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hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881259/lifestyle-related-metabolic-disorders-osteoporosis-and-fracture-risk-in-asia-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Toshitsugu Sugimoto, Masayo Sato, Francis C Dehle, Alan J M Brnabic, Adele Weston, Russel Burge
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both lifestyle-related metabolic disorders and osteoporosis is increasing in Asia. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies examining disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism (type 2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome [MetS], and atherosclerosis) as risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture in Asian populations. Studies examining the relationship between metabolic disorders and bone mineral density (BMD) were also included...
May 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860077/critical-in-vivo-roles-of-histamine-and-histamine-receptor-signaling-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Akihide Tanimoto, Yasuyuki Sasaguri
Histamine, a classic low-molecular-weight amine, is synthesized from L-histidine by histidine decarboxylase (HDC), and histamine-specific receptors (HRs) are essential for its actions. Our serial in vivo studies have uniquely reported that expression of histamine/HRs is variably identified in atherosclerotic lesions, and that HDC-gene knockout mice without histamine/HRs signaling show a marked reduction of atherosclerotic progression. These data have convinced us that histamine plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594539/pcsk9-and-lipoprotein-a-levels-are-two-predictors-of-coronary-artery-calcification-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#3
Rodrigo Alonso, Pedro Mata, Ovidio Muñiz, Francisco Fuentes-Jimenez, Jose Luis Díaz, Daniel Zambón, Marta Tomás, Cesar Martin, Thomas Moyon, Mikaël Croyal, Aurélie Thedrez, Gilles Lambert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to assess whether elevated PCSK9 and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels associate with coronary artery calcification (CAC), a good marker of atherosclerosis burden, in asymptomatic familial hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: We selected 161 molecularly defined FH patients treated with stable doses of statins for more than a year. CAC was measured using the Agatston method and quantified as categorical variable. Fasting plasma samples were collected and analyzed for lipids and lipoproteins...
August 27, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367935/epigenetics-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-childhood
#4
Francesco Martino, Alessandra Magenta, Giuseppe Pannarale, Eliana Martino, Cristina Zanoni, Francesco M Perla, Paolo E Puddu, Francesco Barillà
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365390/microrna-30c-mimic-mitigates-hypercholesterolemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#5
Sara Irani, Xiaoyue Pan, Bailey C E Peck, Jahangir Iqbal, Praveen Sethupathy, M Mahmood Hussain
High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358129/the-prevalence-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-in-the-aortic-wall-and-in-peripheral-blood-of-patients-scheduled-for-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#6
A Kuczaj, P J Stryjewski, M Fudal, D Domal-Kwiatkowska, B Ryfiński, E Sliupkas-Dyrda, S Smolik, L Węglarz, U Mazurek, E Nowalany-Kozielska
Some reports confirm a potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (ChP) in atherogenesis. In order to explore possible association between ChP and atherosclerosis, investigations were carried out in which the frequency of ChP in the arterial wall and peripheral blood was assessed in a group of patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 13 women and 44 men aged 61.8±6.5 (47-74), with previously diagnosed CAD, scheduled for planned coronary artery bypass grafting due to clinical indications...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279842/adding-carotid-total-plaque-area-to-the-framingham-risk-score-improves-cardiovascular-risk-classification
#7
Hernan A Perez, Nestor Horacio Garcia, John David Spence, Luis J Armando
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular events (CE) due to atherosclerosis are preventable. Identification of high-risk patients helps to focus resources on those most likely to benefit from expensive therapy. Atherosclerosis is not considered for patient risk categorization, even though a fraction of CE are predicted by Framingham risk factors. Our objective was to assess the incremental value of combining total plaque area (TPA) with the Framingham risk score (FramSc) using post-test probability (Ptp) in order to categorize risk in patients without CE and identify those at high risk and requiring intensive treatment...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241838/independent-link-between-levels-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-and-fabp4-in-a-general-population-without-medication
#8
Masato Furuhashi, Akina Omori, Megumi Matsumoto, Yu Kataoka, Marenao Tanaka, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Hideaki Yoshida, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Tetsuji Miura
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) binds to and degrades the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, leading to hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk. Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4/adipocyte FABP/aP2) is secreted from adipocytes in association with lipolysis, and circulating FABP4 has been reported to act as an adipokine for the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Elevated serum FABP4 level is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis...
July 15, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27236773/circulating-angiopoietin-2-levels-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-relation-to-carotid-and-aortic-intima-media-thickness
#9
Mohamed Abo El-Asrar, Nancy Samir Elbarbary, Eman Abdel Rahman Ismail, AlShaimaa Abo Bakr
BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-2 is a growth factor involved in the pathophysiology of vascular and inflammatory diseases such as arteriosclerosis. Carotid or aortic scans provide noninvasive screening tools for assessment of preclinical atherosclerosis in high-risk children. AIM: We assessed serum angiopoietin-2 in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus as a potential marker for vascular complications in relation to glycemic control, inflammation and vascular structure...
July 2016: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143680/akkermansia-muciniphila-protects-against-atherosclerosis-by-preventing-metabolic-endotoxemia-induced-inflammation-in-apoe-mice
#10
Jin Li, Shaoqiang Lin, Paul M Vanhoutte, Connie W Woo, Aimin Xu
BACKGROUND: Altered composition of the gut microbiota is involved in both the onset and progression of obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the link between gut microbiota and obesity-related cardiovascular complications has not been explored. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacterium with beneficial effects on metabolism, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Apoe(-/-) mice on normal chow diet or a Western diet were treated with A muciniphila by daily oral gavage for 8 weeks, followed by histological evaluations of atherosclerotic lesion in aorta...
June 14, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113136/antiatherosclerotic-effects-of-licorice-extract-supplementation-on-hypercholesterolemic-patients-decreased-cimt-reduced-plasma-lipid-levels-and-decreased-blood-pressure
#11
Yacov Fogelman, Diana Gaitini, Eli Carmeli
BACKGROUND: Ethanolic extract of licorice root has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in atherosclerotic mice and in both hypercholesterolemic and normal lipidemic humans. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of licorice-root extract on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in individuals with hypercholesterolemia. DESIGN: Individuals with hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.18 mmol/L [240 mg/dL]) and without significant stenosis were randomly allocated to two groups: an experimental group that consumed 0...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100924/prior-renovascular-hypertension-does-not-predispose-to-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#12
Martin Bødtker Mortensen, Line Nilsson, Tore G Larsen, Eirild Espeseth, Marie Bek, Martin M Bjørklund, Mette K Hagensen, Anne Wolff, Stine Gunnersen, Ernst-Martin Füchtbauer, Ebbe Boedtkjer, Jacob F Bentzon
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Although lowering blood pressure with antihypertensive drugs reduces the increased risk of ASCVD, residual increased risk still remains, suggesting that hypertension may cause chronic changes that promote atherosclerosis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that hypertension increases the susceptibility to atherosclerosis in mice even after a period of re-established normotension...
June 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26927337/hypercholesterolemia-up-regulates-the-expression-of-intermedin-and-its-receptor-components-in-the-aorta-of-rats-via-inducing-the-oxidative-stress
#13
Qingtao Meng, Di Shi, Jiayue Feng, Yanling Su, Yang Long, Sen He, Si Wang, Yong Wang, Xiangxun Zhang, Xiaoping Chen
OBJECTIVE: Hypercholesterolemia can cause damage to the artery. Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family. This study aims to investigate the aortic expression of IMD and its receptors in hypercholesterolemia without atherosclerosis. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed with high cholesterol diet, with or without simvastatin and vitamin C. Both the malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma and aorta were determined as the oxidative stress biomarkers...
2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925191/the-impact-of-lipoprotein-associated-oxidative-stress-on-cell-specific-microvesicle-release-in-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#14
M H Nielsen, H Irvine, S Vedel, B Raungaard, H Beck-Nielsen, A Handberg
Objective. Microvesicles (MVs) are small cell-derived particles shed upon activation. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) particularly when associated with Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX) predisposes to atherosclerosis, possibly through oxLDL-C interaction with the CD36 receptor. To investigate the hypothesis that MVs derived from cells involved in atherosclerosis are increased in FH and that CD36 expressing MVs (CD36+ MVs) may be markers of oxLDL-C-induced cell activation, cell-specific MVs were measured in FH patients with and without ATX and their association with atherogenic lipid profile was studied...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898081/relationship-between-age-and-thickness-of-carotid-arteries-in-a-population-without-risk-factors-for-atherosclerosis
#15
Krunoslav Buljan, Silva Butković Soldo, Davor Janculjak, Dragutin Kadojić, Marija Candrlić, Mirta Bensić, Vesna Buljan
The intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with risk factors for atherosclerosis and a predictor of vascular disease. The aim of the research was to determine the correlation of IMT and age, and above normal IMT values in healthy adults in Slavonia (eastern Croatia). The study included 275 subjects of both sexes, aged between 20 and 79, who had no clinical manifestations of vascular disease or presence of major risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking)...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26672044/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-deletion-decreases-heart-function-and-exercise-performance-in-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#16
Kiao Ling Liu, Laurence Canaple, Peggy Del Carmine, Karine Gauthier, Michel Beylot, Ming Lo
The deletion of thyroid hormone receptor-α (TRα) in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (ApoE(-/-)TRα(0/0)) accelerates the formation of atherosclerotic plaques without aggravation of hypercholesterolemia. To evaluate other predisposition risk factors to atherosclerosis in this model, we studied blood pressure (BP) and cardiac and vascular functions, as well as exercise tolerance in young adult ApoE(-/-)TRα(0/0) mice before the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Telemetric BP recorded for 4 consecutive days showed that the spontaneous systolic BP was slightly decreased in ApoE(-/-)TRα(0/0) compared with ApoE(-/-) mice associated with a reduced locomotor activity...
February 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26666465/assessment-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-using-computed-tomography-calcium-scores-in-patients-with-familial-and-nonfamilial-hypercholesterolemia
#17
Rafal Galaska, Dorota Kulawiak-Galaska, Agnieszka Wegrzyn, Bartosz Wasag, Magdalena Chmara, Justyna Borowiec, Michał Studniarek, Marcin Fijalkowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Marcin Gruchala
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare coronary calcium scores and aortic calcium scores between patients with severe hypercholesterolemia having a DNA-based diagnosis of FH (FH group) versus patients with severe hypercholesterolemia without the FH gene mutation (NFH group). METHOD: A total of 89 FH and 50 NFH patients underwent CT with coronary and thoracic aorta calcium scoring. Their CCS and TCS in ascending aorta (TCSasc) and descending aorta (TCSdesc) were determined and compared between the two patient groups...
May 2, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26625626/-chronic-fluoride-intoxication-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-atherosclerosis
#18
O Yu Korotenko, N I Panev, V V Zakharenkov, S N Filimonov, E A Semenova, R N Panev
In workers employed in the aluminum industry, the main harmful production factor is exposure to fluoride salts, which can cause chronic fluoride intoxication. For the assessment of the impact of chronic fluoride intoxication on the development of atherosclerosis, we conducted a comprehensive survey of 87 aluminum-metal makers with chronic fluoride intoxication and 43 aluminum-metal makers without occupational diseases, mean age--52.1 ± 0.4 years. There were considered the presence and severity of atherosclerosis of brachiocephalic arteries, and the arteries of the lower extremities in the studied group, there was evaluated the effect of other risk factors for atherosclerosis (smoking, presence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia)...
September 2015: Gigiena i Sanitariia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26520899/berberine-a-plant-alkaloid-with-lipid-and-glucose-lowering-properties-from-in%C3%A2-vitro-evidence-to-clinical-studies
#19
REVIEW
Angela Pirillo, Alberico Luigi Catapano
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline plant alkaloid endowed with several pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, glucose- and cholesterol-lowering, anti-tumoral and immunomodulatory properties. The main mechanism by which BBR exerts a protective role in atherosclerosis relates to its cholesterol-lowering activity. BBR significantly increases hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) expression and reduces the expression and secretion of the LDLR modulator proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)...
December 2015: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26435284/biosynthesis-of-tellurium-nanoparticles-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-the-effect-of-nanoparticle-enriched-probiotics-on-the-lipid-profiles-of-mice
#20
Ruholah Mirjani, Mohammad Ali Faramarzi, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Neda Setayesh, Mohammad Reza Khoshayand, Ahmad Reza Shahverdi
Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor contributing to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Lactic acid bacteria have attracted much attention regarding their promising effect on serum cholesterol levels. Tellurium (Te) is a rare element that has also gained considerable interest for its biological effects. There have been some recent in vivo reports on the reduction effect of Te on cholesterol content. In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1058 was employed for the intracellular biosynthesis of Te NPs...
October 2015: IET Nanobiotechnology
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