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hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769708/maternal-supraphysiological-hypercholesterolemia-associates-with-endothelial-dysfunction-of-the-placental-microvasculature
#1
Bárbara Fuenzalida, Bastián Sobrevia, Claudette Cantin, Lorena Carvajal, Rocío Salsoso, Jaime Gutiérrez, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Luis Sobrevia, Andrea Leiva
Maternal physiological or supraphysiological hypercholesterolemia (MPH, MSPH) occurs during pregnancy. MSPH is associated with foetal endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, the potential effects of MSPH on placental microvasculature are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether MSPH alters endothelial function in the placental microvasculature both ex vivo in venules and arterioles from the placental villi and in vitro in primary cultures of placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMEC)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753733/coronary-computed-tomographic-angiography-findings-and-their-therapeutic-implications-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-lessons-from-the-safeheart-study
#2
Leopoldo Pérez de Isla, Rodrigo Alonso, Ovidio Muñiz-Grijalvo, José Luis Díaz-Díaz, Daniel Zambón, José Pablo Miramontes, Francisco Fuentes, José Juan Gómez de Diego, Aurora González-Estrada, Nelva Mata, Adriana Saltijeral, Manuel Barreiro, Marta Tomás, Raimundo de Andrés, Rosa Argüeso, Maria Pilar Serrano Gotarredona, Silvia Navarro Herrero, Rosario J Perea Palazón, Teresa M de Caralt, Luisa Arrojo Suárez de Centi, Svetlana Zhilina, Simona Espejo Pérez, Teresa Padró, Pedro Mata
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic disease. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) can assess preclinical coronary atherosclerosis. OBJECTIVES: To describe coronary CTA findings in asymptomatic molecularly defined FH individuals, to identify those factors related to its presence and extension, and to assess the impact of these results in patients' care and estimated risk. METHODS: Four hundred and forty individuals with FH, without clinical cardiovascular disease, were consecutively enrolled and underwent a coronary CTA that was used to analyze coronary atherosclerosis based on coronary calcium score (CCS), sum of stenosis severity, and plaque composition sum (PCS)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737876/microrna-221-222-expression-in-atherosclerotic-coronary-artery-plaque-and-peripheral-blood
#3
Aslıhan Esra Bildirici, Serdal Arslan, Nil Özbilüm Şahin, Öcal Berkan, Osman Beton, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arterial wall with predilection to some sites on others. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of the non-coding RNAs regulating the target gene expression at post-transcriptional level. Different miRNAs were found at distinct stages of plaque development and expression of miRNAs' might play an important role in the local behaviour of atherosclerotic plaques. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate and compare mirR-221/222 expression levels in tissues and in circulation in patients with and without overt atherosclerosis...
May 8, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658561/plasma-cholesterol-lowering-in-an-angii%C3%A2-infused-atherosclerotic-mouse-model-with-moderate-hypercholesterolemia
#4
Aránzazu Rossignoli, Emina Vorkapic, Anders Wanhainen, Toste Länne, Josefin Skogberg, Erika Folestad, Dick Wågsäter
Atherosclerosis is the main underlying causes of cardiovascular disease. There is a well‑established association between high blood cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, atherosclerosis has been proposed to augment abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. As patients with AAA often have parallel atherosclerotic disease and are therefore often on cholesterol‑lowering therapy, it is not possible to fully address the independent effects of plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) treatment on AAA...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615924/protective-role-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-in-endothelial-dysfunction-and-insulin-induced-vasodilatation-of-hypercholesterolemic-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#5
Natali Baltieri, Daniele M Guizoni, Jamaira A Victorio, Ana P Davel
Background: Endothelial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Vascular insulin resistance might contribute to a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, leading to impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in cardiometabolic diseases. Because perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) controls endothelial function and NO bioavailability, we hypothesized a role for this fat deposit in the vascular complications associated with the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated the potential involvement of PVAT in the early endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-KO)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572319/ossabaw-pigs-with-a-pcsk9-gain-of-function-mutation-develop-accelerated-coronary-atherosclerotic-lesions-a-novel-model-for-preclinical-studies
#6
Fang Yuan, Liang Guo, Kyoung-Ha Park, John R Woollard, Kwon Taek-Geun, Kai Jiang, Tamene Melkamu, Bin Zang, Samantha L Smith, Scott C Fahrenkrug, Frank D Kolodgie, Amir Lerman, Renu Virmani, Lilach O Lerman, Daniel F Carlson
BACKGROUND: Ossabaw pigs are unique miniature swine with genetic predisposition to develop metabolic syndrome and coronary atherosclerosis after extended periods receiving atherogenic diets. We have hypothesized that transgenic Ossabaw swine expressing chimp PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9) containing the D374Y gain of function would develop familial hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery plaques more rapidly than Landrace swine with the same transgene. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ossabaw and Landrace PCSK9 gain-of-function founders were generated by Sleeping Beauty transposition and cloning...
March 23, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525223/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a%C3%A2-activity-is-increased-in-patients-with-definite-familial-hypercholesterolemia-compared-with-other-forms-of-hypercholesterolemia
#7
A Mattina, D Rosenbaum, R Bittar, D Bonnefont-Rousselot, D Noto, M Averna, E Bruckert, P Giral
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 ) plays a key role in atherosclerosis development. It is considered a marker of increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and plaque vulnerability. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a higher prevalence of early CVD. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in Lp-PLA2 activity in a population of hypercholesterolemic patients with and without definite FH...
May 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472231/carotid-artery-remodeling-is-segment-specific-an-in-vivo-study-by-vessel-wall-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Hiroko Watase, Jie Sun, Daniel S Hippe, Niranjan Balu, Feiyu Li, Xihai Zhao, Venkatesh Mani, Zahi A Fayad, Valentin Fuster, Thomas S Hatsukami, Chun Yuan
OBJECTIVE: Early atherosclerosis is often undetected due in part to compensatory enlargement of the outer wall, termed positive remodeling. Variations in hemodynamic conditions and clinical factors influence the patterns of remodeling. The carotid artery provides an opportunity to examine these variations because of the unique geometry of the carotid bulb. This study aimed to determine differences in remodeling of the common, internal, and bifurcation segments of the carotid using magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459468/genetics-lifestyle-and-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-in-young-and-apparently-healthy-women
#9
Jan-Willem Balder, Antoine Rimbert, Xiang Zhang, Martijn Viel, Roan Kanninga, Freerk van Dijk, Peter Lansberg, Richard Sinke, Jan Albert Kuivenhoven
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in cardiovascular trials and research. This study aims at a better understanding of lifestyle and genetic factors that affect LDL-C in young women. METHODS: We randomly selected for every year of age 8 women with LDL-C ≤1st percentile (≤50 mg/dL) and 8 women with LDL-C ≥99th percentile (≥186 mg/dL) from 28 000 female participants aged between 25 to 40 years of a population-based cohort study...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321129/novel-reversible-model-of-atherosclerosis-and-regression-using-oligonucleotide-regulation-of-the-ldl-receptor
#10
REVIEW
Debapriya Basu, Yunying Hu, Lesley-Ann Huggins, Adam E Mullick, Mark J Graham, Tomasz Wietecha, Shelley Barnhart, Allison Mogul, Katharina Pfeiffer, Andreas Zirlik, Edward A Fisher, Karin E Bornfeldt, Florian Willecke, Ira J Goldberg
RATIONALE: Animal models have been used to explore factors that regulate atherosclerosis. More recently, they have been used to study the factors that promote loss of macrophages and reduction in lesion size after lowering of plasma cholesterol levels. However, current animal models of atherosclerosis regression require challenging surgeries, time-consuming breeding strategies, and methods that block liver lipoprotein secretion. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a more direct or time-effective method to create and then reverse hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis via transient knockdown of the hepatic LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) followed by its rapid restoration...
February 16, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297961/influence-of-hypercholesterolemia-on-serum-antibodies-against-oxidized-ldl-in-children-and-adolescents
#11
Anastasia Garoufi, Antonios Marmarinos, Venetia-Maria Vraila, Stamatina Dimou, Athanasia Pagoni, Styliani Vorre, Irene Paraskakis, Dimitrios Gourgiotis
BACKGROUND: The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL; oxLDL) appears to play a key role in the early development of atherosclerosis. Increased serum antibodies against the oxLDL (anti-oxLDL antibodies) have been found in adults with atherosclerotic disease, as well as in healthy adults. The clinical significance and its precise role (atherogenic or atheroprotective), however, have not yet been clarified. This aim of this study was therefore to evaluate anti-oxLDL antibodies in healthy children and adolescents with and without hypercholesterolemia...
March 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175651/subclinical-cerebrovascular-disease-in-nafld-without-overt-risk-factors-for-atherosclerosis
#12
Lorena Airaghi, Mario Rango, Diletta Maira, Valentina Barbieri, Luca Valenti, Rosa Lombardi, Pietro Biondetti, Silvia Fargion, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is recognized not only as part of the metabolic syndrome but also as an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this study, NMR spectroscopy method, together with perfusion techniques, was used to detect subclinical brain vascular damage in subjects with NAFLD without overt atherosclerosis risk factors (i.e. hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity). RESULTS: The results suggest that subjects with histologically proven NAFLD have a reduced cerebral perfusion (CBFr) confined to limited brain areas, i...
January 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122890/microrna-30c-reduces-plasma-cholesterol-in-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemic-and-type-2-diabetic-mouse-models
#13
Sara Irani, Jahangir Iqbal, W James Antoni, Laraib Ijaz, M Mahmood Hussain
High plasma cholesterol levels are found in several metabolic disorders and their reductions are advocated to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. A way to lower plasma lipids is to curtail lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. We previously showed that microRNA (miR)-30c lowers diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J and Apoe -/- mice. Here, we tested the effect of miR-30c on plasma lipids, transaminases, and hepatic lipids in different mouse models. Hepatic delivery of miR-30c to chow-fed leptin-deficient ( ob / ob ) and leptin receptor-deficient ( db / db ) hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic mice reduced cholesterol in total plasma and VLDL/LDL by ∼28% and ∼25%, respectively, without affecting triglyceride and glucose levels...
January 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121499/atorvastatin-accelerates-clearance-of-lipoprotein-remnants-generated-by-activated-brown-fat-to-further-reduce-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis
#14
Geerte Hoeke, Yanan Wang, Andrea D van Dam, Isabel M Mol, Eveline Gart, Henk G Klop, Susan M van den Berg, Elsbet H Pieterman, Hans M G Princen, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Jimmy F P Berbée, Mariëtte R Boon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reduces both hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis by increasing the uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids by BAT, accompanied by formation and clearance of lipoprotein remnants. We tested the hypothesis that the hepatic uptake of lipoprotein remnants generated by BAT activation would be accelerated by concomitant statin treatment, thereby further reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. METHODS: APOE*3-Leiden...
December 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107848/treated-hypothyroidism-is-associated-with-cerebrovascular-disease-but-not-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults
#15
Willa D Brenowitz, Fang Han, Walter A Kukull, Peter T Nelson
Thyroid hormone disease is common among older adults and is associated with cognitive impairment. However, pathologic correlates are not well understood. We studied pathologic and clinical factors associated with hypothyroidism, the most common manifestation of thyroid disease, in research subjects seen annually for clinical evaluations at U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Thyroid disease and treatment status were assessed during clinician interviews. Among autopsied subjects, there were 555 participants with treated hypothyroidism and 2146 without known thyroid disease; hypothyroidism was associated with severe atherosclerosis (odds ratio: 1...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096854/lectin-like-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-1-promotes-endothelial-dysfunction-in-ldl-receptor-knockout-background
#16
Anja Hofmann, Coy Brunssen, David M Poitz, Heike Langbein, Ruth H Strasser, Thomas Henle, Ursula Ravens, Henning Morawietz
OBJECTIVE: Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized LDL in endothelial cells. LOX-1 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. The impact of LOX-1 on development of endothelial dysfunction in large vessels in absence or presence of atherosclerosis-prone conditions has not been studied to date. METHODS: Mice with endothelial cell-specific LOX-1 overexpression (bLOX-1tg) were analyzed. Wild-type (WT) mice served as controls...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068233/subclinical-target-organ-damage-in-subjects-with-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Oxana P Rotar, Maria A Boyarinova, Ekaterina V Moguchaia, Ekaterina P Kolesova, Anastasya M Erina, Vladislav N Solntsev, Alexandra O Konradi, Eugene V Shlyakhto
BACKGROUND: To assess the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components with target organ damage in a follow-up study of relatively healthy bank employers. METHODS: Out of 1600 random samples of office workers in Saint Petersburg (Russia), a group of 383 participants with at least one component of MS and without cardiovascular complications was selected (mean age 46.6 ± 9.0 years, 214 females (64.6%)). Follow-up visit was performed in 331 subjects...
October 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987749/different-manifestation-of-irradiation-induced-coronary-artery-disease-detected-with-coronary-computed-tomography-compared-with-matched-non-irradiated-controls
#18
Alexander R van Rosendael, Laurien A Daniëls, Aukelien C Dimitriu-Leen, Jeff M Smit, Philippe J van Rosendael, Martin J Schalij, Jeroen J Bax, Arthur J H A Scholte
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients who received chest irradiation for treatment of a malignancy are at increased risk for the development of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Little is known about the anatomical coronary artery plaque characteristics of irradiation induced coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate potential differences in the presence, extent, severity, composition and location of CAD in patients treated with mediastinal irradiation compared with non-irradiated controls matched on age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors...
October 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963918/comprehensive-lipid-and-metabolite-profiling-of-children-with-and-without-familial-hypercholesterolemia-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Jacob J Christensen, Stine M Ulven, Kjetil Retterstøl, Ingunn Narverud, Martin P Bogsrud, Tore Henriksen, Jens Bollerslev, Bente Halvorsen, Pål Aukrust, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), accelerated atherosclerosis, and premature cardiovascular disease. Whereas children with lifestyle-induced dyslipidemias often present with complex lipid abnormalities, children with FH have isolated hypercholesterolemia. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive profiling of FH children is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the lipid-related and metabolic alterations associated with elevated LDL-C in children with FH and healthy children...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910310/gugulipid-causes-hypercholesterolemia-leading-to-endothelial-dysfunction-increased-atherosclerosis-and-premature-death-by-ischemic-heart-disease-in-male-mice
#20
Andrea Leiva, Susana Contreras-Duarte, Ludwig Amigo, Esteban Sepúlveda, Mauricio Boric, Verónica Quiñones, Dolores Busso, Attilio Rigotti
For proper cholesterol metabolism, normal expression and function of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor, is required. Among the factors that regulate overall cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, the nuclear farnesoid X receptor plays an important role. Guggulsterone, a bioactive compound present in the natural product gugulipid, is an antagonist of this receptor. This natural product is widely used globally as a natural lipid-lowering agent, although its anti-atherogenic cardiovascular benefit in animal models or humans is unknown...
2017: PloS One
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