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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933683/genetics-and-the-conservation-of-natural-populations-allozymes-to-genomes
#1
Fred W Allendorf
I consider how the study of genetic variation has influenced efforts to conserve natural populations over the last 50 years. Studies with allozymes in the 1970s provided the first estimates of the amount of genetic variation within and between natural populations at multiple loci. These early studies played an important role in developing plans to conserve species. The description of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA in the early 1980s laid the foundation for the field of phylogeography, which provided a deeper look in time of the relationships and connectivity among populations...
December 9, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929173/novel-mitochondria-targeted-copper-ii-complexes-of-ferrocenyl-terpyridine-and-anticancer-active-8-hydroxyquinolines-showing-remarkable-cytotoxicity-dna-and-protein-binding-affinity
#2
Banashree Deka, Tukki Sarkar, Samya Banerjee, Arun Kumar, Sanjoy Mukherjee, Sasanka Deka, Kandarpa K Saikia, Akhtar Hussain
Metal complexes with organelle specificity and potent but selective cytotoxicity are highly desirable. In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of six novel copper(ii) complexes of the formula [Cu(R-tpy)(N-O)]NO3 (1-6), where R-tpy is 4'-phenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Ph-tpy; 1-3) or 4'-ferrocenyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (Fc-tpy; 4-6), N-O is the anion of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ in 1, 4), 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (CQ in 2, 5) or 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline (NQ in 3, 6)...
December 8, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925351/multispecies-genetic-objectives-in-spatial-conservation-planning
#3
Erica S Nielsen, Maria Beger, Romina Henriques, Kimberly A Selkoe, Sophie von der Heyden
The growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision-making. Yet there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation planning processes, with multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns also differ between species, but the potential trade-offs amongst genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied...
December 7, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921519/different-responses-of-drosophila-subobscura-isofemale-lines-to-extremely-low-frequency-magnetic-field-50%C3%A2-hz-0-5%C3%A2-mt-fitness-components-and-locomotor-activity
#4
Danica Zmejkoski, Branka Petković, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zlatko Prolić, Marko Anđelković, Tatjana Savić
PURPOSE: Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields as essential ecological factor may induce specific responses in genetically different lines. The subject of this study was to investigate the impact of ELF magnetic field on fitness components and locomotor activity of five Drosophila subobscura isofemale (IF) lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each D. subobscura IF line, arbitrarily named: B16/1, B24/4, B39/1, B57/2 and B69/5, was maintained in five full-sib inbreeding generations...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919073/mitochondrial-replacement-in-human-oocytes-carrying-pathogenic-mitochondrial-dna-mutations
#5
Eunju Kang, Jun Wu, Nuria Marti Gutierrez, Amy Koski, Rebecca Tippner-Hedges, Karen Agaronyan, Aida Platero-Luengo, Paloma Martinez-Redondo, Hong Ma, Yeonmi Lee, Tomonari Hayama, Crystal Van Dyken, Xinjian Wang, Shiyu Luo, Riffat Ahmed, Ying Li, Dongmei Ji, Refik Kayali, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Susan Olson, Jeffrey Jensen, David Battaglia, David Lee, Diana Wu, Taosheng Huang, Don P Wolf, Dmitry Temiakov, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Paula Amato, Shoukhrat Mitalipov
Maternally inherited mitochondrial (mt)DNA mutations can cause fatal or severely debilitating syndromes in children, with disease severity dependent on the specific gene mutation and the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA (heteroplasmy) in each cell and tissue. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations are relatively common, with an estimated 778 affected children born each year in the United States. Mitochondrial replacement therapies or techniques (MRT) circumventing mother-to-child mtDNA disease transmission involve replacement of oocyte maternal mtDNA...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917773/mutations-of-mtdna-polymerase-%C3%AE-and-hyperlactataemia-in-the-hiv-infected-zulu-population-of-south-africa
#6
D B A Ojwach, C Aldous, P Kochleff, B Sartorius
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial toxicity, particularly symptomatic hyperlactataemia or lactic acidosis (SHL/LA), has been attributed to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), possibly because of their capacity to impede human mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ (POLG), which is responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether known monogenic POLG1 polymorphisms could be linked with the unexpectedly high incidence of SHL/LA observed in HIV-infected Zulu-speaking patients exposed to the NRTIs stavudine or zidovudine in their antiretroviral therapy...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916687/a-unique-combination-of-micronutrients-rejuvenates-cognitive-performance-in-aged-mice
#7
Sam D Perez, Kristy Du, Catarina Rendeiro, Lin Wang, Qian Wu, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Rema Vazhappilly, Jeffrey H Baxter, Jonathan V Sweedler, Justin S Rhodes
It is widely believed that diet can influence the onset and severity of cognitive aging, but the optimal combination of micronutrients and molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of eight distinct diets, consisting of various concentrations of selected micronutrients, on learning and memory as well as markers of neuronal plasticity, and metabolic and neuro-immune status of the aged hippocampus. Eighteen-month-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed the diets for 16 weeks, followed by learning and memory trials on the active avoidance task...
December 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913286/cytotoxic-activity-of-soy-phytoestrogen-coumestrol-against-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7%C3%A2-cells-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanism
#8
Atif Zafar, Swarnendra Singh, Imrana Naseem
Coumestrol is a phytoestrogen present in soybean products and recognized as potential cancer therapeutic agent against breast cancer. However, the clear molecular mechanism of anticancer-activity of coumestrol in breast carcinoma has not been reported. It is well established that copper levels are elevated in different malignancies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the copper-dependent cytotoxic action of coumestrol in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Results showed that coumestrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which was prevented by copper chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers...
November 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904152/mitochondrial-dna-diversity-of-present-day-aboriginal-australians-and-implications-for-human-evolution-in-oceania
#9
Nano Nagle, Kaye N Ballantyne, Mannis van Oven, Chris Tyler-Smith, Yali Xue, Stephen Wilcox, Leah Wilcox, Rust Turkalov, Roland A H van Oorschot, Sheila van Holst Pellekaan, Theodore G Schurr, Peter McAllister, Lesley Williams, Manfred Kayser, R John Mitchell
Aboriginal Australians are one of the more poorly studied populations from the standpoint of human evolution and genetic diversity. Thus, to investigate their genetic diversity, the possible date of their ancestors' arrival and their relationships with neighboring populations, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in a large sample of Aboriginal Australians. Selected mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the hypervariable segment haplotypes were analyzed in 594 Aboriginal Australians drawn from locations across the continent, chiefly from regions not previously sampled...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903241/abundant-rna-editing-sites-of-chloroplast-protein-coding-genes-in-ginkgo-biloba-and-an-evolutionary-pattern-analysis
#10
Peng He, Sheng Huang, Guanghui Xiao, Yuzhou Zhang, Jianing Yu
BACKGROUND: RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification process that alters the RNA sequence so that it deviates from the genomic DNA sequence. RNA editing mainly occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondrial genomes, and the number of editing sites varies in terrestrial plants. Why and how RNA editing systems evolved remains a mystery. Ginkgo biloba is one of the oldest seed plants and has an important evolutionary position. Determining the patterns and distribution of RNA editing in the ancient plant provides insights into the evolutionary trend of RNA editing, and helping us to further understand their biological significance...
December 1, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902727/hybrid-origins-of-citrus-varieties-inferred-from-dna-marker-analysis-of-nuclear-and-organelle-genomes
#11
Tokurou Shimizu, Akira Kitajima, Keisuke Nonaka, Terutaka Yoshioka, Satoshi Ohta, Shingo Goto, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Takako Mochizuki, Hideki Nagasaki, Eli Kaminuma, Yasukazu Nakamura
Most indigenous citrus varieties are assumed to be natural hybrids, but their parentage has so far been determined in only a few cases because of their wide genetic diversity and the low transferability of DNA markers. Here we infer the parentage of indigenous citrus varieties using simple sequence repeat and indel markers developed from various citrus genome sequence resources. Parentage tests with 122 known hybrids using the selected DNA markers certify their transferability among those hybrids. Identity tests confirm that most variant strains are selected mutants, but we find four types of kunenbo (Citrus nobilis) and three types of tachibana (Citrus tachibana) for which we suggest different origins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898051/preparation-of-6-8-11-amino-chloro-oxoisoaporphine-and-group-10-metal-complexes-and-evaluation-of-their-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-activity
#12
Qi-Pin Qin, Jiao-Lan Qin, Ting Meng, Gui-Ai Yang, Zu-Zhuang Wei, Yan-Cheng Liu, Hong Liang, Zhen-Feng Chen
A series of group-10 metal complexes 1-14 of oxoisoaporphine derivatives were designed and synthesized. 1-14 were more selectively cytotoxic to Hep-G2 cells comparing with normal liver cells. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed that complexes 1-6, 7, 8, 10 and 11, especially 3, were telomerase inhibitors targeting c-myc, telomeric, and bcl-2 G4s and triggered cell senescence and apoptosis; they also caused telomere/DNA damage and S phase arrest. In addition, 1-6 also caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, 3 with 6-amino substituted ligand L(a) exhibited less side effects than 6 with 8-amino substituted ligand L(b) and cisplatin, but similar tumor growth inhibition efficacy in BEL-7402 xenograft model...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889468/mitochondrial-cristae-remodelling-is-associated-with-disrupted-opa1-oligomerisation-in-the-huntington-s-disease-r6-2-fragment-model
#13
Tanja Hering, Kerstin Kojer, Nathalie Birth, Jaqueline Hallitsch, Jan-Willem Taanman, Michael Orth
There is evidence of an imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and HD animal models. Fission and fusion are important for mitochondrial homeostasis including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance and may be relevant for the selective striatal mtDNA depletion that we observed in the R6/2 fragment HD mouse model. We aimed to investigate the fission/fusion balance and the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane system in cortex and striatum of end-stage R6/2 mice and wild-type animals...
November 23, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886253/cxcr4-cxcl12-axis-counteracts-hematopoietic-stem-cell-exhaustion-through-selective-protection-against-oxidative-stress
#14
Yanyan Zhang, Mallorie Dépond, Liang He, Adlen Foudi, Edward Owusu Kwarteng, Evelyne Lauret, Isabelle Plo, Christophe Desterke, Philippe Dessen, Nobutaka Fujii, Paule Opolon, Olivier Herault, Eric Solary, William Vainchenker, Virginie Joulin, Fawzia Louache, Monika Wittner
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo self-renewal to maintain hematopoietic homeostasis for lifetime, which is regulated by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 are critical factors supporting quiescence and BM retention of HSCs. Here, we report an unknown function of CXCR4/CXCL12 axis in the protection of HSCs against oxidative stress. Disruption of CXCR4 receptor in mice leads to increased endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in p38 MAPK activation, increased DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis leading to marked reduction in HSC repopulating potential...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880780/mitochondrial-genome-analysis-reveals-historical-lineages-in-yellowstone-bison
#15
David Forgacs, Rick L Wallen, Lauren K Dobson, James N Derr
Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878097/population-genetic-isolation-and-limited-connectivity-in-the-purple-finch-haemorhous-purpureus
#16
Colin Bran Alexander Macfarlane, Libby Natola, Mike W Brown, Theresa M Burg
Using a combination of mitochondrial and z-linked sequences, microsatellite data, and spatio-geographic modeling, we examined historical and contemporary factors influencing the population genetic structure of the purple finch (Haemorhous purpureus). Mitochondrial DNA data show the presence of two distinct groups corresponding to the two subspecies, H. p. purpureus and H. p. californicus. The two subspecies likely survived in separate refugia during the last glacial maximum, one on the Pacific Coast and one east of the Rocky Mountains, and now remain distinct lineages with little evidence of gene flow between them...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873385/introgression-and-selection-shaped-the-evolutionary-history-of-sympatric-sister-species-of-coral-reef-fishes-genus-haemulon
#17
Moisés A Bernal, Michelle R Gaither, W Brian Simison, Luiz A Rocha
Closely related marine species with large sympatric ranges provide opportunities to study the mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between the lineages. Here we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via Restriction-site Associated DNA Sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister species...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868169/articulatin-d-induces-apoptosis-via-activation-of-caspase-8-in-acute-t-cell-leukemia-cell-line
#18
Ruchi Mishra, Mrinal K Das, Savita Singh, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
Leukemia is among the most aggressive and prevalent human malignant carcinoma. Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic strategy; however, recurrence of cancer and non-selective cytotoxicity are the major concerns. Unlike synthetic chemotherapeutic agents, mistletoe ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) displays anti-tumor function in various types of cancers. However, its effect on leukemia cells is little explored. In this study, we assessed the impact of Viscum articulatum RIP (Articulatin-D) on the survival of acute T-cell leukemia cells and the involved molecular and cellular mechanisms...
November 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862578/rapid-postglacial-diversification-and-long-term-stasis-within-the-songbird-genus-junco-phylogeographic-and-phylogenomic-evidence
#19
Guillermo Friis, Pau Aleixandre, Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella, Adolfo G Navarro-Sigüenza, Borja Milá
Natural systems composed of closely-related taxa that vary in the degree of phenotypic divergence and geographic isolation, provide an opportunity to investigate the rate of phenotypic diversification and the relative roles of selection and drift in driving lineage formation. The genus Junco (Aves: Emberizidae) of North America includes parapatric northern forms that are markedly divergent in plumage pattern and color, in contrast to geographically isolated southern populations in remote areas that show moderate phenotypic divergence...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861795/sex-specific-mitonuclear-epistasis-and-the-evolution-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-ageing-and-life-history-in-seed-beetles
#20
Mirko Đorđević, Biljana Stojković, Uroš Savković, Elina Immonen, Nikola Tucić, Jelica Lazarević, Göran Arnqvist
The role of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of life-history traits remains debated. We examined mitonuclear effects on the activity of the multisubunit complex of the electron transport chain (ETC) involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) across lines of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for a short (E) or a long (L) life for more than >160 generations. We constructed and phenotyped mitonuclear introgression lines, which allowed us to assess the independent effects of the evolutionary history of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome...
November 9, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
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