these compounds are potent and cancer cell selective cytotoxic agents exhibiting activity in cisplatin resistant and the COX-2 positive tumor cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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