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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169221/biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-gh86-%C3%AE-agarase-producing-neoagarohexaose-from-gayadomonas-joobiniege-g7
#1
Yeong Rim Lee, Subin Jung, Won-Jae Chi, Chang-Hwan Bae, Byeong-Chul Jeong, Soon-Kwang Hong, Chang-Ro Lee
A novel β-agarase AgaJ5 was identified from an agar-degrading marine bacterium Gayadomonas joobiniege G7. It belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 86 and is composed of 805 amino acids with a 30-amino acid signal peptide. Zymogram analysis showed that purified AgaJ5 has agarase activity. The optimum temperature and pH for AgaJ5 activity were determined to be 30°C and 4.5, respectively. AgaJ5 was an acidic β-agarase that had strong activity at a narrow pH range of 4.5 to 5.5, and was a cold-adapted enzyme retaining 40% of enzymatic activity at 10°C...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167503/structural-analyses-of-adenylate-kinases-from-antarctic-and-tropical-fishes-for-understanding-cold-adaptation-of-enzymes
#2
Sojin Moon, Junhyung Kim, Euiyoung Bae
Psychrophiles are extremophilic organisms capable of thriving in cold environments. Proteins from these cold-adapted organisms can remain physiologically functional at low temperatures, but are structurally unstable even at moderate temperatures. Here, we report the crystal structure of adenylate kinase (AK) from the Antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps, and identify the structural basis of cold adaptation by comparison with homologues from tropical fishes including Danio rerio. The structure of N. coriiceps AK (AKNc) revealed suboptimal hydrophobic packing around three Val residues in its central CORE domain, which are replaced with Ile residues in D...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167159/niche-shifts-after-long-distance-dispersal-events-in-bipolar-sedges-carex-cyperaceae
#3
Tamara Villaverde, Pablo González-Moreno, Francisco Rodríguez-Sánchez, Marcial Escudero
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Bipolar species represent the greatest biogeographical disjunction on Earth, raising many questions about the colonization and adaptive processes behind such striking distribution. We investigated climatic niche differences of five Carex bipolar species in North and South America to assess niche shifts between these two regions. Moreover, we assessed potential distribution changes with future climate change. METHODS: We used 1202 presence data points from herbarium specimens and 19 bioclimatic variables to assess climatic niche differences and potential distributions among the five species using ordination methods and Maxent...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165340/impacts-of-low-temperature-on-the-teleost-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Quinn H Abram, Brian Dixon, Barbara A Katzenback
As poikilothermic vertebrates, fish can experience changes in water temperature, and hence body temperature, as a result of seasonal changes, migration, or efflux of large quantities of effluent into a body of water. Temperature shifts outside of the optimal temperature range for an individual fish species can have negative impacts on the physiology of the animal, including the immune system. As a result, acute or chronic exposure to suboptimal temperatures can impair an organisms' ability to defend against pathogens and thus compromise the overall health of the animal...
November 22, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160176/impact-of-bedding-volume-on-physiological-and-behavioural-parameters-in-laboratory-mice
#5
Jennifer Freymann, Ping-Ping Tsai, Helge D Stelzer, Reinhard Mischke, Hansjoachim Hackbarth
The standard housing temperature in animal facilities is substantially below the lower critical temperature of mice. This does not only endanger animal welfare, it can also jeopardize scientific research as cold stress has a major impact on mouse physiology. There is some evidence that deep bedding, comparable to nesting material, can help mice to reduce heat loss. Whenever changes are applied to the cage environment, the potential impact on experimental results, including variation, needs to be assessed. An increased variation can result in a conflict between reduction and refinement, when more animals are needed for significance due to the housing design...
December 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157140/how-biomass-growth-mode-affects-ammonium-oxidation-start-up-and-nob-inhibition-in-the-partial-nitritation-of-cold-and-diluted-reject-water
#6
V Kouba, P Svehla, M Catrysse, L Prochazkova, H Radechovska, P Jenicek, J Bartacek
The inhibition of undesirable nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and desirable ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) by free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) in partial nitritation (PN) is crucially affected by the biomass growth mode (suspended sludge, biofilm, encapsulation). But, the limitations of these modes towards less concentrated reject waters (≤600 mg-N L(-1)) are unclear. Therefore, this work compares the start-up and stability of three PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with biomass grown in one of the three modes: suspended sludge, biofilm and biomass encapsulated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) pellets...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153407/brown-fat-akt2-is-a-cold-induced-kinase-that-stimulates-chrebp-mediated-de-novo-lipogenesis-to-optimize-fuel-storage-and-thermogenesis
#7
Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Yuefeng Tang, Naja Zenius Jespersen, Martina Wallace, Camila Martinez Calejman, Sharvari Gujja, Huawei Li, Yvonne J K Edwards, Christian Wolfrum, Christian M Metallo, Søren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, David A Guertin
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases; thus, understanding its metabolic circuitry is clinically important. Many studies of BAT compare rodents mildly cold to those severely cold. Here, we compared BAT remodeling between thermoneutral and mild-cold-adapted mice, conditions more relevant to humans. Although BAT is renowned for catabolic β-oxidative capacity, we find paradoxically that the anabolic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) genes encoding ACLY, ACSS2, ACC, and FASN were among the most upregulated by mild cold and that, in humans, DNL correlates with Ucp1 expression...
November 15, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152730/development-of-behavioral-responses-to-thermal-challenges
#8
REVIEW
Delia S Shelton, Jeffrey R Alberts
Body temperature regulation involves the development of responses to cold and warm challenges. Matching our understanding of the development of body temperature regulation to warm challenges with that of cold challenges will enhance our understanding of the ontogeny of thermoregulation and reveal different adaptive specializations. Warm and cold thermoregulation are important processes, and they include direct thermal effects on offspring, as well as indirect effects on them, such as those imposed by thermally associated alterations of maternal behavior...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151861/microgeographic-differentiation-in-thermal-performance-curves-between-rural-and-urban-populations-of-an-aquatic-insect
#9
Nedim Tüzün, Lin Op de Beeck, Kristien I Brans, Lizanne Janssens, Robby Stoks
The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization ("urban heat islands"), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three rural populations...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150823/metabolic-dynamics-and-physiological-adaptation-of-panax-ginseng-during-development
#10
Yu-Jin Kim, Sung Chul Joo, Jianxin Shi, Chaoyang Hu, Sheng Quan, Jianping Hu, Johan Sukweenadhi, Padmanaban Mohanan, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
The dynamics of metabolites from leaves to roots of Panax ginseng during development has revealed the tissue-specific and year-specific metabolic networks. Being an essential Oriental medicinal plant, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a slow-growing perennial herb-accumulating pharmaceutically active metabolites such as ginsenosides in roots during growth. However, little is known about how ginseng plants survive in the harsh environments such as winter cold and summer heat for a longer period and accumulates those active metabolites as the plant grows...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143302/convergent-selection-pressures-drive-the-evolution-of-rhodopsin-kinetics-at-high-altitudes-via-non-parallel-mechanisms
#11
Gianni M Castiglione, Ryan K Schott, Frances E Hauser, Belinda S W Chang
Convergent evolution in response to similar selective pressures is a well-known phenomenon in evolutionary biology. Less well understood is how selection drives convergence in protein function, and the underlying mechanisms by which this can be achieved. Here we investigate functional convergence in the visual system of two distantly related lineages of high-altitude adapted Andean and Himalayan catfishes. Statistical analyses revealed in the two high-altitude lineages, a parallel acceleration of evolutionary rates in rhodopsin, the dim-light visual pigment...
November 16, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142118/climate-and-foraging-mode-explain-interspecific-variation-in-snake-metabolic-rates
#12
Andréaz Dupoué, François Brischoux, Olivier Lourdais
The energy cost of self-maintenance is a critical facet of life-history strategies. Clarifying the determinant of interspecific variation in metabolic rate (MR) at rest is important to understand and predict ecological patterns such as species distributions or responses to climatic changes. We examined variation of MR in snakes, a group characterized by a remarkable diversity of activity rates and a wide distribution. We collated previously published MR data (n = 491 observations) measured in 90 snake species at different trial temperatures...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138998/crafting-socialist-embryology-dialectics-aquaculture-and-the-diverging-discipline-in-maoist-china-1950-1965
#13
Lijing Jiang
In the 1950s, embryology in socialist China underwent a series of changes that adjusted the disciplinary apparatus to suit socialism and the national goal of self-reliance. As the Communist state called on scientists to learn from the Soviets, embryologists' comprehensive view on heredity, which did not contradict Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976)'s doctrines, provided a space for them to advance their discipline. Leading scientists, often trained abroad in the tradition of experimental embryology, rode on the tides of Maoist ideology and repositioned their research...
November 7, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138055/merkel-cells-sense-cooling-with-trpm8-channels
#14
Valentine Bouvier, Yann Roudaut, Nancy Osorio, Jean-Marc Aimonetti, Edith Ribot-Ciscar, Virginie Penalba, Thierry Merrot, Nicolas Lebonvallet, Christelle Le Gall-Ianotto, Laurent Misery, Patrick Delmas, Marcel Crest
In the skin, Merkel cells (MCs) connect with keratinocytes and Aβ nerve fibers to form a touch receptor which functions as a slow adapting mechanoreceptor (SA1 receptor). In human and mouse MCs, we observed an increased concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ions in response to cold temperature and transient receptor potential melastatine 8 (TRPM8) ion channel agonists. A reduction in the response to cooling and TRPM8 agonists occurred following addition of TRPM8 antagonists, as well as in TRPM8 knockout mice...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137993/characterization-of-cold-adapted-and-ethanol-tolerant-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-bacillus-cellulosilyticus-and-its-application-for-directed-hydrolysis-of-cellobiose-to-ethanol
#15
Jian Wu, Alei Geng, Rongrong Xie, Hongcheng Wang, Jianzhong Sun
A β-glucosidase gene from Bacillus cellulosilyticus was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and characterized. The recombinant enzyme (BcBgl1A) showed the optimal activity at 40°C, and the half-life of BcBgl1A activity at 40 °C was 24 h. BcBgl1A was sensitive to heat and exhibited obvious cold-adapted activity, retained 27.2% and 46.5% of the optimal activity at 4 and 20°C, respectively. The best activity was observed at pH 7.0 and stable over the range of pH 6.0-8.0. The activity was significantly enhanced by Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+), also showed a high level of NaCl tolerance...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134977/metformin-effects-are-augmented-by-chronic-intermittent-cold-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-male-wistar-rats
#16
A O Ige, O I Iwaloye, E O Adewoye
This study investigated the effects of metformin on some glucose regulatory indices in high fat diet (HFD) fedmale Wistar rats exposed to room temperature and chronic intermittent cold stress (CICS). Thirty rats were randomly dividedinto 5 groups. Group 1(control) was maintained on standard rat chow while groups 2-5 were maintained on HFD for 8weeksrespectively prior to experimental procedures. Control, group 2(HFD untreated) and group 3(HFD+metformin (250mg/kg)were exposed to room temperature while groups 4(HFD untreated+CICS) and 5(HFD+CICS+metformin) were exposed toCICS for 21days...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134713/comparative-ecological-transcriptomics-and-the-contribution-of-gene-expression-to-the-evolutionary-potential-of-a-threatened-fish
#17
Chris J Brauer, Peter J Unmack, Luciano B Beheregaray
Understanding whether small populations with low genetic diversity can respond to rapid environmental change via phenotypic plasticity is an outstanding research question in biology. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has recently provided the opportunity to examine variation in gene expression, a surrogate for phenotypic variation, in non-model species. We used a comparative RNA-seq approach to assess expression variation within and among adaptively divergent populations of a threatened freshwater fish, Nannoperca australis, found across a steep hydroclimatic gradient in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130830/enhanced-cd103-expression-and-reduced-frequencies-of-virus-specific-cd8-t-cells-among-airway-lymphocytes-after-influenza-vaccination-of-mice-deficient-in-vitamins-a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-d
#18
Sherri L Surman, Bart G Jones, David L Woodland, Julia L Hurwitz
Previous research has evaluated antibody responses toward an influenza virus vaccine in the context of deficiencies for vitamins A and D (VAD+VDD). Results showed that antibodies and antibody-forming cells in the respiratory tract were reduced in VAD+VDD mice. However, effectors were recovered when oral supplements of vitamins A + D were delivered at the time of vaccination. Here we address the question of how vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses are affected by deficiencies for vitamins A + D. VAD+VDD and control mice were vaccinated with an intranasal, cold-adapted influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 vaccine, with or without oral supplements of vitamins A + D...
November 13, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129356/multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-homologous-recombination-and-diversity-in-arthrobacter-sensu-lato-named-species-and-glacier-inhabiting-strains
#19
Qing Liu, Yu-Hua Xin, Yu-Guang Zhou, Wen-Xin Chen
Members of the bacterial genus Arthrobacter sensu lato are Gram-positive actinomycetes distributed worldwide and found in numerous environments including soil, water, glacier ice, and sewage. Homologous recombination is an important driving force in bacterial evolution, but its impact on Arthrobacter sensu lato evolution is poorly understood. We evaluated homologous recombination among 41 Arthrobacter sensu lato named species, using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). A high level of recombination was found, associated with strong diversification and a reticulate evolutionary pattern of Arthrobacter sensu lato...
November 3, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129281/the-essential-roles-of-metal-ions-in-insect-homeostasis-and-physiology
#20
REVIEW
Julian At Dow
Metal ions play distinct roles in living organisms, including insects. Some, like sodium and potassium, are central players in osmoregulation and 'blood and guts' transport physiology, and have been implicated in cold adaptation. Calcium is a key player as a second messenger, and as a structural element. Other metals, particularly those with multiple redox states, can be cofactors in many metalloenzymes, but can contribute to toxic oxidative stress on the organism in excess. This short review selects some examples where classical knowledge has been supplemented with recent advances, in order to emphasize the importance of metals as essential nutrients for insect survival...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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