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mitochondrial dna selection

Chia-Hao Chang, Wei-Yu Dai, Ting-Yu Chen, An-Hsin Lee, Hsuan-Yi Hou, Shih-Hui Liu, Nian-Hong Jang-Liaw
Compared to traditional morphological identification, DNA barcoding-molecular identification based on sequencing of a segment of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-provides a shortcut to authenticating chelonian identifications. Here, we selected 63 government-seized chelonian specimens deposited at Taipei Zoo for DNA barcoding analysis. DNA barcoding and subsequent phylogenetic analysis successfully authenticated 36 chelonian species, including five that are listed in CITES Appendix I. Approximately 90% (57/63) of the specimens were successfully authenticated by our molecular approach, but lack or error of BOLD reference sequences, biological processes such as hybridization, and uncertain species delimitation all reduced the accuracy of DNA barcoding...
June 19, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Romuald Loutre, Anne-Marie Heckel, Damien Jeandard, Ivan Tarassov, Nina Entelis
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are an important source of severe and incurable human diseases. The vast majority of these mutations are heteroplasmic, meaning that mutant and wild-type genomes are present simultaneously in the same cell. Only a very high proportion of mutant mitochondrial DNA (heteroplasmy level) leads to pathological consequences. We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial targeting of small RNAs designed to anneal with mutant mtDNA can decrease the heteroplasmy level by specific inhibition of mutant mtDNA replication, thus representing a potential therapy...
2018: PloS One
M Aravintha Siva, R Mahalakshmi, Dipita Bhakta-Guha, Gunjan Guha
In the recent years, the reported cases of mitochondrial disorders have reached a colossal number. These disorders spawn a sundry of pathological conditions, which lead to pernicious symptoms and even fatality. Due to the unpredictable etiologies, mitochondrial diseases are putatively referred to as "mystondria" (mysterious diseases of mitochondria). Although present-day research has greatly improved our understanding of mitochondrial disorders, effective therapeutic interventions are still at the precursory stage...
June 8, 2018: Mitochondrion
Su-Jeong Kim, Hemal H Mehta, Junxiang Wan, Chisaka Kuehnemann, Jingcheng Chen, Ji-Fan Hu, Andrew R Hoffman, Pinchas Cohen
Cellular senescence is a complex cell fate response that is thought to underlie several age-related pathologies. Despite a loss of proliferative potential, senescent cells are metabolically active and produce energy-consuming effectors, including senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs). Mitochondria play crucial roles in energy production and cellular signaling, but the key features of mitochondrial physiology and particularly of mitochondria-derived peptides (MDPs), remain underexplored in senescence responses...
June 10, 2018: Aging
Hui-Yan Xu, Xiao-Gan Yang, Sheng-Sheng Lu, Xing-Wei Liang, Yang-Qing Lu, Ming Zhang, Ke-Huan Lu
Oocyte quality is one of the important factors in female fertility, in vitro maturation (IVM), and subsequent embryonic development. In the present study, we assessed whether acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) supplementation during in vitro maturation of buffalo oocytes could improve oocyte quality and subsequent embryonic development. To determine the optimal level of ALC supplementation, we matured cumulus-oocyte complexes in maturation medium supplemented with 0, 2.5, and 5 mM ALC. The oocytes with a polar body were selected for parthenogenetic activation (PA) and in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
June 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Dori C Woods, Konstantin Khrapko, Jonathan L Tilly
Contrasting the equal contribution of nuclear genetic material from maternal and paternal sources to offspring, passage of mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), is uniparental through the egg. Since mitochondria in eggs are ancestral to all somatic mitochondria of the next generation and to all cells of future generations, oocytes must prepare for the high energetic demands of maturation, fertilization and embryogenesis while simultaneously ensuring that their mitochondrial genomes are inherited in an undamaged state...
May 21, 2018: Genes
Haixin Zhang, Stephen P Burr, Patrick F Chinnery
mtDNA is a multicopy genome. When mutations exist, they can affect a varying proportion of the mtDNA present within every cell (heteroplasmy). Heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations can be maternally inherited, but the proportion of mutated alleles differs markedly between offspring within one generation. This led to the genetic bottleneck hypothesis, explaining the rapid changes in allele frequency seen during transmission from one generation to the next. Although a physical reduction in mtDNA has been demonstrated in several species, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms is yet to be revealed...
June 7, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Beverly A Baptiste, Steven R Katchur, Elayne M Fivenson, Deborah L Croteau, William L Rumsey, Vilhelm A Bohr
The common oxidatively generated lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua), is removed from DNA by base excision repair. The glycosylase primarily charged with recognition and removal of this lesion is 8-oxoGuaDNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1). When left unrepaired, 8-oxodG alters transcription and is mutagenic. Individuals homozygous for the less active OGG1 allele, Ser326Cys, have increased risk of several cancers. Here, small molecule enhancers of OGG1 were identified and tested for their ability to stimulate DNA repair and protect cells from the environmental hazard paraquat (PQ)...
June 4, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jessy Vibin, Anthony Chamings, Fiona Collier, Marcel Klaassen, Tiffanie M Nelson, Soren Alexandersen
We present an optimised metagenomics method for detection and characterisation of all virus types including single and double stranded DNA/RNA and enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. Initial evaluation included both spiked and non-spiked bird faecal samples as well as non-spiked human faecal samples. From the non-spiked bird samples (Australian Muscovy duck and Pacific black ducks) we detected 21 viruses, and we also present a summary of a few viruses detected in human faecal samples. We then present a detailed analysis of selected virus sequences in the avian samples that were somewhat similar to known viruses, and had good quality (Q20 or higher) and quantity of next-generation sequencing reads, and was of interest from a virological point of view, for example, avian coronavirus and avian paramyxovirus 6...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matt N Krosch, Francesca Strutt, Mark J Blacket, Jana Batovska, Melissa Starkie, Anthony R Clarke, Stephen L Cameron, Mark K Schutze
Accurate species-level identifications underpin many aspects of basic and applied biology; however, identifications can be hampered by a lack of discriminating morphological characters, taxonomic expertise or time. Molecular approaches, such as DNA 'barcoding' of the cytochrome c oxidase (COI) gene, are argued to overcome these issues. However, nuclear encoding of mitochondrial genes (numts) and poor amplification success of suboptimally preserved specimens can lead to erroneous identifications. One insect group for which these molecular and morphological problems are significant are the dacine fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacini)...
June 6, 2018: Insect Science
Georgy A Semenov, Evgeniy A Koblik, Yaroslav A Red'kin, Alexander V Badyaev
Geographically clustered phenotypes often demonstrate consistent patterns in molecular markers, particularly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) traditionally used in phylogeographic studies. However distinct evolutionary trajectories among traits and markers can lead to their discordance. First, geographic structure in phenotypic traits and nuclear molecular markers can be co-aligned but inconsistent with mtDNA (mito-nuclear discordance). Alternatively, phenotypic variation can have little to do with patterns in neither mtDNA nor nuclear markers...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Edward Pfeiler
Genetic diversity in mitochondrial DNA barcodes, comprising a segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, was used to infer demographic histories in selected taxa of the cactophilic Drosophila repleta species group in North America. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were determined in 16 taxa based on both previously published and new sequences. Haplotype diversity (h) differed dramatically in different taxa, varying from h = 0 in D. eremophila, D. hexastigma and D. bifurca to h = 0.99 in D...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Mayuko Furuta, Hiroko Tanaka, Yuichi Shiraishi, Takuro Unida, Michio Imamura, Akihiro Fujimoto, Masahi Fujita, Aya Sasaki-Oku, Kazuhiro Maejima, Kaoru Nakano, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Koji Arihiro, Hiroshi Aikata, Masaki Ueno, Shinya Hayami, Shun-Ichi Ariizumi, Masakazu Yamamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Hideki Ohdan, Hiroki Yamaue, Satoru Miyano, Kazuaki Chayama, Hidewaki Nakagawa
Integration of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) into the human genome can cause genetic instability, leading to selective advantages for HBV-induced liver cancer. Despite the large number of studies for HBV integration into liver cancer, little is known about the mechanism of initial HBV integration events owing to the limitations of materials and detection methods. We conducted an HBV sequence capture, followed by ultra-deep sequencing, to screen for HBV integrations in 111 liver samples from human-hepatocyte chimeric mice with HBV infection and human clinical samples containing 42 paired samples from non-tumorous and tumorous liver tissues...
May 18, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuan Zheng, Jing Qu, Fenqin Xue, Yan Zheng, Bo Yang, Yongchang Chang, Hui Yang, Jianliang Zhang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent forms of synucleinopathies, and it is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of intracellular inclusions composed primarily of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons. The previous immunotherapy targeting the α-syn in PD models with monoclonal antibodies has established α-syn protein as an effective target for neuronal cell death. However, due to the essential weaknesses of antibody and the unique features of aptamers, the aptamers could represent a promising alternative to the currently used antibodies in immunotherapy for PD...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Jake Jianjun Wen, Yuhui Whitney Yin, Nisha Jain Garg
Chagasic cardiomyopathy is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is known for its function in nuclear DNA repair. In this study, we have employed genetic deletion and chemical inhibition approaches to determine the role of PARP1 in maintaining mtDNA dependent mitochondrial function in Chagas disease. Our data show that expression of PARP1 and protein PARylation were increased by >2-fold and >16-fold, respectively, in the cytosolic, nuclear, and mitochondrial fractions of the human cardiac myocytes and the myocardium of wildtype (WT) mice chronically infected with T...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Auke B C Otten, Suzanne C E H Sallevelt, Phillippa J Carling, Joseph C F M Dreesen, Marion Drüsedau, Sabine Spierts, Aimee D C Paulussen, Christine E M de Die-Smulders, Mary Herbert, Patrick F Chinnery, David C Samuels, Patrick Lindsey, Hubert J M Smeets
STUDY QUESTION: Does germline selection (besides random genetic drift) play a role during the transmission of heteroplasmic pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in humans? SUMMARY ANSWER: We conclude that inheritance of mtDNA is mutation-specific and governed by a combination of random genetic drift and negative and/or positive selection. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: mtDNA inherits maternally through a genetic bottleneck, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown...
May 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Elizabeth Ximena Castrillón-Duque, Jennifer Puerta Suárez, Walter Dario Cardona Maya
Background: Candida spp. causes semen candidiasis, the most important sexually transmitted fungal infection; this microorganism affects male fertility potential and could alter oocyte fertilization. The in vitro effects of the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and their soluble factors of fungal metabolism on semen quality were studied. Methods: Candida strains (2, 0.5 and 0.05 McF) and their soluble factors were incubated for 3 hr with selected spermatozoa...
January 2018: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Elisabeth Haring
BACKGROUND: In Metazoa, mitochondrial markers are the most commonly used targets for inferring species-level molecular phylogenies due to their extremely low rate of recombination, maternal inheritance, ease of use and fast substitution rate in comparison to nuclear DNA. The mitochondrial control region (CR) is the main non-coding area of the mitochondrial genome and contains the mitochondrial origin of replication and transcription. While sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA genes are the prime mitochondrial markers in phylogenetic studies, the highly variable CR is typically ignored and not targeted in such analyses...
May 30, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Kang Xu, Mohanad Kh Al-Ani, Chunli Wang, Xuefeng Qiu, Qingjia Chi, Peng Zhu, Nianguo Dong
A well-known natural anthraquinone "Emodin", has been proven to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). But the anti-proliferative effects of emodin on both VSMCs versus vascular endothelial cells (VECs) are still largely unknown. Herein, a comparative study for the evaluation of anti-proliferation effects of emodin on human VSMCs and VECs was designed. Various methodologies including MTS, EdU assay, FACS analysis, qRT-PCR and mitochondrial fluorescent probes were used for detecting cell viabilities, DNA synthesis rate, cell cycle, proliferation genes expression levels and mitochondrial activities, respectively...
May 24, 2018: Life Sciences
Saman Khan, Atif Zafar, Imrana Naseem
Coumarin is an important bioactive pharmacophore. It is found in plants as a secondary metabolite and exhibits diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects against different malignancies. Therapeutic efficacy of coumarin derivatives depends on the pattern of substitution and conjugation with different moieties. Cancer cells contain elevated copper as compared to normal cells that plays a role in angiogenesis. Thus, targeting copper in malignant cells via copper chelators can serve as an attractive targeted anticancer strategy...
June 25, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
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