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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106824/identification-of-the-muc2-promoter-as-a-strong-promoter-for-intestinal-gene-expression-through-generation-of-transgenic-quail-expressing-gfp-in-gut-epithelial-cells
#1
Rachel M Woodfint, Paula R Chen, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Sang Suk Lee, Kichoon Lee
Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106723/inhibition-of-autophagic-degradation-process-contributes-to-claudin-2-expression-increase-and-epithelial-tight-junction-dysfunction-in-tnf-%C3%AE-treated-cell-monolayers
#2
Cong Zhang, Junkai Yan, Yongtao Xiao, Yujie Shen, Jiazheng Wang, Wensong Ge, Yingwei Chen
Tight junction dysfunction plays a vital role in some chronic inflammatory diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), act as important factors in intestinal epithelial tight junction dysfunction during inflammatory conditions. Autophagy has also been shown to be crucial in tight junction function and claudin-2 expression, but whether autophagy has an effect on the change of claudin-2 expression and tight junction function induced by TNF-α is still unknown. To answer this question, we examined the expression of claudin-2 protein, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and permeability of cell monolayers, autophagy flux change, and lysosomal pH after TNF-α with or without PP242 treatment...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105121/expression-of-decorin-in-intestinal-tissues-of-mice-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-its-correlation-with-autophagy
#3
Huazhou Zhao, Hongqing Xi, Bo Wei, Aizhen Cai, Ting Wang, Yi Wang, Xudong Zhao, Yanjing Song, Lin Chen
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of decorin (DCN) in the intestinal tissues of mice with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its correlation with autophagy. The IBD mouse model was created by intrarectal injection of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. The pathology of colon tissues of the mice was examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Expression of DCN and the proteins associated with autophagy was detected using immunohistochemistry. Normal human colon mucosal epithelial cells (NCM460 cells) were transfected with DCN expression plasmid and the expression of DCN and autophagy-associated proteins was detected by western blot analysis...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104986/expression-of-trefoil-factors-and-twist1-in-colorectal-cancer-and-their-correlation-with-metastatic-potential-and-prognosis
#4
Akram Yusup, Bailikezi Huji, Cheng Fang, Fei Wang, Tuerxunjiang Dadihan, Hai-Jiang Wang, Halmurat Upur
AIM: To detect the expression of trefoil factors (TFFs) and TWIST1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and analyze their correlation with metastasis and survival. METHODS: This study examined the expression of TFF1, TFF3 and TWIST1 in a total of 75 tumor samples, 47 matched normal samples (15 cm from the lesion margin), 30 metastatic lymph nodes, and 10 liver metastatic cancer samples from patients with CRC. The relationship was then analyzed between the protein expression and different clinical records...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104492/constitutively-active-ras-signaling-reduces-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-mediated-gene-transcription-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-by-reducing-vitamin-d-receptor-expression
#5
REVIEW
Marsha L DeSmet, James C Fleet
High vitamin D status is associated with reduced colon cancer risk but these studies ignore the diversity in the molecular etiology of colon cancer. RAS activating mutations are common in colon cancer and they activate pro-proliferative signaling pathways. We examined the impact of RAS activating mutations on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)-mediated gene expression in cultured colon and intestinal cell lines. Transient transfection of Caco-2 cells with a constitutively active mutant K-RAS (G12 V) significantly reduced 1,25(OH)2D-induced activity of both a human 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24 hydroxyase (CYP24A1) promoter-luciferase and an artificial 3X vitamin D response element (VDRE) promoter-luciferase reporter gene...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104423/the-safe-enterocin-dd14-is-a-leaderless-two-peptide-bacteriocin-with-anti-clostridium-perfringens-activity
#6
Delphine L Caly, Mickaël Chevalier, Christophe Flahaut, Benoit Cudennec, Ahmed Khassaf Al Atya, Gabrielle Chataigné, Romain D'Inca, Eric Auclair, Djamel Drider
Enterococcus faecalis 14, a strain previously isolated from meconium, displayed activity against four Clostridium perfringens isolates when co-cultured on agar plates. The anti-Clostridium activity was ascribed to the production of enterocin DD14, which was subsequently purified. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of enterocin DD14 against one collection strain and one clinical C. perfringens strain was determined at 50 µg/mL. Furthermore, using the intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-1, it was shown that E...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103316/alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-protects-against-cytokine-induced-barrier-damage-in-caco-2-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#7
Judit Váradi, András Harazin, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Katalin Réti-Nagy, Péter Gogolák, György Vámosi, Ildikó Bácskay, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Gábor Vasvári, Eszter Róka, David Haines, Mária A Deli, Miklós Vecsernyés
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide with cytoprotective effect in various tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the ability of α-MSH to interact with intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and mitigate inflammatory processes of the epithelial barrier. The protective effect of α-MSH was studied on Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial monolayers, which were disrupted by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The barrier integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) and permeability for marker molecules...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102702/immunomodulating-peptides-for-food-allergy-prevention-and-treatment
#8
Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Rosina López-Fandiño
Among the most promising strategies currently assayed against IgE-mediated allergic diseases stands the possibility of using immunomodulating peptides to induce oral tolerance towards offending food allergens or even to prevent allergic sensitization. This review focuses on the beneficial effects of food derived immunomodulating peptides on food allergy, which can be directly exerted in the intestinal tract or once being absorbed through the intestinal epithelial barrier to interact with immune cells. Food peptides influence intestinal homeostasis by maintaining and reinforcing barrier function or affecting intestinal cell-signalling to nearby immune cells and mucus secretion...
January 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102115/can-probiotics-modulate-human-disease-by-impacting-intestinal-barrier-function
#9
Peter A Bron, Michiel Kleerebezem, Robert-Jan Brummer, Patrice D Cani, Annick Mercenier, Thomas T MacDonald, Clara L Garcia-Ródenas, Jerry M Wells
Intestinal barrier integrity is a prerequisite for homeostasis of mucosal function, which is balanced to maximise absorptive capacity, while maintaining efficient defensive reactions against chemical and microbial challenges. Evidence is mounting that disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is one of the major aetiological factors associated with several gastrointestinal diseases, including infection by pathogens, obesity and diabetes, necrotising enterocolitis, irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100682/diet-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-stimulate-intestinal-epithelial-cells-to-induce-mucosal-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#10
Gera Goverse, Rosalie Molenaar, Laurence Macia, Jian Tan, Martje N Erkelens, Tanja Konijn, Marlene Knippenberg, Emma C L Cook, Diana Hanekamp, Marc Veldhoen, Anita Hartog, Guus Roeselers, Charles R Mackay, Reina E Mebius
The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to many environmental factors that influence intestinal epithelial cells and the underlying mucosal immune system. In this article, we demonstrate that dietary fiber and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) induced the expression of the vitamin A-converting enzyme RALDH1 in intestinal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression levels of RALDH1 in small intestinal epithelial cells correlated with the activity of vitamin A-converting enzymes in mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells, along with increased numbers of intestinal regulatory T cells and a higher production of luminal IgA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100486/c-jun-enhances-intestinal-epithelial-restitution-after-wounding-by-increasing-phospholipase-c-%C3%AE-1-transcription
#11
Peng-Yuan Wang, Shelley R Wang, Lan Xiao, Jie Chen, Jian-Ying Wang, Jaladanki N Rao
c-Jun is an AP-1 transcription factor and implicated in many aspects of cellular functions, but its exact role in the regulation of early intestinal epithelial restitution after injury remains largely unknown. Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate into the second messenger diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate, and coordinates Ca(2+) stores mobilization, and regulates cell migration and proliferation in response to stress. Here we reported that c-Jun up-regulates PLCγ1 expression and enhances PLCγ1-induced Ca(2+) signaling, thus promoting intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099447/genome-wide-immune-modulation-of-tlr3-mediated-inflammation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-differs-between-single-and-multi-strain-probiotic-combination
#12
Chad W MacPherson, Padmaja Shastri, Olivier Mathieu, Thomas A Tompkins, Pierre Burguière
Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098247/c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-2-promotes-enterocyte-survival-and-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-the-inflamed-intestine
#13
A D Mandić, E Bennek, J Verdier, K Zhang, S Roubrocks, R J Davis, B Denecke, N Gassler, K Streetz, A Kel, M Hornef, F J Cubero, C Trautwein, G Sellge
c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) contribute to immune signaling but their functional role during intestinal mucosal inflammation has remained ill defined. Using genetic mouse models, we characterized the role of JNK1 and JNK2 during homeostasis and acute colitis. Epithelial apoptosis, regeneration, differentiation, and barrier function were analyzed in intestinal epithelium-specific (ΔIEC) or complete JNK1 and bone marrow chimeric or complete JNK2 deficient mice as well as double-knockout animals (JNK1(ΔIEC)JNK2(-/-)) during homeostasis and acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098246/tryptophan-metabolite-activation-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-regulates-il-10-receptor-expression-on-intestinal-epithelia
#14
J M Lanis, E E Alexeev, V F Curtis, D A Kitzenberg, D J Kao, K D Battista, M E Gerich, L E Glover, D J Kominsky, S P Colgan
IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators. Signaling by IL-10 occurs through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R), which is expressed in numerous cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), where it is associated with development and maintenance of barrier function. Guided by an unbiased metabolomics screen, we identified tryptophan (Trp) metabolism as a major modifying pathway in interferon-γ (IFNγ)-dominant murine colitis. In parallel, we demonstrated that IFNγ induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Trp to kynurenine (Kyn), induces IL-10R1 expression...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098206/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-signaling-is-required-for-dietary-prebiotic-induced-strengthening-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function
#15
Richard Y Wu, Majd Abdullah, Pekka Määttänen, Ana Victoria C Pilar, Erin Scruten, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Scott Napper, Catherine O'Brien, Nicola L Jones, Philip M Sherman
Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096451/quantitative-relationships-between-lacz-mutant-frequency-and-dna-adduct-frequency-in-muta%C3%A2-mouse-tissues-and-cultured-cells-exposed-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone
#16
Paul A White, George R Douglas, David H Phillips, Volker M Arlt
The frequency of stable DNA adducts in a target tissue can be used to assess biologically effective dose; however, the utility of the metric in a risk assessment context depends on the likelihood that the DNA damage will be manifested as mutation. Previously, we employed the Muta™Mouse system to examine the induction of lacZ mutants and DNA adducts following exposure to the well-studied mutagenic carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). In this follow-up work, we examined the empirical relationships between total adduct frequency and mutant frequency (MF) in tissues and cultured cells following acute 3-NBA exposure...
January 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096305/epithelial-expression-and-function-of-trypsin-3-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Claire Rolland-Fourcade, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Carla Cirillo, Cintya Lopez, Josue Obed Jaramillo, Cleo Desormeaux, Nicolas Cenac, Jean-Paul Motta, Muriel Larauche, Yvette Taché, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron, Sylvain Kirzin, Guillaume Portier, Delphine Bonnet, Laurent Alric, Stephen Vanner, Celine Deraison, Nathalie Vergnolle
OBJECTIVES: Proteases are key mediators of pain and altered enteric neuronal signalling, although the types and sources of these important intestinal mediators are unknown. We hypothesised that intestinal epithelium is a major source of trypsin-like activity in patients with IBS and this activity signals to primary afferent and enteric nerves and induces visceral hypersensitivity. DESIGN: Trypsin-like activity was determined in tissues from patients with IBS and in supernatants of Caco-2 cells stimulated or not...
January 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096258/regulation-of-glucose-uptake-and-enteroendocrine-function-by-the-intestinal-epithelial-insulin-receptor
#18
Siegfried Ussar, Max-Felix Haering, Shiho Fujisaka, Dominik Lutter, Kevin Y Lee, Ning Li, Georg K Gerber, Lynn Bry, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR and IGF1R) are major regulators of metabolism and cell growth throughout the body, however, their roles in the intestine remain controversial. Here we show that genetic ablation of the IR or IGF1R in intestinal epithelial cells of mice does not impair intestinal growth or development or the composition of the gut microbiome. However, loss of IR alters intestinal epithelial gene expression, especially in pathways related to glucose uptake and metabolism. More importantly, loss of IR reduces intestinal glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094890/three-months-of-western-diet-induces-small-intestinal-mucosa-alteration-in-tlr-ko-mice
#19
Claudia Sardi, Patrizia Luchini, Andrea Emanuelli, Amedeo Giannoni, Elisa Martini, Lucia M Manara, Lucia Sfondrini, Marinos Kallikourdis, Michele Sommariva, Cristiano Rumio
Several studies support the role of Western-style diet (WD) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Toll-like receptors/NOD-like receptors (TLRs/NLRs) are important to maintain a healthy epithelium as well as inducing inflammation. Given that dietary factors influence IBD development, that epithelial dysfunction is thought to be involved in initiating intestinal inflammation and that TLR-NLR are involved in maintenance of the functionality of intestinal epithelium as well as in regulating inflammation, we decided to examine the role of TLR signals in the triggering events that lead to alteration of the small intestinal epithelium associated to consumption of WD...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094766/matriptase-mediated-cleavage-of-epcam-destabilizes-claudins-and-dysregulates-intestinal-epithelial-homeostasis
#20
Chuan-Jin Wu, Xu Feng, Michael Lu, Sohshi Morimura, Mark C Udey
Congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) is a severe autosomal recessive human diarrheal disorder with characteristic intestinal epithelial dysplasia. CTE can be caused by mutations in genes encoding EpCAM, a putative adhesion molecule, and HAI-2, a cell surface protease inhibitor. A similar phenotype occurs in mice whose intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) fail to express the tight junction-associated protein claudin-7. EpCAM stabilizes claudin-7 in IECs, and HAI-2 regulates the cell surface serine protease matriptase, a known modifier of intestinal epithelial physiology...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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