keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

intestinal epithelial cells

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531220/highly-conserved-type-1-pili-promote-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-pathogen-host-interactions
#1
Alaullah Sheikh, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Yasmin Ara Begum, F Matthew Kuhlman, Matthew A Ciorba, Scott J Hultgren, Firdausi Qadri, James M Fleckenstein
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), defined by their elaboration of heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins, are a common cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries. Efficient delivery of these toxins requires ETEC to engage target host enterocytes. This engagement is accomplished using a variety of pathovar-specific and conserved E. coli adhesin molecules as well as plasmid encoded colonization factors. Some of these adhesins undergo significant transcriptional modulation as ETEC encounter intestinal epithelia, perhaps suggesting that they cooperatively facilitate interaction with the host...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530169/commensal-derived-omvs-elicit-a-mild-proinflammatory-response-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#2
Daniel A Patten, Enas Hussein, Scott P Davies, Paul N Humphreys, Andrew Collett
Under normal physiological conditions, the intestinal immunity remains largely hyporesponsive to the commensal microbiota, yet also retains the inherent ability to rapidly respond to pathogenic antigens. However, immunomodulatory activities of extracellular products from commensal bacteria have been little studied, with previous investigations generally utilizing the live bacterium to study microbiota-epithelial interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that extracellular products of a commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli C25, elicit a moderate release of proinflammatory IL-8 and stimulate transcriptional up-regulation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in intestinal epithelial cell lines HT29-19A and Caco-2...
May 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528556/proventriculitis-associated-with-cryptosporidium-baileyi-in-a-snowy-owl-bubo-scandiacus-and-its-epidemiological-investigation
#3
Shotaro Nakagun, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Miki Sugimoto, Sohei Tomikawa, Kenichi Watanabe, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527754/hippo-signalling-in-intestinal-regeneration-and-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Alex Gregorieff, Jeffrey L Wrana
The Hippo pathway is a unique signalling module that regulates cell-specific transcriptional responses and responds to a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Besides its classical role in restricting tissue size during development, Hippo signalling is now recognized to control numerous processes including cell proliferation, survival, cell fate determination, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions and cell migration. Because of its highly dynamic nature, the intestinal epithelium has served as an exceptional model to study the complex roles of Hippo signalling...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526636/rebamipide-ameliorates-radiation-induced-intestinal-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#5
Sehwan Shim, Hyo-Sun Jang, Hyun-Wook Myung, Jae Kyung Myung, Jin-Kyu Kang, Min-Jung Kim, Seung Bum Lee, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Seung-Sook Lee, Sunhoo Park
Radiation-induced enteritis is a major side effect in cancer patients undergoing abdominopelvic radiotherapy. Radiation exposure produces an uncontrolled inflammatory cascade and epithelial cell loss leading to impaired epithelial barrier function. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of rebamipide on regeneration of the intestinal epithelia after radiation injury. The abdomens of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 13Gy of irradiation (IR) and then the mice were treated with rebamipide. Upon IR, intestinal epithelia were destroyed structurally at the microscopic level and bacterial translocation was increased...
May 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526587/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-in-adult-mammalian-epithelial-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Kai Kretzschmar, Hans Clevers
Adult stem cells self-renew and replenish differentiated cells in various organs and tissues throughout a mammal's life. Over the last 25 years an ever-growing body of knowledge has unraveled the essential regulation of adult mammalian epithelia by the canonical Wnt signaling with its key intracellular effector β-catenin. In this review, we discuss the principles of the signaling pathway and its role in adult epithelial stem cells of the intestine and skin during homeostasis and tumorigenesis. We further highlight the research that led to the identification of new stem cell markers and methods to study adult stem cells ex vivo...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520792/myd88-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-and-the-intestinal-epithelium-controls-immunity-against-intestinal-infection-with-c-rodentium
#7
Christin Friedrich, Panagiota Mamareli, Sophie Thiemann, Friederike Kruse, Zuobai Wang, Bernhard Holzmann, Till Strowig, Tim Sparwasser, Matthias Lochner
MyD88-mediated signaling downstream of Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor family is critically involved in the induction of protective host responses upon infections. Although it is known that MyD88-deficient mice are highly susceptible to a wide range of bacterial infections, the cell type-specific contribution of MyD88 in protecting the host against intestinal bacterial infection is only poorly understood. In order to investigate the importance of MyD88 in specific immune and nonimmune cell types during intestinal infection, we employed a novel murine knock-in model for MyD88 that enables the cell type-specific reactivation of functional MyD88 expression in otherwise MyD88-deficient mice...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520587/complementary-roles-of-nod2-in-hematopoietic-and-nonhematopoietic-cells-in-preventing-gut-barrier-dysfunction-dependent-on-mlck-activity
#8
Ziad Al Nabhani, Nicolas Montcuquet, Maryline Roy, Monique Dussaillant, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Frédérick Barreau
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental factors. Loss of function mutations in the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene are the main genetic risk factor for CD. Like patients with CD, Nod2 mice are characterized by an enhanced Th1 immune response and a defective mucosal barrier function evidenced by increased intestinal permeability. We previously showed that the latter is related to hematopoietic Nod2 deficiency. Our aim was to explore the mechanisms by which Nod2 expressed in the hematopoietic and in the nonhematopoietic compartments interplay to control epithelial paracellular permeability...
May 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515165/zinc-supplementation-via-gpr39-upregulates-pkc%C3%AE-to-protect-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caco-2-cells-challenged-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#9
Yu-Xin Shao, Zhao Lei, Patricia G Wolf, Yan Gao, Yu-Ming Guo, Bing-Kun Zhang
Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined.Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function.Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514691/mast-cells-are-crucial-for-induction-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-clearance-of-helminth-infections
#10
Chikako Shimokawa, Takashi Kanaya, Masami Hachisuka, Kenji Ishiwata, Hajime Hisaeda, Yosuke Kurashima, Hiroshi Kiyono, Tomohiro Yoshimoto, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Hiroshi Ohno
Mast cells are important for eradication of intestinal nematodes; however, their precise mechanisms of action have remained elusive, especially in the early phase of infection. We found that Spi-B-deficient mice had increased numbers of mast cells and rapidly expelled the Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp) nematode. This was accompanied by induction of interleukin-13 (IL-13)-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Immediately after Hp infection, mast cells were rapidly activated to produce IL-33 in response to ATP released from apoptotic intestinal epithelial cells...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514661/innate-recognition-of-intracellular-bacterial-growth-is-driven-by-the-tifa-dependent-cytosolic-surveillance-pathway
#11
Ryan G Gaudet, Cynthia X Guo, Raphael Molinaro, Haila Kottwitz, John R Rohde, Anne-Sophie Dangeard, Cécile Arrieumerlou, Stephen E Girardin, Scott D Gray-Owen
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) act as sentinels for incoming pathogens. Cytosol-invasive bacteria, such as Shigella flexneri, trigger a robust pro-inflammatory nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) response from IECs that is believed to depend entirely on the peptidoglycan sensor NOD1. We found that, during Shigella infection, the TRAF-interacting forkhead-associated protein A (TIFA)-dependent cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses the bacterial metabolite heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), functions after NOD1 to detect bacteria replicating free in the host cytosol...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513540/enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-flagellin-inhibits-tnf-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#12
Gaochan Wang, Brian V Geisbrecht, Christian Rueter, Philip R Hardwidge
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes childhood diarrhea in developing countries. ETEC strains produce the heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (ST) and encode a diverse set of colonization factors used for adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. We previously found that ETEC secretes a heat-stable protein we designated as ETEC Secreted Factor (ESF) that inhibits the extent of NF-κB activation normally induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). Here we fractionated ETEC supernatants using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and determined that ETEC flagellin was necessary and sufficient to protect IκBα from degradation in response to TNF stimulation...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512643/diagnostic-and-research-aspects-of-small-intestinal-disaccharidases-in-coeliac-disease
#13
REVIEW
Tanja Šuligoj, Paul J Ciclitira, Borut Božič
Disaccharidases (DS) are brush border enzymes embedded in the microvillous membrane of small intestinal enterocytes. In untreated coeliac disease (CD), a general decrease of DS activities is seen. This manuscript reviews different aspects of DS activities in CD: their utility in the diagnosis and their application to in vitro toxicity testing. The latter has never been established in CD research. However, with the recent advances in small intestinal organoid techniques, DS might be employed as a biomarker for in vitro studies...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510098/body-mass-index-and-risk-of-colorectal-carcinoma-subtypes-classified-by-tumor-differentiation-status
#14
Akiko Hanyuda, Yin Cao, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Yohei Masugi, Annacarolina da Silva, Li Liu, Keisuke Kosumi, Thing Rinda Soong, Iny Jhun, Kana Wu, Xuehong Zhang, Mingyang Song, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Edward L Giovannucci, Shuji Ogino, Reiko Nishihara
Previous studies suggest that abnormal energy balance status may dysregulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and promote colorectal carcinogenesis, yet little is known about how host energy balance and obesity influence enterocyte differentiation during carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that the association between high body mass index (BMI) and colorectal carcinoma incidence might differ according to tumor histopathologic differentiation status. Using databases of the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and duplication-method Cox proportional hazards models, we prospectively examined an association between BMI and the incidence of colorectal carcinoma subtypes classified by differentiation features...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509572/effect-of-silibinin-loaded-nano-niosomal-coated-with-trimethyl-chitosan-on-mirnas-expression-in-2d-and-3d-models-of-t47d-breast-cancer-cell-line
#15
Seyede Elmira Yazdi Rouholamini, Saeid Moghassemi, Zahra Maharat, Amirhossien Hakamivala, Susan Kashanian, Kobra Omidfar
Silibinin is a natural flavonoid with a strong antioxidant property and weak cytotoxic activity. It has demonstrated anti-tumoural activity against many types of malignancies; however, due to its hydrophobic structure, it has poor water solubility, bioavailability and permeability across intestinal epithelial cells. To improve the effect of silibinin, we have vehiculated silibinin by a highly stable niosomal nanostructure based on a Span 60/cholesterol (CH)/N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) system in order to study its potential application for the delivery of silibinin in T47D cultured under three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) conditions...
May 16, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508554/intestinal-epithelial-suppressor-of-cytokine-signaling-3-socs3-impacts-on-mucosal-homeostasis-in-a-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#16
Elisabeth J Shaw, Emily E Smith, Jayde Whittingham-Dowd, Matthew D Hodges, Kathryn J Else, Rachael J Rigby
INTRODUCTION: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a tumour suppressor, limiting intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation in acute inflammation, and tumour growth, but little is known regarding its role in mucosal homeostasis. Resistance to the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris relies on an "epithelial escalator" to expel the parasite. IEC turnover is restricted by parasite-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). METHODS: Mice with or without conditional knockout of SOCS3 were infected with T...
May 15, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507982/the-role-of-carrageenan-and-carboxymethylcellulose-in-the-development-of-intestinal-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
John Vincent Martino, Johan Van Limbergen, Leah E Cahill
Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn's disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) using a polymeric formula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507021/cell-biology-of-tight-junction-barrier-regulation-and-mucosal-disease
#18
Aaron Buckley, Jerrold R Turner
Mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells. In the intestine, the epithelium establishes a selectively permeable barrier that supports nutrient absorption and waste secretion while preventing intrusion by luminal materials. Intestinal epithelia therefore play a central role in regulating interactions between the mucosal immune system and luminal contents, which include dietary antigens, a diverse intestinal microbiome, and pathogens. The paracellular space is sealed by the tight junction, which is maintained by a complex network of protein interactions...
May 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#19
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505101/dairy-propionibacteria-versatile-probiotics
#20
REVIEW
Houem Rabah, Fillipe Luiz Rosa do Carmo, Gwénaël Jan
Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties...
May 13, 2017: Microorganisms
keyword
keyword
87240
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"