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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428799/a-novel-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-brassica-napus-inap-cms-with-carpelloid-stamens-via-protoplast-fusion-with-chinese-woad
#1
Lei Kang, Pengfei Li, Aifan Wang, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425080/monitoring-of-paternal-mitochondrial-degradation-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Miyuki Sato, Ken Sato
In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, paternally inherited mitochondria and their mitochondrial DNA are degraded via selective autophagy called allophagy (allogeneic organelle autophagy). This is a developmentally programmed autophagy and combined with C. elegans genetics and in vivo imaging provides a unique opportunity to analyze selective autophagy under physiological conditions.
April 20, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422134/genetic-structure-and-signatures-of-selection-in-grey-reef-sharks-carcharhinus-amblyrhynchos
#3
P Momigliano, R Harcourt, W D Robbins, V Jaiteh, G N Mahardika, A Sembiring, A Stow
With overfishing reducing the abundance of marine predators in multiple marine ecosystems, knowledge of genetic structure and local adaptation may provide valuable information to assist sustainable management. Despite recent technological advances, most studies on sharks have used small sets of neutral markers to describe their genetic structure. We used 5517 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to characterize patterns of genetic structure and detect signatures of selection in grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos)...
April 19, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414569/elevated-levels-of-plasma-mitochondrial-dna-are-associated-with-clinical-outcome-in-intra-abdominal-infections-caused-by-severe-trauma
#4
Qiongyuan Hu, Jianan Ren, Jie Wu, Guanwei Li, Xiuwen Wu, Song Liu, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: The purpose of our study was to determine prospectively relationships between plasma mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) concentration and clinical outcome in patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) induced by severe abdominal trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The DNA was isolated from serum samples taken from patients with IAIs at hospital days zero, one, and two. Plasma mtDNA concentration was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 17, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405314/mitochondrial-dna-t7719g-in-trna-lys-gene-affects-litter-size-in-small-tailed-han-sheep
#5
Xiaoyong Chen, Dan Wang, Hai Xiang, Weitao Dun, Dave O H Brahi, Tao Yin, Xingbo Zhao
BACKGROUND: In farm animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) effect on economic performance remains hot-topic for breeding and genetic selection. Here, 53 maternal lineages of Small-tailed Han sheep were used to investigate the association of mitochondrial DNA variations and the lambing litter size. RESULTS: Sequence sweeping of the mitochondrial coding regions discovered 31 non-synonymous mutations, and the association study revealed that T7719G in mtDNA tRNA-Lys gene was associated with litter size (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404747/aep3p-dependent-translation-of-yeast-mitochondrial-atp8
#6
Mario H Barros, Alexander Tzagoloff
Translation of mitochondrial gene products in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on mRNA-specific activators that bind to the 5' untranslated regions and promote translation on mitochondrial ribosome. Here we demonstrated that Aep3p, previously shown to stabilize the bicistronic ATP8-ATP6 mRNA and to facilitate initiation of translation from unformylated methionine also activates specifically translation of ATP8 This is supported by several lines of evidence. Temperature-sensitive aep3 mutants are selectively blocked in incorporating (35)S-methionine into Atp8p at non-permissive but not at the permissive temperature...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401922/the-phosphatidylcholine-transfer-protein-stard7-is-required-for-mitochondrial-and-epithelial-cell-homeostasis
#7
Li Yang, Cheng-Lun Na, Shiyu Luo, David Wu, Simon Hogan, Taosheng Huang, Timothy E Weaver
Mitochondria synthesize select phospholipids but lack the machinery for synthesis of the most abundant mitochondrial phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Although the phospholipid transfer protein Stard7 promotes uptake of PC by mitochondria, the importance of this pathway for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis represents a significant knowledge gap. Haploinsufficiency for Stard7 is associated with significant exacerbation of allergic airway disease in mice, including an increase in epithelial barrier permeability...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397643/the-combination-of-kinetic-and-flow-cytometric-semen-parameters-as-a-tool-to-predict-fertility-in-cryopreserved-bull-semen
#8
T M Gliozzi, F Turri, S Manes, C Cassinelli, F Pizzi
Within recent years, there has been growing interest in the prediction of bull fertility through in vitro assessment of semen quality. A model for fertility prediction based on early evaluation of semen quality parameters, to exclude sires with potentially low fertility from breeding programs, would therefore be useful. The aim of the present study was to identify the most suitable parameters that would provide reliable prediction of fertility. Frozen semen from 18 Italian Holstein-Friesian proven bulls was analyzed using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) (motility and kinetic parameters) and flow cytometry (FCM) (viability, acrosomal integrity, mitochondrial function, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane stability and DNA integrity)...
April 11, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396619/the-complete-mitogenome-of-orcula-dolium-draparnaud-1801-ultra-deep-sequencing-from-a-single-long-range-pcr-using-the-ion-torrent-pgm
#9
D S J Groenenberg, J Harl, E Duijm, E Gittenberger
BACKGROUND: With the increasing capacity of present-day next-generation sequencers the field of mitogenomics is rapidly changing. Enrichment of the mitochondrial fraction, is no longer necessary for obtaining mitogenomic data. Despite the benefits, shotgun sequencing approaches also have disadvantages. They do not guarantee obtaining the complete mitogenome, generally require larger amounts of input DNA and coverage is low compared to sequencing with enrichment strategies. If the mitogenome could be amplified in a single amplification, additional time and costs for sample preparation might outweigh these disadvantages...
2017: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393913/cisplatin-selects-short-forms-of-the-mitochondrial-dna-orib-variant-16184-16193-poly-cytosine-tract-which-confer-resistance-to-cisplatin
#10
Taku Amo, Naomi Kamimura, Hiromasa Asano, Sadamitsu Asoh, Shigeo Ohta
A number of alternations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in different types of cancers, and the role of mtDNA in cancer has been attracting increasing interest. In order to investigate the relationship between mtDNA alternations and chemosensitivity, we constructed cybrid (trans-mitochondrial hybrid) cell lines carrying a HeLa nucleus and the mtDNA of healthy individuals because of the presence of somatic alternations in the mtDNA of many cancer cells. After a treatment with 1.0 μg/mL cisplatin for 10 days, we isolated 100 cisplatin-resistant clones, 70 of which carried the shorter mtDNA OriB variant (16184-16193 poly-cytosine tract), which was located in the control region of mtDNA...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389765/sodium-butyrate-controls-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-experimental-models-of-rats
#11
Bhoomika M Patel
The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. PAAC control animals exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, decreased hemodynamic functions and oxidative stress. Treatment with SB reduced hypertrophic indices, LV wall thickness, LV collagen levels, cardiomyocyte diameter, serum lipid levels and serum cardiac biomarkers...
April 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387858/mitochondrial-dna-quantification-as-a-tool-for-embryo-viability-assessment-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-single-euploid-blastocyst-transfers
#12
K Ravichandran, C McCaffrey, J Grifo, A Morales, M Perloe, S Munne, D Wells, E Fragouli
STUDY QUESTION: Does the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in blastocyst biopsy specimens have the potential to serve as a biomarker of euploid embryo implantation ability, independent of morphology? SUMMARY ANSWER: The results of this study strongly suggest that elevated mtDNA levels, above a previously defined threshold, are strongly associated with blastocyst implantation failure and represent an independent biomarker of embryo viability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Improved methods of embryo selection are highly desirable in order to increase the efficiency of IVF treatment...
April 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386385/effects-of-dietary-leucine-supplementation-on-the-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-energy-metabolism-in-normal-birth-weight-and-intrauterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#13
Weipeng Su, Wen Xu, Hao Zhang, Zhixiong Ying, Le Zhou, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381901/an-ethnolinguistic-and-genetic-perspective-on-the-origins-of-the-dravidian-speaking-brahui-in-pakistan
#14
Luca Pagani, Vincenza Colonna, Chris Tyler-Smith, Qasim Ayub
Pakistan is a part of South Asia that modern humans encountered soon after they left Africa ~50 - 70,000 years ago. Approximately 9,000 years ago they began establishing cities that eventually expanded to represent the Harappan culture, rivalling the early city states of Mesopotamia. The modern state constitutes the north western land mass of the Indian sub-continent and is now the abode of almost 200 million humans representing many ethnicities and linguistic groups. Studies utilising autosomal, Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA markers in selected Pakistani populations revealed a mixture of Western Eurasian-, South- and East Asian-specific lineages, some of which were unequivocally associated with past migrations...
2017: Man in India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381696/sterile-inflammation-and-degradation-systems-in-heart-failure
#15
Kazuhiko Nishida, Kinya Otsu
In most patients with chronic heart failure (HF), levels of circulating cytokines are elevated and the elevated cytokine levels correlate with the severity of HF and prognosis. Various stresses induce subcellular component abnormalities, such as mitochondrial damage. Damaged mitochondria induce accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptogenic proteins, and subcellular inflammation. The vicious cycle of subcellular component abnormalities, inflammatory cell infiltration and neurohumoral activation induces cardiomyocyte injury and death, and cardiac fibrosis, resulting in cardiac dysfunction and HF...
April 5, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369844/the-contribution-of-the-mitochondrial-genome-to-sex-specific-fitness-variance
#16
Shane R T Smith, Tim Connallon
Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) facilitates the evolutionary accumulation of mutations with sex-biased fitness effects. Whereas maternal inheritance closely aligns mtDNA evolution with natural selection in females, it makes it indifferent to evolutionary changes that exclusively benefit males. The constrained response of mtDNA to selection in males can lead to asymmetries in the relative contributions of mitochondrial genes to female versus male fitness variation. Here, we examine the impact of genetic drift and the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) among mutations - including the correlation of mutant fitness effects between the sexes - on mitochondrial genetic variation for fitness...
March 28, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368421/selected-mitochondrial-dna-landscapes-activate-the-sirt3-axis-of-the-upr-mt-to-promote-metastasis
#17
T C Kenny, P Hart, M Ragazzi, M Sersinghe, J Chipuk, M A K Sagar, K W Eliceiri, T LaFramboise, S Grandhi, J Santos, A K Riar, L Papa, M D'Aurello, G Manfredi, M G Bonini, D Germain
By causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and oxidation of mitochondrial proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to perturbations in mitochondrial proteostasis. Several studies have linked mtDNA mutations to metastasis of cancer cells but the nature of the mtDNA species involved remains unclear. Our data suggests that no common mtDNA mutation identifies metastatic cells; rather the metastatic potential of several ROS-generating mutations is largely determined by their mtDNA genomic landscapes, which can act either as an enhancer or repressor of metastasis...
April 3, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360127/mitochondrial-replacement-therapy-are-mito-nuclear-interactions-likely-to-be-a-problem
#18
REVIEW
Adam Eyre-Walker
It has been suggested that deleterious interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes could pose a problem for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT). This is because the mitochondrial genome is placed in a novel nuclear environment using this technique. In contrast, it is inherited with half the mother's genome during normal reproduction, a genome that it is relatively compatible with, since the mother is alive. Here, I review the evidence of whether mito-nuclear interactions are likely to pose a problem for MRT...
April 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345467/mitochondrial-dna-alteration-in-primary-and-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-different-frequency-and-association-with-selected-clinicopathological-and-molecular-markers
#19
Britta Kleist, Thuja Meurer, Micaela Poetsch
This study attempts to determine whether primary tumor tissue could reliably represent metastatic colorectal cancer in therapy-guiding analysis of mitochondrial microsatellite instability. Therefore, we investigated the concordance of microsatellite instability in D310, D514, and D16184 (mitochondrial DNA displacement loop), and its association with selected clinical categories and KRAS/NRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA/TP53 mutation status between primary and metastatic colorectal cancer tissue from 119 patients. Displacement loop microsatellite instability was significantly more frequently seen in lymph node metastases (53...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343954/a-new-whole-mitochondrial-genome-qpcr-wmg-qpcr-with-sybr-green-%C3%A2-to-identify-phlebotomine-sand-fly-blood-meals
#20
Ana Caroline Moura Rodrigues, Rafaela Damasceno Magalhães, Kalil Andrade Mubarac Romcy, Jeferson Lucas Sousa Freitas, Ana Carolina Fonseca Lindoso Melo, Fernanda Cristina Macedo Rodon, Claudia Maria Leal Bevilaqua, Luciana Magalhães Melo
Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-feeding insects of marked medical and veterinary significance. Investigations on the biology of these insects hold great importance for both ecological and epidemiological purposes. The present work describes a new approach for real-time PCR (qPCR) with SYBR Green(®), named WMG-qPCR, to identify phlebotomine blood meals. The novelty of the assay was to design primers based on the Whole Mitochondrial Genome (WMG) of the potential hosts (human, dog, cat, brown rat and chicken) aiming to amplify through qPCR the regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which are less conserved among all species...
March 9, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
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