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hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655430/deuterium-reinforced-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-against-atherosclerosis-by-lowering-lipid-peroxidation-and-hypercholesterolemia
#1
Jimmy F P Berbée, Isabel M Mol, Ginger L Milne, Erik Pollock, Geerte Hoeke, Dieter Lütjohann, Claudia Monaco, Patrick C N Rensen, Lex H T van der Ploeg, Mikhail S Shchepinov
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxidative modification of lipoproteins is a crucial step in atherosclerosis development. Isotopic-reinforced polyunsaturated fatty acids (D-PUFAs) are more resistant to reactive oxygen species-initiated chain reaction of lipid peroxidation than regular hydrogenated (H-)PUFAs. We aimed at investigating the effect of D-PUFA treatment on lipid peroxidation, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis development. METHODS: Transgenic APOE*3-Leiden...
June 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640873/healthy-aging-of-the-left-ventricle-in-relationship-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#2
Chia-Ying Liu, Shenghan Lai, Nadine Kawel-Boehm, Harjit Chahal, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Joao A C Lima, David A Bluemke
BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship of cardiovascular structure and function to age is confounded by the high prevalence of traditional risk factors in the United States. The purpose of the study is to compare left ventricular (LV) and aortic structural, and functional parameters in individuals with and without traditional risk factors in a population-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: 3015 study participants (48% men, age 55-94, mean 69.01±9.17 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging from 2010-2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636844/clonal-hematopoiesis-and-risk-of-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease
#3
Siddhartha Jaiswal, Pradeep Natarajan, Alexander J Silver, Christopher J Gibson, Alexander G Bick, Eugenia Shvartz, Marie McConkey, Namrata Gupta, Stacey Gabriel, Diego Ardissino, Usman Baber, Roxana Mehran, Valentin Fuster, John Danesh, Philippe Frossard, Danish Saleheen, Olle Melander, Galina K Sukhova, Donna Neuberg, Peter Libby, Sekar Kathiresan, Benjamin L Ebert
BACKGROUND: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), which is defined as the presence of an expanded somatic blood-cell clone in persons without other hematologic abnormalities, is common among older persons and is associated with an increased risk of hematologic cancer. We previously found preliminary evidence for an association between CHIP and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the nature of this association was unclear. METHODS: We used whole-exome sequencing to detect the presence of CHIP in peripheral-blood cells and associated such presence with coronary heart disease using samples from four case-control studies that together enrolled 4726 participants with coronary heart disease and 3529 controls...
July 13, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567091/effect-of-rosuvastatin-on-bovine-pericardial-aortic-tissue-valve-calcification-in-a-rat-subdermal-implantation-model
#4
Seung Hyun Lee, Dae-Hyun Kim, Young-Nam Youn, Sak Lee, Hyun Chel Joo, Byung Chul Chang, Kyung-Jong Yoo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are pathophysiologic similarities between calcification and atherosclerosis because both are the product of an active inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of statin treatment on calcification in bovine pericardial tissue valves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to hypercholesterolemia induction and statin intake (Group 1, n=10: normal diet without statin treatment, Group 2, n=10: normal diet with statin treatment, Group 3, n=10: high fat diet without statin treatment, Group 4, n=10: high fat diet with statin treatment)...
May 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529918/advances-in-dyslipidemia-management-for-prevention-of-atherosclerosis-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Paul D Rosenblit, Robert S Greenfield
In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504688/accelerated-atherosclerosis-development-in-c57bl6-mice-by-overexpressing-aav-mediated-pcsk9-and-partial-carotid-ligation
#6
Sandeep Kumar, Dong-Won Kang, Amir Rezvan, Hanjoong Jo
Studying the role of a particular gene in atherosclerosis typically requires a time-consuming and often difficult process of generating double knockouts or transgenics on ApoE(-/-) or LDL receptor (LDLR)(-/-) background. Recently, it was reported that adeno-associated-virus-8 (AAV8)-mediated overexpression of PCSK9 (AAV8-PCSK9) rapidly induced hyperlipidemia. However, using this method in C57BL6 wild-type (C57) mice, it took ~3 months to develop atherosclerosis. Our partial carotid ligation model is used to rapidly develop atherosclerosis by inducing disturbed flow in the left common carotid artery within 2 weeks in ApoE(-/-) or LDLR(-/-) mice...
August 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502908/chronic-administration-of-antioxidant-resin-from-virola-oleifera-attenuates-atherogenesis-in-ldlr-mice
#7
Paola Nogueira Coutinho, Beatriz Peters Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel Pereira, Marcella Leite Porto, Arícia Leone Evangelista Monteiro de Assis, Afrânio Côgo Destefani, Silvana Santos Meyrelles, Elisardo Corral Vasquez, Breno Valentim Nogueira, Tadeu Uggere de Andrade, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Marcio Fronza, Thiago Melo Costa Pereira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Virola oleifera (Schott) A. C. Smith, Myristicaceae has been largely used in traditional folk medicine in Brazil as an anti-inflammatory agent and our previous data indicated the antioxidant properties in other oxidative stress-related models. However, its effects on atherosclerosis (AT) are not yet investigated. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the influence of resin from Virola oleifera (RV) on progression of AT in LDLr(-/-) mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456681/early-coronary-calcifications-are-related-to-cholesterol-burden-in-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#8
Antonio Gallo, Philippe Giral, Alain Carrié, Valérie Carreau, Sophie Béliard, Randa Bittar, Marianna Maranghi, Marcello Arca, Philippe Cluzel, Alban Redheuil, Eric Bruckert, David Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: The identification of high-risk patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) that may benefit from early treatment is challenging. Coronary Artery Calcification (CAC) score accounts for coronary atherosclerotic burden. It has proven its accuracy in cardiovascular risk assessment in the general population but data in HeFH are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess CAC prevalence and its relationship with lifelong cholesterol exposure, calculated by total cholesterol burden (TCB) in patients with HeFH...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420489/mast-cells-emerge-as-mediators-of-atherosclerosis-special-emphasis-on-il-37-inhibition
#9
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Gianfranco Lessiani, Spyridon K Kritas, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Aessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
In atherosclerosis lipoproteins stimulate the innate immune response, leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Hypercholesterolemia may activate the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, which induces TNF release in mast cells (MCs). IL-1 and IL-1 family members orchestrate a broadening list of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis. MCs are implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases including allergy and inflammation. Activated MCs, located perivascularly, contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis by producing inflammatory cytokines...
June 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368771/investigational-therapies-for-hypercholesterolemia
#10
REVIEW
Gerald H Tomkin, Daphne Owens
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are of increasing concern, not only to patients but also to the health care profession and service providers. The preventative benefit of treatment of dyslipidaemia is unquestioned but there is a large, so far unmet need to improve clinical outcome. There are exciting new discoveries of targets that may translate into improved clinical outcome. Areas covered: This review highlights some new pathways in cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism and examines new targets, new drugs and new molecules...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321823/cardiovascular-disease-and-resuscitated-septic-shock-lead-to-the-downregulation-of-the-h2s-producing-enzyme-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-in-the-porcine-coronary-artery
#11
Tamara Merz, Tatjana Stenzel, Benedikt Nußbaum, Martin Wepler, Csaba Szabo, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Oscar McCook
BACKGROUND: Downregulation of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing enzymes cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and/or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) is associated with chronic cardiovascular pathologies. Nevertheless, equivocal data are available on both the expression and function of these enzymes in coronary arteries (CA). We recently reported that atherosclerotic pigs subjected to sepsis developed impaired cardiac function, which coincided with decreased myocardial CSE expression and increased nitrotyrosine formation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161202/analysis-of-children-and-adolescents-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#12
Ilenia Minicocci, Simone Pozzessere, Cristina Prisco, Anna Montali, Alessia di Costanzo, Eliana Martino, Francesco Martino, Marcello Arca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of criteria based on child-parent assessment in predicting familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)-causative mutations in unselected children with hypercholesterolemia. STUDY DESIGN: LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 genes were sequenced in 78 children and adolescents (mean age 8.4 ± 3.7 years) with clinically diagnosed FH. The presence of polygenic hypercholesterolemia was further evaluated by genotyping 6 low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-raising single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122565/hypolipidemic-antioxidant-and-anti-atherosclerogenic-effect-of-aqueous-extract-leaves-of-cassia-occidentalis-linn-caesalpiniaceae-in-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemic-rats
#13
Ntchapda Fidèle, Barama Joseph, Talla Emmanuel, Dimo Théophile
BACKGROUND: Hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress are major risk factors for atherosclerosis, and all three are among the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Cassia occidentalis aqueous extract has been used in African traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. This study was undertaken to evaluate the hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic properties of the aqueous extract of the leaves of C. occidentalis in rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC)...
January 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881259/lifestyle-related-metabolic-disorders-osteoporosis-and-fracture-risk-in-asia-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Masayo Sato, Francis C Dehle, Alan J M Brnabic, Adele Weston, Russel Burge
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both lifestyle-related metabolic disorders and osteoporosis is increasing in Asia. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies examining disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism (type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome [MetS], and atherosclerosis) as risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture in Asian populations. Studies examining the relationship between metabolic disorders and bone mineral density (BMD) were also included...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860077/critical-in-vivo-roles-of-histamine-and-histamine-receptor-signaling-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Akihide Tanimoto, Yasuyuki Sasaguri
Histamine, a classic low-molecular-weight amine, is synthesized from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), and histamine-specific receptors (HRs) are essential for its actions. Our serial in vivo studies have uniquely reported that expression of histamine/HRs is variably identified in atherosclerotic lesions, and that HDC-gene knockout mice without histamine/HRs signaling show a marked reduction of atherosclerotic progression. These data have convinced us that histamine plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594539/pcsk9-and-lipoprotein-a-levels-are-two-predictors-of-coronary-artery-calcification-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#16
Rodrigo Alonso, Pedro Mata, Ovidio Muñiz, Francisco Fuentes-Jimenez, Jose Luis Díaz, Daniel Zambón, Marta Tomás, Cesar Martin, Thomas Moyon, Mikaël Croyal, Aurélie Thedrez, Gilles Lambert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to assess whether elevated PCSK9 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels associate with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a good marker of atherosclerosis burden, in asymptomatic familial hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: We selected 161 molecularly defined FH patients treated with stable doses of statins for more than a year. CAC was measured using the Agatston method and quantified as categorical variable. Fasting plasma samples were collected and analyzed for lipids and lipoproteins...
August 27, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367935/epigenetics-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-childhood
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Giuseppe Pannarale, Eliana Martino, Cristina Zanoni, Francesco M Perla, Paolo E Puddu, Francesco Barillà
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365390/microrna-30c-mimic-mitigates-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#18
Sara Irani, Xiaoyue Pan, Bailey C E Peck, Jahangir Iqbal, Praveen Sethupathy, M Mahmood Hussain
High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358129/the-prevalence-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-in-the-aortic-wall-and-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-scheduled-for-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#19
A Kuczaj, P J Stryjewski, M Fudal, D Domal-Kwiatkowska, B Ryfiński, E Sliupkas-Dyrda, S Smolik, L Węglarz, U Mazurek, E Nowalany-Kozielska
Some reports confirm a potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (ChP) in atherogenesis. In order to explore possible association between ChP and atherosclerosis, investigations were carried out in which the frequency of ChP in the arterial wall and peripheral blood was assessed in a group of patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 13 women and 44 men aged 61.8±6.5 (47-74), with previously diagnosed CAD, scheduled for planned coronary artery bypass grafting due to clinical indications...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279842/adding-carotid-total-plaque-area-to-the-framingham-risk-score-improves-cardiovascular-risk-classification
#20
Hernan A Perez, Nestor Horacio Garcia, John David Spence, Luis J Armando
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular events (CE) due to atherosclerosis are preventable. Identification of high-risk patients helps to focus resources on those most likely to benefit from expensive therapy. Atherosclerosis is not considered for patient risk categorization, even though a fraction of CE are predicted by Framingham risk factors. Our objective was to assess the incremental value of combining total plaque area (TPA) with the Framingham risk score (FramSc) using post-test probability (Ptp) in order to categorize risk in patients without CE and identify those at high risk and requiring intensive treatment...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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