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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630484/simulated-responses-of-permafrost-distribution-to-climate-change-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#2
Qing Lu, Dongsheng Zhao, Shaohong Wu
Climate warming causes changes in permafrost distribution, which affects the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle and carbon flux in cold regions. In this study, the Surface Frost Number model was applied to examine permafrost distribution on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) under the four RCPs (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). The Kappa statistic was used to evaluate model results by comparing simulations of baseline permafrost distribution (1981-2010) with the existing frozen soil maps. The comparison shows that the Surface Frost Number model is suitable for simulating the general characteristics of permafrost distribution on the QTP...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629190/biotechnological-potential-of-cold-adapted-pseudoalteromonas-spp-isolated-from-deep-sea-sponges
#3
Erik Borchert, Stephen Knobloch, Emilie Dwyer, Sinéad Flynn, Stephen A Jackson, Ragnar Jóhannsson, Viggó T Marteinsson, Fergal O'Gara, Alan D W Dobson
The marine genus Pseudoalteromonas is known for its versatile biotechnological potential with respect to the production of antimicrobials and enzymes of industrial interest. We have sequenced the genomes of three Pseudoalteromonas sp. strains isolated from different deep sea sponges on the Illumina MiSeq platform. The isolates have been screened for various industrially important enzymes and comparative genomics has been applied to investigate potential relationships between the isolates and their host organisms, while comparing them to free-living Pseudoalteromonas spp...
June 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625982/the-novel-stress-survival-islet-2-ssi-2-predominantly-present-in-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-of-st121-is-involved-in-alkaline-and-oxidative-stress-response
#4
Eva Harter, Eva Maria Wagner, Andreas Zaiser, Sabrina Halecker, Martin Wagner, Kathrin Rychli
The food-borne pathogen Listeria (L) monocytogenes is able to survive a variety of stress conditions leading to the colonization of different niches like the food processing environment. This study focuses on the hypervariable genetic hotspot lmo0443-lmo0449 haboring three inserts: the stress survival islet 1 (SSI-1), the single-gene insert LMOf2365_0481 and two homologous genes of the non-pathogenic species L. innocua: lin0464, a putative transcriptional regulator and lin0465, an intracellular PfpI protease...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616176/adaptation-to-fluctuating-environments-in-a-selection-experiment-with-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Olga I Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick R Nässel, Olof Leimar
A fundamental question in life-history evolution is how organisms cope with fluctuating environments, including variation between stressful and benign conditions. For short-lived organisms, environments commonly vary between generations. Using a novel experimental design, we exposed wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster to three different selection regimes: one where generations alternated between starvation and benign conditions, and starvation was always preceded by early exposure to cold; another where starvation and benign conditions alternated in the same way, but cold shock sometimes preceded starvation and sometimes benign conditions; and a third where conditions were always benign...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615505/topological-features-of-a-gene-co-expression-network-predict-patterns-of-natural-diversity-in-environmental-response
#6
David L Des Marais, Rafael F Guerrero, Jesse R Lasky, Samuel V Scarpino
Molecular interactions affect the evolution of complex traits. For instance, adaptation may be constrained by pleiotropic or epistatic effects, both of which can be reflected in the structure of molecular interaction networks. To date, empirical studies investigating the role of molecular interactions in phenotypic evolution have been idiosyncratic, offering no clear patterns. Here, we investigated the network topology of genes putatively involved in local adaptation to two abiotic stressors-drought and cold-in Arabidopsis thaliana Our findings suggest that the gene-interaction topologies for both cold and drought stress response are non-random, with genes that show genetic variation in drought expression response (eGxE) being significantly more peripheral and cold response genes being significantly more central than genes which do not show GxE...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615488/hotter-nests-produce-hatchling-lizards-with-lower-thermal-tolerance
#7
Buddhi Dayananda, Brad R Murray, Jonathan K Webb
In many regions, the frequency and duration of summer heatwaves is predicted to increase in future. Hotter summers could result in higher temperatures inside lizard nests, potentially exposing embryos to thermally stressful conditions during development. Potentially, developmentally plastic shifts in thermal tolerance could allow lizards to adapt to climate warming. To determine how higher nest temperatures affect the thermal tolerance of hatchling geckos, we incubated eggs of the rock-dwelling velvet gecko, Amalosia lesueurii, at two fluctuating temperature regimes to mimic current nest temperatures (mean 23...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614409/environmental-control-of-asexual-reproduction-and-somatic-growth-of-aurelia-spp-cnidaria-scyphozoa-polyps-from-the-adriatic-sea
#8
Nathan Hubot, Cathy H Lucas, Stefano Piraino
Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608439/the-role-of-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein-cirp-in-cell-stress-response
#9
REVIEW
Yi Liao, Lingying Tong, Liling Tang, Shiyong Wu
Cold-inducible RNA binding protein (CIRP) was discovered after the cells were exposed to a moderate cold shock because its production was induced. Other cellular stresses such as UV radiation and hypoxia also could increase its expression. Under stress conditions, CIRP could up regulate its own expression by self-transcriptional activation of alternative promoters. After relocating into cytoplasm from nucleus, CIRP assists cells in adapting to novel environmental conditions via stabilizing specific mRNAs and facilitating their translation...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604703/cold-induced-conversion-of-cholesterol-to-bile-acids-in-mice-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-promotes-adaptive-thermogenesis
#10
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Rühlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Nicola Schaltenberg, Markus Heine, Christian Schlein, Ioannis Evangelakos, Chieko Mineo, Markus Fischer, Maura Dandri, Claus Kremoser, Ludger Scheja, Andre Franke, Philip W Shaul, Joerg Heeren
Adaptive thermogenesis is an energy-demanding process that is mediated by cold-activated beige and brown adipocytes, and it entails increased uptake of carbohydrates, as well as lipoprotein-derived triglycerides and cholesterol, into these thermogenic cells. Here we report that cold exposure in mice triggers a metabolic program that orchestrates lipoprotein processing in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and hepatic conversion of cholesterol to bile acids via the alternative synthesis pathway. This process is dependent on hepatic induction of cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 (CYP7B1) and results in increased plasma levels, as well as fecal excretion, of bile acids that is accompanied by distinct changes in gut microbiota and increased heat production...
June 12, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597045/biocontrol-activity-of-a-cold-adapted-yeast-from-tibet-against-gray-mold-in-cherry-tomato-and-its-action-mechanism
#11
Hao Hu, Michael E Wisniewski, Ahmed Abdelfattah, Xiaodong Zheng
Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase...
July 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592856/quaternary-history-population-genetic-structure-and-diversity-of-the-cold-adapted-alpine-newt-ichthyosaura-alpestris-in-peninsular-italy
#12
Andrea Chiocchio, Roberta Bisconti, Mauro Zampiglia, Giuseppe Nascetti, Daniele Canestrelli
Mediterranean peninsulas are major biodiversity hotspots, and cold-adapted species are an important component of this biodiversity. However, cold-adapted species contributed surprisingly little to our knowledge of the intimate links between Quaternary environmental changes, species' responses to these changes, and current patterns of intraspecific biodiversity. Here, we investigated the genetic structure and evolutionary history of a cold-adapted amphibian, the Alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris, within the Italian peninsula...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592579/attitudes-and-behaviours-of-adolescents-towards-antibiotics-and-self-care-for-respiratory-tract-infections-a-qualitative-study
#13
Meredith Kd Hawking, Donna M Lecky, Pia Touboul Lundgren, Eman Aldigs, Hind Abdulmajed, Eleni Ioannidou, Demetra Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Pauline Khouri, Micaela Gal, Andreas Ch Hadjichambis, Demetrios Mappouras, Cliodna Am McNulty
BACKGROUND: To understand attitudes and behaviours of adolescents towards antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance and respiratory tract infections. DESIGN: Qualitative approach informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were undertaken. We aimed to inform the development of an intervention in an international setting to improve antibiotic use among adolescents; therefore on completion of thematic analysis, findings were triangulated with qualitative data from similar studies in France, Saudi Arabia and Cyprus to elucidate differences in the behaviour change model and adaptation to diverse contexts...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590406/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-the-hypothetical-cold-response-mode-of-saussurea-involucrata-in-extreme-cold-environments
#14
Jin Li, Hailiang Liu, Wenwen Xia, Jianqiang Mu, Yujie Feng, Ruina Liu, Panyao Yan, Aiying Wang, Zhongping Lin, Yong Guo, Jianbo Zhu, Xianfeng Chen
Saussurea involucrata grows in high mountain areas covered by snow throughout the year. The temperature of this habitat can change drastically in one day. To gain a better understanding of the cold response signaling pathways and molecular metabolic reactions involved in cold stress tolerance, genome-wide transcriptional analyses were performed using RNA-Seq technologies. A total of 199,758 transcripts were assembled, producing 138,540 unigenes with 46.8 Gb clean data. Overall, 184,416 (92.32%) transcripts were successfully annotated...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586692/functional-innovations-and-the-conquest-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-oceans-by-acanthomorph-fishes
#15
REVIEW
Peter C Wainwright, Sarah J Longo
The world's oceans are home to many fantastic creatures, including about 16,000 species of actinopterygian, or ray-finned, fishes. Notably, 85% of marine fish species come from a single actinopterygian subgroup, the acanthomorph or spiny-rayed fishes. Here, we review eight functional innovations found in marine acanthomorphs that have been instrumental in the adaptive radiation of this group in the marine realm. Jaw protrusion substantially enhances the suction feeding mechanism found in all fish. Fin spines serve as a major deterrent to predators and enhance the locomotor function of fins...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584114/establishment-of-a-vernalization-requirement-in-brachypodium-distachyon-requires-repressor-of-vernalization1
#16
Daniel P Woods, Thomas S Ream, Frédéric Bouché, Joohyun Lee, Nicholas Thrower, Curtis Wilkerson, Richard M Amasino
A requirement for vernalization, the process by which prolonged cold exposure provides competence to flower, is an important adaptation to temperate climates that ensures flowering does not occur before the onset of winter. In temperate grasses, vernalization results in the up-regulation of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) to establish competence to flower; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying repression of VRN1 in the fall season, which is necessary to establish a vernalization requirement. Here, we report that a plant-specific gene containing a bromo-adjacent homology and transcriptional elongation factor S-II domain, which we named REPRESSOR OF VERNALIZATION1 (RVR1), represses VRN1 before vernalization in Brachypodium distachyon That RVR1 is upstream of VRN1 is supported by the observations that VRN1 is precociously elevated in an rvr1 mutant, resulting in rapid flowering without cold exposure, and the rapid-flowering rvr1 phenotype is dependent on VRN1 The precocious VRN1 expression in rvr1 is associated with reduced levels of the repressive chromatin modification H3K27me3 at VRN1, which is similar to the reduced VRN1 H3K27me3 in vernalized plants...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583064/genomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-distinct-biological-functions-for-cold-shock-proteins-vpacspa-and-vpacspd-in-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-chn25-during-low-temperature-survival
#17
Chunhua Zhu, Boyi Sun, Taigang Liu, Huajun Zheng, Wenyi Gu, Wei He, Fengjiao Sun, Yaping Wang, Meicheng Yang, Weicheng Bei, Xu Peng, Qunxin She, Lu Xie, Lanming Chen
BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes serious seafood-borne gastroenteritis and death in humans. Raw seafood is often subjected to post-harvest processing and low-temperature storage. To date, very little information is available regarding the biological functions of cold shock proteins (CSPs) in the low-temperature survival of the bacterium. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of V. parahaemolyticus CHN25 (serotype: O5:KUT). The two main CSP-encoding genes (VpacspA and VpacspD) were deleted from the bacterial genome, and comparative transcriptomic analysis between the mutant and wild-type strains was performed to dissect the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie low-temperature adaptation by V...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582266/a-beam-monitoring-and-validation-system-for-continuous-line-scanning-in-proton-therapy
#18
Grischa Klimpki, Serena Psoroulas, Christian Bula, Urs Rechsteiner, Michael Eichin, Damien Weber, Antony Lomax, David Meer
Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional <i>step-and-shoot</i> irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility to modulate the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout beam delivery. We report on its design and implementation in this paper...
June 5, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581345/development-and-identification-of-a-new-vero-cell-based-live-attenuated-influenza-b-vaccine-by-a-modified-classical-reassortment-method
#19
Fan Yang, Lei Ma, Jian Zhou, Yinjie Wu, Jingxia Gao, Shaohui Song, Xingliang Geng, Qi Guo, Zhuofan Li, Weidong Li, Guoyang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to generate a new Vero and cold-adapted live attenuated influenza B vaccine and evaluate its safety and immunogenicity with experiments in a guinea pig model. METHODS: A modified classical reassortment method was used to generate the new vaccine strain. The donor strain was B/Yunnan/2/2005Vca(B), and the parental virus strain was B/Brisbane/60/2008wt. After co-infection in Vero cells, the prepared antibody serum inhibited the donor strain growth, and screening conditions inhibited the candidate virus growth, which induced the growth of the new reassortant virus B/Brisbane/60/2008Vca(B) grow...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579822/quantitative-sensory-testing-measures-individual-pain-responses-in-emergency-department-patients
#20
Kevin J Duffy, Katharyn L Flickinger, Jeffrey T Kristan, Melissa J Repine, Alexandro Gianforcaro, Rebecca B Hasley, Saad Feroz, Jessica M Rupp, Jumana Al-Baghli, Maria L Pacella, Brian P Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway
BACKGROUND: Refining and individualizing treatment of acute pain in the emergency department (ED) is a high priority, given that painful complaints are the most common reasons for ED visits. Few tools exist to objectively measure pain perception in the ED setting. We speculated that variation in perception of fixed painful stimuli would explain individual variation in reported pain and response to treatment among ED patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In three studies, we 1) describe performance characteristics of brief quantitative sensory testing (QST) in 50 healthy volunteers, 2) test effects of 10 mg oxycodone versus placebo on QST measures in 18 healthy volunteers, and 3) measure interindividual differences in nociception and treatment responses in 198 ED patients with a painful complaint during ED treatment...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
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