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intestinal epithelial cells

Brianne R O'Leary, Frederick K Houwen, Chase L Johnson, Bryan G Allen, James J Mezhir, Daniel J Berg, Joseph J Cullen, Douglas R Spitz
Gastric adenocarcinoma most often presents at an advanced stage and overall five-year survival of ∼30%. Pharmacological ascorbate (high-dose IV ascorbate) has been proposed as a promising nontoxic adjuvant to standard radio-chemotherapies in several cancer types. In the current study, pharmacological ascorbate (0.5-2 m M) caused a dose-dependent decrease (70-85% at 2 m M) in clonogenic survival of gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS and MNK-45), but was relatively nontoxic to a small intestinal epithelial nonimmortalized human cell isolate (FHs 74 Int)...
March 16, 2018: Radiation Research
Chengzhi Fang, Lili Xie, Chunmei Liu, Chunhua Fu, Wei Ye, Hong Liu, Binghong Zhang
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe acquired disease that predominantly affects the small intestine of neonates. NEC is caused by a combination of metabolic products, dysfunctions of the blood vessels, mucus and other unknown factors. Berberine may induce beneficial effects on necrotic and cardiovascular diseases due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects on epithelial cells. In the present study, the therapeutic effects of berberine were investigated and the potential mechanisms by which it functions within a neonatal NEC mouse model were analyzed...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Victoria Sundblad, Amado A Quintar, Luciano G Morosi, Sonia I Niveloni, Ana Cabanne, Edgardo Smecuol, Eduardo Mauriño, Karina V Mariño, Julio C Bai, Cristina A Maldonado, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Galectins, a family of animal lectins characterized by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates, modulate several immune cell processes shaping the course of innate and adaptive immune responses. Through interaction with a wide range of glycosylated receptors bearing complex branched N-glycans and core 2-O-glycans, these endogenous lectins trigger distinct signaling programs thereby controling immune cell activation, differentiation, recruitment and survival. Given the unique features of mucosal inflammation and the differential expression of galectins throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we discuss here key findings on the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease (CeD) patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Adelaide Tawiah, Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Hayley Gorman, Manish Kumar, Sameer Tiwari, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is a large glycoprotein produced by goblet cells that forms the protective mucus blanket overlying the intestinal epithelium as the first line of innate host defense. High MUC2 production in inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis depletes goblet cells and the mucus layer by an unknown mechanism. Here, we analyzed the effect of high MUC2 biosynthesis on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis in goblet cells using a high MUC2-producing human goblet cell line (HT29-H) and a HT29-H clone (HT29-L) silenced for MUC2 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Domenique D Zomer-van Ommen, Eyleen de Poel, Evelien Kruisselbrink, Hugo Oppelaar, Annelotte M Vonk, Hettie M Janssens, Cornelis K van der Ent, Marne C Hagemeijer, Jeffrey M Beekman
BACKGROUND: New functional assays using primary human intestinal adult stem cell cultures can be valuable tools to study epithelial defects in human diseases such as cystic fibrosis. METHODS: CFTR-mediated ion transport was measured in rectal organoid-derived monolayers grown from subjects with various CFTR mutations and compared to donor-matched intestinal current measurements (ICM) in rectal biopsies and forskolin-induced swelling of rectal organoids. RESULTS: Rectal organoid-derived monolayers were generated within four days...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Albert J Jr Fornace, Kamal Datta
Carbon irradiation due to its higher biological effectiveness relative to photon radiation is a concern for toxicity to proliferative normal gastrointestinal (GI) tissue after radiotherapy and long-duration space missions such as mission to Mars. Although radiation-induced oxidative stress is linked to chronic diseases such as cancer, effects of carbon irradiation on normal GI tissue have not been fully understood. This study assessed and compared chronic oxidative stress in mouse intestine and colon after different doses of carbon and γ radiation, which are qualitatively different...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Mabrouka Salem, Alain Tremblay, Julie Pelletier, Bernard Robaye, Jean Sévigny
In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular nucleotides in chemokine (KC, MIP-2, MCP-1, and CXCL10) expression and secretion by murine primary intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with a focus on P2Y6 receptors. qRT-PCR experiments showed that P2Y6 was the dominant nucleotide receptor expressed in mouse IEC. In addition, the P2Y6 ligand UDP induced expression and secretion of CXCL10. For the other studies, we took advantage of mice deficient in P2Y6 ( P2ry6 -/- ). Similar expression levels of P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2X2, P2X4, and A2A were detected in P2ry6 -/- and WT IEC...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ilsong Lee, Sung-Hyun Kim, Muruganantham Rethinasabapathy, Yuvaraj Haldorai, Go-Woon Lee, Sang Rak Choe, Sung-Chan Jang, Sung-Min Kang, Young-Kyu Han, Changhyun Roh, Wan-Seob Cho, Yun Suk Huh
In the present study, we successfully synthesized a porous three-dimensional Prussian blue-cellulose aerogel (PB-CA) composite and used it as a decorporation agent for the selective removal of ingested cesium ions (Cs+ ) from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The safety of the PB-CA composite was evaluated through an in vitro cytotoxicity study using macrophage-like THP-1 cells and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. The results revealed that the PB-CA composite was not cytotoxic. An adsorption study to examine the efficiency of the decorporation agent was conducted using a simulated intestinal fluid (SIF)...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qiongyuan Hu, Jianan Ren, Guanwei Li, Jie Wu, Xiuwen Wu, Gefei Wang, Guosheng Gu, Huajian Ren, Zhiwu Hong, Jieshou Li
Disruption of the mucosal barrier following intestinal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) is life threatening in clinical practice. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress significantly contribute to the early phase of I/R injury and amplify the inflammatory response. MitoQ is a mitochondrially targeted antioxidant that exerts protective effects following I/R injury. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether and how MitoQ protects intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from I/R injury. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that MitoQ pretreatment downregulated I/R-induced oxidative stress and stabilized the intestinal barrier, as evidenced by MitoQ-treated I/R mice exhibiting attenuated intestinal hyperpermeability, inflammatory response, epithelial apoptosis, and tight junction damage compared to controls...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Liwei Liu, Jihong Yao, Zhenlu Li, Guo Zu, Dongcheng Feng, Yang Li, Wasim Qasim, Su Zhang, Tong Li, Huizhi Zeng, Xiaofeng Tian
Impairment in gut barrier function induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intestinal barrier function requires the tight coordination of epithelial migration, proliferation and differentiation. We previously observed that nuclear receptor-related protein 1 (nurr1)-mediated proliferative pathway was impaired in intestinal I/R injury. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of nurr1 on intestinal barrier function and to evaluate microRNA (miRNA)-nurr1-mediated restoration of intestinal barrier function in intestinal I/R injury...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Davide Di Fusco, Vincenzo Dinallo, Ivan Monteleone, Federica Laudisi, Irene Marafini, Eleonora Franzè, Antonio Di Grazia, Rami Dwairi, Alfredo Colantoni, Angela Ortenzi, Carmine Stolfi, Giovanni Monteleone
Metformin, a hypoglycemic drug used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, regulates also inflammatory pathways. By using several models of intestinal inflammation, we examined whether metformin exerts anti-inflammatory effects and investigated the basic mechanism by which metformin blocks pathologic signals. Colitic mice given metformin exhibited less colonic inflammation and increased expression of active AMP-activated protein kinase, a mediator of the metabolic effects of metformin, in both epithelial and lamina propria compartments...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Anita Ferraretto, Michela Bottani, Paola De Luca, Laura Cornaghi, Francesca Arnaboldi, Margherita Maggioni, Amelia Fiorilli, Elena Donetti
An intestinal 70/30 Caco2/HT-29 co-culture was set up starting from the parental populations of differentiated cells to mimic the human intestinal epithelium. Co-culture was harvested at confluence 0 (T0) and at 3, 6, 10 and 14 days of post-confluence after plating (T3, T6, T10 and T14, respectively) for morphological and functional analysis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed different features from T0 to T14: microvilli and a complete junctional apparatus from T6, mucus granules from T3, as also confirmed by PAS/Alcian Blue staining...
March 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Ji Dong, Yuqiong Hu, Xiaoying Fan, Xinglong Wu, Yunuo Mao, Boqiang Hu, Hongshan Guo, Lu Wen, Fuchou Tang
BACKGROUND: Organogenesis is crucial for proper organ formation during mammalian embryonic development. However, the similarities and shared features between different organs and the cellular heterogeneity during this process at single-cell resolution remain elusive. RESULTS: We perform single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of 1916 individual cells from eight organs and tissues of E9.5 to E11.5 mouse embryos, namely, the forebrain, hindbrain, skin, heart, somite, lung, liver, and intestine...
March 14, 2018: Genome Biology
Yu-Ju Peng, Tang-Long Shen, Yu-Shan Chen, Harry John Mersmann, Bing-Hsien Liu, Shih-Torng Ding
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipokine derived from adipocytes. It binds to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and R2) to exert its function in regulating whole-body energy homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the role of ADN-AdipoR1 signaling in intestinal inflammation is controversial, and its role in the regulation of neutrophils is still unclear. Our goal was to clarify the role of AdipoR1 signaling in colitis and the effects on neutrophils. METHODS: We generated porcine AdipoR1 transgenic mice (pAdipoR1 mice) and induced murine colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to study the potential role of AdipoR1 in inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Xiu-Ting Yu, Yi-Fei Xu, Yan-Feng Huang, Chang Qu, Lie-Qiang Xu, Zi-Ren Su, Hui-Fang Zeng, Lin Zheng, Tie-Gang Yi, Hui-Lin Li, Jian-Ping Chen, Xiao-Jun Zhang
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing disease without satisfactory treatments, in which intestinal inflammation and disrupted intestinal epithelial barrier are two main pathogeneses triggering UC. Berberrubine (BB) is deemed as one of the major active metabolite of berberine (BBR), a naturally-occurring isoquinoline alkaloid with appreciable anti-UC effect. This study aimed to comparatively investigate the therapeutic effects of BB and BBR on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model, and explore the potential underlying mechanism...
2018: PloS One
Xiaopeng Tang, Bo Liu, Xiangrong Wang, Qifang Yu, Rejun Fang
The epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been widely used for protection of stress-induced intestinal mucosa dysfunction. However, whether EGF would alleviate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis in porcine intestine is not yet known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGF on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced induction of oxidative stress and ensuing apoptosis in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. The present study showed that EGF significantly increased cell viability and decreased the LPS-induced induction of apoptosis, dehydrogenase (LDH) release and malonaldehyde (MDA) production...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Genia Dubrovsky, James C Y Dunn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the notable structures and pathways in intestinal epithelial growth before presenting the current main areas of active research in intestinal regeneration. As a rapidly advancing field, a number of breakthroughs have recently been made related to the culture of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and to the engineering of intestinal tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: ISCs can be derived from fibroblasts and can be cultured in hydrogels under xenogeneic-free conditions...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Mehmet Özbek, Emel Ergün, Feyzullah Beyaz, Levent Ergün, Nuh Y Ld R M, Özge Özgenç, Füsun Erhan
The object of this study was to describe the prenatal development and histochemical properties of mucins in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. To determine changes in the mucin profile, the sections were stained with specific histochemical stains for carbohydrates. While neutral and mixed mucins were observed in the superficial epithelial cells of the abomasal pyloric region, acidic mucins were detected in the secretory ducts and corpus of the glands. Acidic mucins consisted predominantly of sialomucins. In the duodenal villi, the number of goblet cells containing neutral mucins increased toward the end of gestation, whereas Brunner's glands contained acidic mucins until the 95th day of gestation and both acidic and neutral mucins thereafter...
March 14, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Simona Adesso, Rosario Russo, Andrea Quaroni, Giuseppina Autore, Stefania Marzocco
Astragalus membranaceus , dried root extract, also known as Astragali radix , is used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic remedy. Moreover, it has been reported that Astragalus membranaceus could attenuate intestinal inflammation; however, the underlying mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated Astragalus membranaceus extract (5-100 µg/mL) in a model of inflammation and oxidative stress for IECs. We showed that Astragalus membranaceus extract reduced the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide from E...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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