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mitochondrial dna selection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149282/structure-related-differences-between-cytochrome-oxidase-i-proteins-in-a-stable-heteroplasmic-mitochondrial-system
#1
David O F Skibinski, Fabrizio Ghiselli, Angel P Diz, Liliana Milani, Jonathan G L Mullins
Many bivalve species have two types of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) passed independently through the female line (F genome) and male line (M genome). Here we study the Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) protein in such bivalve species and provide evidence for differences between the F and M proteins in amino acid property values, particularly relating to hydrophobicity and helicity. The magnitude of these differences varies between different regions of the protein and the change from the ancestor is most marked in the M protein...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147511/cytotoxic-salen-ruthenium-iii-anticancer-complexes-exhibit-different-modes-of-cell-death-directed-by-axial-ligands
#2
Cai Li, Kwok-Wa Ip, Wai-Lun Man, Dan Song, Ming-Liang He, Shek-Man Yiu, Tai-Chu Lau, Guangyu Zhu
Two novel series of (salen)ruthenium(iii) complexes bearing guanidine and amidine axial ligands were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for anticancer activity. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrate that these complexes are cytotoxic against various cancer cell lines and the leading complexes have remarkable cancer-cell selectivity. A detailed study of the guanidine complex 7 and the amidine complex 13 reveals two distinguished modes of action. Complex 7 weakly binds to DNA and induces DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, and typical apoptosis pathways in MCF-7 cells...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145655/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-chemical-stress-affectsmale-offspring-s-hepatic-mitochondria
#3
Roger Godschalk, Alex Remels, Camiel Hoogendoorn, Jan van Benthem, Mirjam Luijten, Nur Duale, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Freek G Bouwman, Armelle Munnia, Marco Peluso, Edwin Mariman, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Pre-conceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3x per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140506/quantification-of-the-effect-of-toxicants-on-the-intracellular-kinetic-energy-and-cross-sectional-area-of-mammary-epithelial-organoids-by-oct-fluctuation-spectroscopy
#4
Xiao Yu, Ashley M Fuller, Richard Blackmon, Melissa A Troester, Amy L Oldenburg
The ability to assess toxicant exposures of three-dimensional (3D) in vitro mammary models that recapitulate the tissue microenvironment can aid in our understanding of environmental exposure risk over time. Longitudinal studies of 3D model systems, however, are cumbersome and suffer from a lack of high-throughput toxicological assays. In this study, we establish a noninvasive and label-free optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based imaging platform for tracking exposure-response relationships in 3D human mammary epithelial organoid models...
November 10, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138417/association-of-predicted-pathogenic-mutations-in-mitochondrial-nd-genes-with-distant-metastasis-in-nsclc-and-colon-cancer
#5
Nobuko Koshikawa, Miho Akimoto, Jun-Ichi Hayashi, Hiroki Nagase, Keizo Takenaga
Cancer cells have more mutations in their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) than do normal cells, and pathogenic mutations in the genes encoding mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits have been found to enhance the invasive and metastatic ability of various tumour cells in animal experiments. However, it is unknown whether single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) of the ND genes that decrease complex I activity are involved in distant metastasis in human clinical samples. Here, we demonstrated the enhancement of the distant metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma cells by the ND6 13885insC mutation, which is accompanied by the overexpression of metastasis-related genes, metabolic reprogramming, the enhancement of tumour angiogenesis and the acquisition of resistance to stress-induced cell death...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#6
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129070/molecular-signatures-associated-with-treatment-of-triple-negative-mda-mb231-breast-cancer-cells-with-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-jaha-and-saha
#7
Mariangela Librizzi, Fabio Caradonna, Ilenia Cruciata, Janusz Dębski, Supojjanee Sansook, Michał Dadlez, John Spencer, Claudio Luparello
Jay Amin hydroxamic acid (JAHA; N8-ferrocenylN(1)-hydroxy-octanediamide) is a ferrocene-containing analogue of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). JAHA's cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells at 72 h has been previously demonstrated with an IC50 of 8.45 μM. JAHA's lethal effect was found linked to perturbations of cell cycle, mitochondrial activity, signal transduction, and autophagy mechanisms. To glean novel insights on how MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells respond to the cytotoxic effect induced by JAHA, and to compare the biological effect with the related compound SAHA, we have employed a combination of differential display-PCR, proteome analysis, and COMET assay techniques and shown some differences in the molecular signature profiles induced by exposure to either HDACis...
November 12, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127415/sequencing-and-characterization-of-the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-japanese-swellshark-cephalloscyllium-umbratile
#8
Ke-Cheng Zhu, Yin-Yin Liang, Na Wu, Hua-Yang Guo, Nan Zhang, Shi-Gui Jiang, Dian-Chang Zhang
To further comprehend the genome features of Cephalloscyllium umbratile (Carcharhiniformes), an endangered species, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was firstly sequenced and annotated. The full-length mtDNA of C. umbratile was 16,697 bp and contained ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 23 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a major non-coding control region. Each PCG was initiated by an authoritative ATN codon, except for COX1 initiated by a GTG codon. Seven of 13 PCGs had a typical TAA termination codon, while others terminated with a single T or TA...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121949/quantifying-engineered-nanomaterial-toxicity-comparison-of-common-cytotoxicity-and-gene-expression-measurements
#9
Donald H Atha, Amber Nagy, Andrea Steinbrück, Allison M Dennis, Jennifer A Hollingsworth, Varsha Dua, Rashi Iyer, Bryant C Nelson
BACKGROUND: When evaluating the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMS) it is important to use multiple bioassays based on different mechanisms of action. In this regard we evaluated the use of gene expression and common cytotoxicity measurements using as test materials, two selected nanoparticles with known differences in toxicity, 5 nm mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)-capped InP and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We tested the effects of these QDs at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 160 µg/mL on cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells using four common cytotoxicity assays: the dichlorofluorescein assay for reactive oxygen species (ROS), the lactate dehydrogenase assay for membrane viability (LDH), the mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay for mitochondrial function, and the Comet assay for DNA strand breaks...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120414/genetic-variation-in-glia-neuron-signalling-modulates-ageing-rate
#10
Jiang-An Yin, Ge Gao, Xi-Juan Liu, Zi-Qian Hao, Kai Li, Xin-Lei Kang, Hong Li, Yuan-Hong Shan, Wen-Li Hu, Hai-Peng Li, Shi-Qing Cai
The rate of behavioural decline in the ageing population is remarkably variable among individuals. Despite the considerable interest in studying natural variation in ageing rate to identify factors that control healthy ageing, no such factor has yet been found. Here we report a genetic basis for variation in ageing rates in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that C. elegans isolates show diverse lifespan and age-related declines in virility, pharyngeal pumping, and locomotion. DNA polymorphisms in a novel peptide-coding gene, named regulatory-gene-for-behavioural-ageing-1 (rgba-1), and the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-28 influence the rate of age-related decline of worm mating behaviour; these two genes might have been subjected to recent selective sweeps...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107116/mitophagy-and-the-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines
#11
REVIEW
James Harris, Nadia Deen, Shahrzad Zamani, Md Abul Hasnat
Mitophagy is a selective form of autophagy in which damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are specifically targeted by autophagosomes for lysosomal degradation. Studies have demonstrated that loss of autophagy/mitophagy can lead to a build-up of cytosolic reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial DNA, which can, in turn, activate immune signalling pathways that ultimately lead to the releases of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-18 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Moreover, release of these cytokines can subsequently promote the release of others, including IL-23 and IL-17...
October 26, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103287/phylogenetic-relationship-and-variation-among-four-strains-of-small-east-african-goats-of-tanzania-based-on-mitochondrial-dna
#12
Athumani Shabani Nguluma, George Msalya, Charles Moses Lyimo, Yongfu Huang, Yongju Zhao, Lipen Chen, Guangxin E, Sebastian Willson Chenyambuga
Objective: This study was conducted to determine the origin and phylogeography of four strains of Small East African (SEA) goat breed namely Pare, Gogo, Sonjo, and Sukuma. Methods: About 586 bp sequences of the first hypervariable (HV1) region within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D - loop) were analyzed in 142 individuals from SEA goat as well as Boer goat as reference breed. In addition, goat sequences from eight other African countries from the NCBI database were used for comparison...
November 3, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101996/introduction-biomarkers-of-embryo-viability-the-search-for-the-holy-grail-of-embryo-selection
#13
Zev Rosenwaks
Over the past four decades we have witnessed great progress and increasing pregnancy success rates with in vitro fertilization. However, this apparent success has been accompanied by the burden of multiple pregnancies. While efforts to reduce the number of embryos transferred have had a salutary impact on the incidence of high order multiple pregnancies, twin gestations have not diminished significantly. Thus, the search for a marker of embryo quality with the goal of selecting the single best embryo for transfer continues to be the major challenge facing our field...
November 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089615/genome-wide-mutagenesis-and-multi-drug-resistance-in-american-trypanosomes-induced-by-the-front-line-drug-benznidazole
#14
Mônica C Campos, Jody Phelan, Amanda F Francisco, Martin C Taylor, Michael D Lewis, Arnab Pain, Taane G Clark, John M Kelly
Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 5-8 million people in Latin America. Although the nitroheterocyclic compound benznidazole has been the front-line drug for several decades, treatment failures are common. Benznidazole is a pro-drug and is bio-activated within the parasite by the mitochondrial nitroreductase TcNTR-1, leading to the generation of reactive metabolites that have trypanocidal activity. To better assess drug action and resistance, we sequenced the genomes of T...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080841/mitochondrial-targeted-curcumin-exhibits-anticancer-effects-through-disruption-of-mitochondrial-redox-and-modulation-of-trxr2-activity
#15
Sundarraj Jayakumar, Raghavendra S Patwardhan, Debojyoti Pal, Babita Singh, Deepak Sharma, Vijay Kumar Kutala, Santosh Kumar Sandur
Mitocurcumin is a derivative of curcumin, which has been shown to selectively enter mitochondria. Here we describe the anti-tumor efficacy of mitocurcumin in lung cancer cells and its mechanism of action. Mitocurcumin, showed 25-50 fold higher efficacy in killing lung cancer cells as compared to curcumin as demonstrated by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry and high throughput screening assay. Treatment of lung cancer cells with mitocurcumin significantly decreased the frequency of cancer stem cells. Mitocurcumin increased the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the mitochondrial glutathione levels and induced strand breaks in the mitochondrial DNA...
November 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075101/anti-proliferative-apoptotic-induction-and-anti-migration-effects-of-hemi-synthetic-1-s-1-acetoxychavicol-acetate-analogs-on-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#16
Su Ki Liew, Mohamad Nurul Azmi, Lionel LA In, Khalijah Awang, Noor Hasima Nagoor
Nine analogs of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) were hemi-synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities against seven human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic, and anti-migration effects of these compounds and to explore the plausible underlying mechanisms of action. We found that ACA and all nine analogs were non toxic to human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) used as normal control cells, and only ACA, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), and 1'-acetoxy-3,5-dimethoxychavicol acetate (AMCA) inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of <30...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069345/adaptive-evolution-under-extreme-genetic-drift-in-oxidatively-stressed-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Stephen F Christy, Riana I Wernick, Michael J Lue, Griselda Velasco, Dana K Howe, Dee R Denver, Suzanne Estes
A mutation-accumulation (MA) experiment with Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was conducted in which replicate, independently evolving lines were initiated from a low-fitness mitochondrial electron transport chain mutant, gas-1 . The original intent of the study was to assess the effect of ETC dysfunction involving elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on patterns of spontaneous germline mutation. In contrast to results of standard MA experiments, gas-1 MA lines evolved slightly higher mean fitness alongside reduced among-line genetic variance compared to their ancestor...
October 23, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057453/5-ht1f-receptor-mediated-mitochondrial-biogenesis-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Natalie E Scholpa, Mary K Lynn, Daniel Corum, Heather A Boger, Rick G Schnellmann
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive decline in motor function due to degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, as well as other deficits including cognitive impairment and behavioral abnormalities. Mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Using the 5-HT1F receptor agonist LY344864, a known inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB), this study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of stimulating MB on dopaminergic neuron loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
October 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055863/synthesis-and-characterization-of-biogenic-metal-nanoparticles-and-its-cytotoxicity-and-anti-neoplasticity-through-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis
#19
Pralay Maity, Madhubanti Bepari, Ananya Pradhan, Rathindranath Baral, Sumita Roy, Sujata Maiti Choudhury
In the present study, we demonstrate a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly method for biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPCGs) using ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea latex. Attempts were made to characterize these biogenic silver nanoparticles AgNPCGs and also to test its cytotoxic, anti-neoplastic and apoptotic potential through the induction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction. AgNPCGs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and surface zeta potential measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDX)...
October 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053389/mrpl53-a-new-candidate-gene-for-orofacial-clefting-identified-using-an-eqtl-approach
#20
C Masotti, L A Brito, A C Nica, K U Ludwig, K Nunes, C P Savastano, C Malcher, S G Ferreira, G S Kobayashi, D F Bueno, N Alonso, D Franco, A Rojas-Martinez, S E Dos Santos, P A Galante, D Meyer, T Hünemeier, E Mangold, E T Dermitzakis, M R Passos-Bueno
A valuable approach to understand how individual and population genetic differences can predispose to disease is to assess the impact of genetic variants on cellular functions (e.g., gene expression) of cell and tissue types related to pathological states. To understand the genetic basis of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) susceptibility, a complex and highly prevalent congenital malformation, we searched for genetic variants with a regulatory role in a disease-related tissue, the lip muscle (orbicularis oris muscle [OOM]), of affected individuals...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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