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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750357/protective-effects-of-wedelolactone-on-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-murine-colitis-partly-through-inhibiting-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-via-ampk-signaling
#1
Wencheng Wei, Meiling Ding, Kai Zhou, Haifeng Xie, Mian Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang
It has been reported that the ethanol extract of Wedelia chinensis attenuates murine colitis. Wedelolactone (WEL), a coumestane-type compound with many pharmacological activities, was isolated from W. chinensis. The present study aims to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of WEL on ulcerative colitis. In a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse model, oral administration of WEL (50mg/kg) significantly attenuated pathological colonic damage and inhibited inflammatory infiltration, myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities through MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, while activating AMPK in colons treated with DSS...
July 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749447/enhanced-uptake-of-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-nanoparticles-by-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-a-state-of-inflammation
#2
Gang Zhou, Jin Zhang, Chun Pan, Naicheng Liu, Zhenheng Wang, Junfeng Zhang
Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄ NPs) have been used for medical and drug applications, although the mechanisms of cellular uptake and transport need to be further evaluated under inflammatory conditions. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of Fe₃O₄ NPs (20, 50, 100, and 200 nm) by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions via the light scattering of flow cytometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The results of the correlation analysis indicated that the uptake ratios of Fe₃O₄ NPs by intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions were higher than those under the control conditions...
July 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749269/epitheliotropic-intestinal-t-cell-lymphoma-in-a-harbor-seal-phoca-vitulina
#3
Sara Malberg, Henrike Alma Gregersen, Manfred Henrich, Christiane Herden
A 14-yr- old, male harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ) presented with depression, anorexia, and weight loss. Clinical examination revealed no specific abnormalities. Diagnostic imaging displayed an enlarged mass in the dorso-cranial abdomen. The animal was euthanized due to progressive worsening of symptoms. Grossly, severe emaciation and a massive enlargement of one mesenteric lymph node were found. Microscopically, a neoplastic round cell population with morphologic characteristics of mature lymphocytes infiltrated the mesenteric lymph node as well as the jejunal mucosa and exhibited a marked invasion of the mucosal epithelial layer...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749261/colonic-adenocarcinomas-in-a-familial-group-of-captive-amur-rat-snakes-elaphe-schrencki
#4
Benjamin Lamglait, Karin Lemberger
This article reports five cases of colonic adenocarcinomas in a family group of captive Amur rat snake (Elaphe schrenckii) from the Réserve Africaine de Sigean, France. This tumor was detected in three females and two males, all adults, and accounted for 16% of causes of death of adults of this species at this institution from 1986 to 2013. Grossly, mild to marked thickening of the intestinal wall cranially to the cloaca was found in four cases; tan to yellow firm masses were noted in the distal intestinal wall in the other case...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748255/cellular-and-subcellular-localization-of-adp-ribosylation-factor-6-in-mouse-peripheral-tissues
#5
Osamu Katsumata, Momoko Mori, Yusuke Sawane, Tomoko Niimura, Akiko Ito, Hirotsugu Okamoto, Masahiro Fukaya, Hiroyuki Sakagami
ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) is a small GTPase that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Arf6 in adult mouse peripheral tissues by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy using the heat-induced antigen retrieval method with Tris-EDTA buffer (pH 9.0). Marked immunolabeling of Arf6 was observed particularly in epithelial cells of several tissues including the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, trachea, kidney, epididymis, oviduct, and uterus...
July 26, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748131/an-in-vitro-investigation-of-immunomodulatory-properties-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-l-delbrueckii-cells-and-their-extracellular-polysaccharides
#6
Mana Kishimoto, Ryohei Nomoto, Masashi Mizuno, Ro Osawa
Many probiotic lactobacilli and their extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) have beneficial immunological properties. However, it is unclear how they elicit the host immune response. We thus investigated the immunological properties of UV-killed Lactobacillus delbrueckii TU-1 and L. plantarum KM-9 cells as well as their extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). High-performance liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography analyses showed that their EPSs differ in sugar composition and sugar fractionation...
2017: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748083/lactadherin-orthologs-inhibit-migration-of-human-porcine-and-murine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#7
Steffen Nyegaard, Trine Andreasen, Jan Trige Rasmussen
Lactadherin was originally described due to its appearance in milk, but is abundantly expressed especially by professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. The proteins has been shown to have a multitude of bioactive effects, including inhibition of inflammatory phospholipases, induction of effero- and phagocytosis, prevent rotavirus induced gastroenteritis, and modulate intestinal homeostasis by regulating epithelial cell migration. The level of expression seems to be important in a row of serious pathologies linked to the intestinal epithelial barrier function, vascular- and autoimmune disease...
July 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747426/intestinal-epithelial-cell-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-promotes-mult1-up-regulation-and-nkg2d-mediated-inflammation
#8
Shuhei Hosomi, Joep Grootjans, Markus Tschurtschenthaler, Niklas Krupka, Juan D Matute, Magdalena B Flak, Eduardo Martinez-Naves, Manuel Gomez Del Moral, Jonathan N Glickman, Mizuki Ohira, Lewis L Lanier, Arthur Kaser, Richard Blumberg
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is commonly observed in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and can, if excessive, cause spontaneous intestinal inflammation as shown by mice with IEC-specific deletion of X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an unfolded protein response-related transcription factor. In this study, Xbp1 deletion in the epithelium (Xbp1(ΔIEC) ) is shown to cause increased expression of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) ligand (NKG2DL) mouse UL16-binding protein (ULBP)-like transcript 1 and its human orthologue cytomegalovirus ULBP via ER stress-related transcription factor C/EBP homology protein...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747343/the-development-of-steady-state-activation-hubs-between-adult-lti-ilc3s-and-primed-macrophages-in-small-intestine
#9
Adam K Savage, Hong-Erh Liang, Richard M Locksley
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are important for intestinal health, particularly in controlling inflammation in response to epithelial dysregulation, but their role during homeostasis remains less well understood. We generated IL-22 reporter mice to assess production of this key cytokine by ILC3s in the small intestine during development and under basal conditions. Although IL-22 is produced by a variety of lymphocyte populations, constitutively high IL-22 expression was limited to lymphoid-tissue inducer (LTi) cells residing in lymph node-like structures in the gut called solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747340/epithelial-tnf-receptor-signaling-promotes-mucosal-repair-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Emily M Bradford, Stacy H Ryu, Ajay Pal Singh, Goo Lee, Tatiana Goretsky, Preetika Sinh, David B Williams, Amber L Cloud, Elias Gounaris, Vihang Patel, Olivia F Lamping, Evan B Lynch, Mary Pat Moyer, Isabelle G De Plaen, David J Shealy, Guang-Yu Yang, Terrence A Barrett
TNF plays an integral role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as evidenced by the dramatic therapeutic responses in Crohn's disease (CD) patients induced by chimeric anti-TNF mAbs. However, treatment of CD patients with etanercept, a decoy receptor that binds soluble TNF, fails to improve disease. To explore this discrepancy, we investigated the role of TNF signaling in Wnt/β-catenin-mediated intestinal stem cell and progenitor cell expansion in CD patients, human cells, and preclinical mouse models. We hypothesized that TNF exerts beneficial effects on intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) responses to injury...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746740/ccr6-promotes-steady-state-intestinal-mononuclear-phagocyte-association-with-the-intestinal-epithelium-imprinting-and-immune-surveillance
#11
Keely G McDonald, Leroy W Wheeler, Jeremiah R McDole, Shannon Joerger, Jenny K Gustafsson, Devesha H Kulkarni, Kathryn A Knoop, Ifor R Williams, Mark J Miller, Rodney D Newberry
The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains antigen presenting cells with features of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, collectively referred to as mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs). Association of MNPs with the epithelium is implied to play an important role in multiple facets of intestinal immunity including imprinting MNPs with the ability to induce IgA production, inducing the expression of gut homing molecules on T cells, facilitating the capture of luminal antigens and microbes, and subsequent immune responses in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN)...
July 26, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745324/a-committed-postselection-precursor-to-natural-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#12
Christoph S N Klose, Jonas F Hummel, Lena Faller, Yannick d'Hargues, Karolina Ebert, Yakup Tanriver
The intestine is a major immune organ with several specialized lymphoid structures and immune cells. Among these are thymus-derived natural intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that lack expression of the classical co-receptors CD4 or CD8αβ (double negative (DN)). Natural IELs are both αβ(+) and γδ(+) T cells that play important roles in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier at steady state and during inflammation. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the peripheral development of natural IELs, but its role during thymic development has remained less clear...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744287/ccr6-deficiency-impairs-iga-production-and-dysregulates-antimicrobial-peptide-production-altering-the-intestinal-flora
#13
Ya-Lin Lin, Peng-Peng Ip, Fang Liao
Intestinal immunity exists as a complex relationship among immune cells, epithelial cells, and microbiota. CCR6 and its ligand-CCL20 are highly expressed in intestinal mucosal tissues, such as Peyer's patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). In this study, we investigated the role of the CCR6-CCL20 axis in intestinal immunity under homeostatic conditions. CCR6 deficiency intrinsically affects germinal center reactions in PPs, leading to impairments in IgA class switching, IgA affinity, and IgA memory B cell production and positioning in PPs, suggesting an important role for CCR6 in T-cell-dependent IgA generation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740990/anthocyanins-inhibit-tumor-necrosis-alpha-induced-loss-of-caco-2-cell-barrier-integrity
#14
Eleonora Cremonini, Angela Mastaloudis, Shelly N Hester, Sandra V Verstraeten, Maureen Anderson, Steven M Wood, Andrew L Waterhouse, Cesar G Fraga, Patricia I Oteiza
An increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as a major event in the pathophysiology of conditions characterized by chronic gut inflammation. This study investigated the capacity of pure anthocyanins (AC), and berry and rice extracts containing different types and amounts of AC, to inhibit tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα)-induced permeabilization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 cells differentiated into intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated in the absence/presence of TNFα, with or without the addition of AC or AC-rich plant extracts (ACRE)...
July 25, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740231/desmoglein-2-regulates-the-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-via-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase
#15
Hanna Ungewiß, Franziska Vielmuth, Shintaro T Suzuki, Andreas Maiser, Hartmann Harz, Heinrich Leonhardt, Daniela Kugelmann, Nicolas Schlegel, Jens Waschke
Intestinal epithelial barrier properties are maintained by a junctional complex consisting of tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ) and desmosomes. Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2), an adhesion molecule of desmosomes and the only Dsg isoform expressed in enterocytes, is required for epithelial barrier properties and may contribute to barrier defects in Crohn's disease. Here, we identified extradesmosomal Dsg2 on the surface of polarized enterocytes by Triton extraction, confocal microscopy, SIM and STED. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed Dsg2-specific binding events along the cell border on the surface of enterocytes with a mean unbinding force of around 30pN...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739799/lgr5-receptor-promotes-cell-cell-adhesion-in-stem-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells-via-the-iqgap1-rac1-pathway
#16
Kendra S Carmon, Xing Gong, Jing Yi, Ling Wu, Anthony Thomas, Catherine M Moore, Ikuo Masuho, David J Timson, Kirill A Martemyanov, Qingyun J Liu
Leucine rich repeat containing G protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) is a bona fide marker of adult stem cells in several epithelial tissues, most notably in the intestinal crypts and is highly upregulated in many colorectal, hepatocellular, and ovarian cancers. LGR5 activation by R-spondin (RSPO) ligands potentiates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vitro, yet deletion of LGR5 in stem cells has little or no effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling or cell proliferation in vivo. Remarkably, modulation of LGR5 expression has a major impact on the actin cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion in the absence of RSPO stimulation, but the molecular mechanism is unclear...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738073/the-n-terminal-region-of-serum-amyloid-a3-protein-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-up-regulates-muc2-mucin-mrna-expression-in-mouse-colonic-epithelial-cells
#17
Manami Tashiro, Ami Iwata, Marika Yamauchi, Kaori Shimizu, Ayaka Okada, Naotaka Ishiguro, Yasuo Inoshima
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is the major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A (AA) in AA amyloidosis in humans and animals. SAA isoforms have been identified in a wide variety of animals, such as SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, and SAA4 in mouse. Although the biological functions of SAA isoforms are not completely understood, recent studies have suggested that SAA3 plays a role in host defense. Expression of SAA3 is increased on the mouse colon surface in the presence of microbiota in vivo, and it increases mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2) in murine colonic epithelial cells in vitro, which constitutes a protective mucus barrier in the intestinal tract...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737923/co-silencing-intestinal-transglutaminase-2-and-interleukin-15-using-gelatin-based-nanoparticles-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-celiac-disease
#18
Husain Attarwala, Valerie Clausen, Prasoon Chaturvedi, Mansoor M Amiji
In this study, we have developed type B gelatin-based nanoparticle based siRNA delivery system for silencing of intestinal transglutaminase-2 (TG2) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) genes in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and murine alveolar macrophage cells (J774A.1). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the TG2 or IL-15 gene was encapsulated within gelatin nanoparticles using ethanol-water solvent displacement method. Size, charge and morphology of gelatin nanoparticles were evaluated using Zetasizer instrument and transmission electron microscopy...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732801/bicarbonate-in-cystic-fibrosis
#19
REVIEW
Karl Kunzelmann, Rainer Schreiber, Hans Beat Hadorn
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF, mucoviscidosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is a chloride and bicarbonate channel necessary for fluid secretion and extracellular alkalization. For a long time, research concentrated on abnormal Cl(-) and Na(+) transport, but neglected bicarbonate as a crucial factor in CF. METHODS: The present short review reports early findings as well as recent insights into the role of CFTR for bicarbonate transport and its defects in CF...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731213/immunomodulatory-properties-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-in-intestinal-inflammation
#20
Teresa Vezza, Francesca Algieri, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, José Garrido-Mesa, M Pilar Utrilla, Nassima Talhaoui, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Antonio Segura-Carretero, M Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Giovanni Monteleone, Julio Gálvez
SCOPE: Extracts from olive (Olea europaea) leaves are used in Mediterranean traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory. They contain antioxidant phenolic compounds, like oleuropeoside, which could be interesting for the treatment of inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress in humans, including inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of olive leaf extract (0.5-25 mg/kg) were studied in two mice models of colitis (DSS and DNBS)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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