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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636192/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-stem-cell-based-approaches-to-regenerate-the-barrier
#1
REVIEW
Fredrik E O Holmberg, Jannie Pedersen, Peter Jørgensen, Christoffer Soendergaard, Kim B Jensen, Ole H Nielsen
Disruption of normal barrier function is a fundamental factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, which includes increased epithelial cell death, modified mucus configuration, altered expression and distribution of tight junction-proteins, along with a decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#2
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632732/fructo-oligosaccharides-and-intestinal-barrier-function-in-a-methionine-choline-deficient-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Kotaro Matsumoto, Mayuko Ichimura, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yuki Moritoki, Hiromichi Tsunashima, Katsuhisa Omagari, Masumi Hara, Ichiro Yasuda, Hiroshi Miyakawa, Kentaro Kikuchi
Impairments in intestinal barrier function, epithelial mucins, and tight junction proteins have been reported to be associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides restore balance in the gastrointestinal microbiome. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharides on intestinal barrier function and steatohepatitis in methionine-choline-deficient mice. Three groups of 12-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were studied for 3 weeks; specifically, mice were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet, a methionine-choline-deficient diet plus 5% fructo-oligosaccharides in water, or a normal control diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630067/sipa-activation-of-caspase-3-is-a-decisive-mediator-of-host-cell-survival-at-early-stages-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#4
Anne McIntosh, Lynsey M Meikle, Michael Ormsby, Beth A McCormick, John M Christie, James M Brewer, Mark Roberts, Daniel M Wall
Salmonella invasion protein A (SipA) is a dual function effector protein that plays roles in both actin polymerization and caspase-3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells. To date its function in other cell types has remained largely unknown despite its expression in multiple cell types and its extracellular secretion during infection. Here we show that in macrophages SipA induces increased caspase-3 activation early in infection. This activation required a threshold level of SipA linked to multiplicity of infection and may be a limiting factor controlling bacterial numbers in infected macrophages...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630013/receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-vicilin-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-larval-midgut-epithelial-cells
#5
Daniele Kunz, Gabriel B Oliveira, Adriana F Uchôa, Richard I Samuels, Maria Lígia R Macedo, Carlos P Silva
The transport of proteins across the intestinal epithelium of insects is still not well understood. There is evidence that vicilin, a major storage protein of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata), is internalized in larvae of the seed-beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been reported that this vicilin interacts with proteins present in the microvillar membranes of columnar cells along the digestive tract of the larvae. In the present work, we studied the cellular pathway involved in endocytosis of vicilin in larval C...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628110/colonic-organoids-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modeling-colorectal-cancer-and-drug-testing
#6
Miguel Crespo, Eduardo Vilar, Su-Yi Tsai, Kyle Chang, Sadaf Amin, Tara Srinivasan, Tuo Zhang, Nina H Pipalia, Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Mavee Witherspoon, Miriam Gordillo, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Frederick R Maxfield, Steven Lipkin, Todd Evans, Shuibing Chen
With the goal of modeling human disease of the large intestine, we sought to develop an effective protocol for deriving colonic organoids (COs) from differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Extensive gene and immunohistochemical profiling confirmed that the derived COs represent colon rather than small intestine, containing stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and the expected spectrum of differentiated cells, including goblet and endocrine cells. We applied this strategy to iPSCs derived from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP-iPSCs) harboring germline mutations in the WNT-signaling-pathway-regulator gene encoding APC, and we generated COs that exhibit enhanced WNT activity and increased epithelial cell proliferation, which we used as a platform for drug testing...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627600/microrna%C3%A2-7%C3%A2-5p-regulates-the-expression-of-tff3-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
Jing Guo, Mei Sun, Xu Teng, Lingfen Xu
Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) serves an important role in intestinal mucosal damage and healing, and contributes to the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to determine the association between TFF3 and microRNA‑7‑5p (miR‑7‑5p) in IBD. Tissue immunohistochemistry was applied to evaluate the relative expression of TFF3, and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of miR‑7‑5p in lesional tissue obtained from patients with IBD and healthy control tissues...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627487/epicellular-coccidiosis-in-goldfish
#8
Kálmán Molnár, Csaba Székely
In a goldfish stock held in a pet fish pond, heavy coccidian infection, caused by an epicellularly developing Goussia species, appeared in April of 3 consecutive years (2014 to 2016). The shape and size of the oocysts resembled those of an inadequately described species, Goussia carassiusaurati (Romero-Rodriguez, 1978). In histological sections, gamogonic and sporogonic stages infested mostly the second fifth of the intestine, where almost all epithelial cells were infected. Both gamonts and young oocysts occurred intracellularly but in an extracytoplasmal position, seemingly outside the cells...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627169/influence-of-the-fruit-juice-carriers-on-the-ability-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-dsm20205-to-improve-in-vitro-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-its-probiotic-properties
#9
Estefanía Valero-Cases, Nicole Roy, Maria Jose Frutos, Rachel Anderson
This study investigates the influence of tomato and feijoa juices as fermentable carriers of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP DSM20205) on the ability of the bacterium to improve intestinal barrier function using the trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay in an apical anaerobic model. The survival of LP DSM20205 in different fruit juices during in vitro digestion, its adhesion capacity and potential cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cells were also studied. The results showed that carrier fruit juices have a significant influence on LP DSM20205 growth, survival during in vitro digestion, adhesion capacity and TEER...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627054/effect-of-moringa-oleifera-leaf-powder-supplementation-on-growth-performance-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broiler-chickens
#10
I Khan, H Zaneb, S Masood, M S Yousaf, H F Rehman, H Rehman
Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#11
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625152/lipid-oxidation-products-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammation-related-gut-diseases
#12
Barbara Sottero, Daniela Rossin, Giuseppe Poli, Fiorella Biasi
A defective mucosal barrier function is the principal cause of the uncontrolled onset and progression of a number of human inflammatory gut diseases, most of which are characterized by chronic intermittent immune and inflammatory responses leading to structural intestinal damage, which can represent a potential risk for colorectal cancer development. During the active disease phase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and the induction of oxidative reactions by activated leukocytes and epithelial cells represent the main event in intestinal inflammation...
June 19, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624121/leptin-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-central-nervous-system-digestive-organs-and-gonads-of-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#13
Jaruwan Poljaroen, Yotsawan Tinikul, Ruchanok Tinikul, Panat Anurucpreeda, Prasert Sobhon
Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin...
June 14, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622850/infection-of-porcine-precision-cut-intestinal-slices-by-transmissible-gastroenteritis-coronavirus-demonstrates-the-importance-of-the-spike-protein-for-enterotropism-of-different-virus-strains
#14
Tanja Krimmling, Andreas Beineke, Christel Schwegmann-Weßels
TGEV is a coronavirus that is still widely spread in pig farming. On molecular level this virus has been studied in detail. However, studying TGEV infection within the complexity of the porcine intestinal epithelium reveals difficulties due to limiting infection models. Here we established a new ex vivo model to analyze the enterotropism of TGEV in porcine intestinal tissue. Precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were produced and ATP level was measured to proof vitality of the slices. ATP measurements and HE staining revealed living tissue in culture for up to 24h...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622393/giardia-co-infection-promotes-the-secretion-of-antimicrobial-peptides-beta-defensin-2-and-trefoil-factor-3-and-attenuates-attaching-and-effacing-bacteria-induced-intestinal-disease
#15
Anna Manko, Jean-Paul Motta, James A Cotton, Troy Feener, Ayodele Oyeyemi, Bruce A Vallance, John L Wallace, Andre G Buret
Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622070/loop-ileostomy-mediated-fecal-stream-diversion-is-associated-with-microbial-dysbiosis
#16
Emma L Beamish, Judith Johnson, Elisabeth J Shaw, Nigel A Scott, Arnab Bhowmick, Rachael J Rigby
Loop ileostomy is an effective procedure to protect downstream intestinal anastomoses. Ileostomy reversal surgery is often carried out within 12 months of formation but is associated with substantial morbidity due to severe post-operative complications. Distal ileum is deprived of enteral nutrition and rendered inactive, often becoming atrophied and fibrotic. This study aimed to investigate the microbial and morphological changes that occur in the defunctioned ileum following loop ileostomy-mediated faecal stream diversion...
June 16, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#17
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618099/epec-effector-espf-promotes-crumbs3-endocytosis-and-disrupts-epithelial-cell-polarity
#18
Rocio Tapia, Sarah E Kralicek, Gail A Hecht
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type three secretion system to inject effector proteins into host intestinal epithelial cells causing diarrhea. EPEC infection redistributes basolateral proteins β1-integrin and Na(+) /K(+) ATPase to the apical membrane of host cells. The Crumbs (Crb) polarity complex (Crb3/Pals1/Patj) is essential for epithelial cell polarization and tight junction (TJ) assembly. Here we demonstrate that EPEC displaces Crb3 and Pals1 from the apical membrane to the cytoplasm of cultured intestinal epithelial cells and colonocytes of infected mice...
June 15, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617330/identification-of-pathogenic-factors-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-using-impedimetric-sensor-equipped-with-biomimetic-surfaces
#19
Duyen Thi Ngoc Huynh, Ah-Young Kim, Young-Rok Kim
K.pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections, such as, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic shock, and gastro intestinal disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, and fimbriae are recognized major virulence factors of K.pneumoniae and play key roles during early stages of infections. In this study, we functionalized the surface of gold electrode with mannose and mucin to monitor the adhesion-associated virulence factors of K.pneumoniae. The binding characteristics of K...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616962/size-dependent-translocation-of-nanoemulsions-via-oral-delivery
#20
Fei Xia, Wufa Fan, Sifan Jiang, Yuhua Ma, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Ejaj Ahmad, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
The in vivo translocation of nanoemulsions was tracked by imaging tools with emphasis on the size effect. To guarantee accurate identification of nanoemulsions in vivo, water-quenching environment-responsive near-infrared fluorescent probes were used to label nanoemulsions. Imaging evidence confirms prominent digestion in gastrointestinal tract and oral absorption of integral nanoemulsions that survive digestion by enteric epithelia in a size-dependent way. In general, reducing particle size leads to slowed in vitro lipolysis and in vivo digestion, prolonged lifetime in small intestine, increased enteric epithelial uptake, and enhanced transportation to various organs...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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