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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335546/dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supplementation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-course-what-impact-on-the-colonic-mucosa
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Vidal-Lletjós, Martin Beaumont, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig, François Blachier, Annaïg Lan
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), after disease onset, typically progress in two cyclically repeated phases, namely inflammatory flare and remission, with possible nutritional status impairment. Some evidence, either from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicate that the quantity and the quality of dietary protein consumption and amino acid supplementation may differently influence the IBD course according to the disease phases. For instance, although the dietary protein needs for mucosal healing after an inflammatory episode remain undetermined, there is evidence that amino acids derived from dietary proteins display beneficial effects on this process, serving as building blocks for macromolecule synthesis in the wounded mucosal area, energy substrates, and/or precursors of bioactive metabolites...
March 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335427/laxative-effects-of-total-diterpenoids-extracted-from-the-roots-of-euphorbia-pekinensis-are-attributable-to-alterations-of-aquaporins-in-the-colon
#3
Kuilong Wang, Lian Liu, Jianyu Huang, Hongli Yu, Hao Wu, Yu Duan, Xiaobing Cui, Xingde Zhang, Liping Liu, Wei Wang
This study was designed to evaluate the toxic effects of total diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia pekinensis (TDEP) on the mouse colon and to clarify the mechanism. Dried powdered roots of E. pekinensis were extracted with chloroform, and then the extract (6.7 g) was subjected to column chromatography and preparative TLC, giving TDEP. Using the HPLC-DAD method, the purity of TDEP was determined as 85.26%. Mice were orally administered with TDEP (3.942, 19.71 and 39.42 mg/kg), after which fecal water content and colon water content were examined...
March 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335401/the-vital-dye-cdr10b-labels-the-zebrafish-mid-intestine-and-lumen
#4
Veronika Sander, Shantanu Patke, Jung Y Lee, Young-Tae Chang, Alan J Davidson
We describe the use of the fluorescent reporter compound CDr10b to label mid-intestinal structures in zebrafish larvae after simple immersion. CDr10b is deposited into the gut where it initially fills the lumen and is excreted. Using laser-mediated injury of the intestine, we show that CDr10b provides a useful readout of the integrity and repair of the epithelial cell barrier. In addition, CDr10b specifically labels the absorptive mid-intestine segment that is analogous to the mammalian small intestine. By perturbing retinoic acid signaling, which regulates the size of the mid-intestine segment, we show that CDr10b is a valuable tool to rapidly assess developmental malformations of the intestine in live animals...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335336/oral-toxicity-and-intestinal-transport-mechanism-of-colloidal-gold-nanoparticle-treated-red-ginseng
#5
Song-Hwa Bae, Jin Yu, Mi-Ran Go, Hyun-Jin Kim, Yun-Gu Hwang, Soo-Jin Choi
(1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism...
November 11, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334884/improvement-in-the-prognosis-of-ovarian-cancer-in-the-era-before-addition-of-molecular-targeting-therapy
#6
Takako Shimada, Toshiaki Saito, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Kumi Shimamoto, Shuhei Matsushita, Shinichiro Yamaguchi, Kazuya Ariyoshi, Masao Okadome
Objective: The prognosis of ovarian cancer has improved because of platinum- and taxane-containing chemotherapy. We investigated the 5-year disease-specific overall survival and prognostic factors of patients with advanced ovarian cancer to elucidate the change in clinical course of ovarian cancer with the advance of chemotherapy for patients who developed relapse in the era before the addition of molecular targeting therapy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical course of 134 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (FIGO Stage III and IV) treated in the past 11 years (1999-2010)...
February 24, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334816/dynamic-changes-in-chromatin-states-during-specification-and-differentiation-of-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#7
Juri Kazakevych, Sergi Sayols, Berith Messner, Christina Krienke, Natalia Soshnikova
Epigenetic mechanisms, including chromatin structure, chromatin dynamics and histone modifications play an important role for maintenance and differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell specification and differentiation. Here, we used intestinal stem cells (ISCs) as a model system to reveal the epigenetic changes coordinating gene expression programs during these processes. We found that two distinct epigenetic mechanisms participate in establishing the transcriptional program promoting ISC specification from embryonic progenitors...
March 7, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333335/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-restores-intestinal-barrier-integrity-by-regulation-of-e-cadherin-recycling
#8
Chloé Terciolo, Aurélie Dobric, Mehdi Ouaissi, Carole Siret, Gilles Breuzard, Françoise Silvy, Bastien Marchiori, Sébastien Germain, Renaté Bonier, Adel Hama, Roisin Owens, Dominique Lombardo, Véronique Rigot, Frédéric André
Background and Aims: Alteration in intestinal permeability is the main factor underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases affecting the gut, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Characterization of molecules targeting the restoration of intestinal barrier integrity is therefore vital for the development of alternative therapies. The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (Sb), used to prevent and treat antibiotic-associated infectious and functional diarrhea, may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of IBD...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332901/regulation-of-humoral-immunity-by-gut-microbial-products
#9
Myunghoo Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal tract provides ideal niches for several different microbial species, which are collectively called the gut microbiota. A key host immune effector that controls the microbiota and prevents mucosal infection is IgA. Gut microbiota-derived factors are largely classified into molecular pattern recognition receptor ligands and nutrient-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and adenosine triphosphate. Along with host-derived factors such as retinoic acid, various cytokines and cytokine-like molecules, gut microbial products profoundly shape B cell responses...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330806/a-fish-model-for-the-study-of-the-relationship-between-neuroendocrine-and-immune-cells-in-the-intestinal-epithelium-silurus-glanis-infected-with-a-tapeworm
#10
B S Dezfuli, J A DePasquale, G Castaldelli, L Giari, G Bosi
Immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural studies were conducted on a sub-population of 20 wels catfish Silurus glanis from a tributary of the River Po (Northern Italy). Fish were examined for the presence of ecto- and endo-parasites; in the intestine of 5 fish, 11 specimens of cestode Glanitaenia osculata were noted and was the only helminth species encountered. The architecture of intestine and its cellular features were nearly identical in either the uninfected S. glanis or in those harboring G...
March 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326812/evaluation-of-reticulated-gelatin-hibiscus-propolis-against-intestinal-commensal-species-commonly-associated-with-urinary-tract-infections
#12
Maïwenn Olier, Soraya Sekkal, Cherryl Harkat, Hélène Eutamene, Vassilia Theodorou
AIM: Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. METHODS: Animals received orally (with supplemental Na2CO3): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle...
March 3, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323994/direct-regulation-of-histidine-ammonia-lyase-2-gene-by-thyroid-hormone-in-the-developing-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#13
Nga Luu, Liezhen Fu, Kenta Fujimoto, Yun-Bo Shi
Most vertebrate organs utilize adult stem cells to maintain homeostasis and ensure proper repair when damaged. How such organ-specific stem cells are formed during vertebrate development is largely unexplored. We have been using the thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis to address this issue. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that intestinal remodeling involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells...
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323943/growth-development-and-intestinal-remodeling-occurs-in-the-absence-of-thyroid-hormone-receptor-alpha-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#14
Jinyoung Choi, Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka, Daniel R Buchholz
During development in all vertebrates, thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are expressed before as well as during and after the peak in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Previously, we established a role for unliganded TRα in gene repression and developmental timing using tadpoles of TRα knockout (TRαKO) frogs. Here, we examined the role of liganded TRα on growth, development, and intestinal remodeling during natural and TH-induced metamorphosis. Disrupted TRα had little effect on growth during the larval period, but after metamorphosis TRαKO juveniles grew more slowly than wild-type (WT) juveniles...
March 2, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322932/disruption-of-the-epithelial-barrier-during-intestinal-inflammation-quest-for-new-molecules-and-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Susana Lechuga, Andrei I Ivanov
The intestinal epithelium forms a key protective barrier that separates internal organs from the harmful environment of the gut lumen. Increased permeability of the gut barrier is a common manifestation of different inflammatory disorders contributing to the severity of disease. Barrier permeability is controlled by epithelial adherens junctions and tight junctions. Junctional assembly and integrity depend on fundamental homeostatic processes such as cell differentiation, rearrangements of the cytoskeleton, and vesicle trafficking...
March 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#16
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321154/host-pathogen-interactions-in-helicobacter-pylori-related-gastric-cancer
#17
EDITORIAL
Magdalena Chmiela, Zuzanna Karwowska, Weronika Gonciarz, Bujana Allushi, Paweł Stączek
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system...
March 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320829/tissue-engineering-functional-gastrointestinal-regions-the-importance-of-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#18
Andrew Trecartin, Tracy Grikscheit
The intestine shows extraordinary regenerative potential that might be harnessed to alleviate numerous morbid and lethal human diseases. The intestinal stem cells regenerate the epithelium every 5 days throughout an individual's lifetime. Understanding stem-cell signaling affords power to influence the niche environment for growing intestine. The manifold approaches to tissue engineering may be organized by variations of three basic components required for the transplantation and growth of stem/progenitor cells: (1) cell delivery materials or scaffolds; (2) donor cells including adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and in vitro expansion of isolated or cocultured epithelial, smooth muscle, myofibroblasts, or nerve cells; and (3) environmental modulators or biopharmaceuticals...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320521/differential-mirna-expression-analysis-during-late-stage-terminal-hindgut-development-in-fetal-rats
#19
Shuguang Jin, Junxiang Wang, Hong Chen, Bo Xiang
BACKGROUND: Terminal hindgut deformity is the leading digestive tract malformation, however, the etiology and pathogenesis remained unknown. To date, gene expression abnormalities were considered the primary cause of these diseases. miRNAs have been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of genes. METHODS: A total of 24 pregnant rats were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=12) received 1% ethylenethiourea (125mg/kg) by gavage on gestational day 11, while the control group (n=12) received the same volume of distilled water...
March 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320420/malignant-gastrointestinal-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Mohammed J Alyousef, Jumana A Alratroot, Tarek ElSharkawy, Mohamed A Shawarby, Mohammad A Al Hamad, Tarek M Hashem, Ahmed Alsayyah
BACKGROUND: Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor (GNET) is an extremely rare entity that was first described by Zambrano et al. in 2003 as "Clear cell sarcoma-like tumor of the gastrointestinal tract". It shares some of the histological features of clear cell sarcoma (CCS) but lacks the immunohistochemical reactivity for melanocytic markers. We report a case of GNET that was initially misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Recognizing this entity is important to avoid misdiagnosis...
March 20, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
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