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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239775/changes-in-agonist-neural-drive-hypertrophy-and-pre-training-strength-all-contribute-to-the-individual-strength-gains-after-resistance-training
#1
Thomas G Balshaw, Garry J Massey, Thomas M Maden-Wilkinson, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Alexandra McKeown, Clare L Appleby, Jonathan P Folland
PURPOSE: Whilst neural and morphological adaptations following resistance training (RT) have been investigated extensively at a group level, relatively little is known about the contribution of specific physiological mechanisms, or pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength following training. This study investigated the contribution of multiple underpinning neural [agonist EMG (QEMGMVT), antagonist EMG (HEMGANTAG)] and morphological variables [total quadriceps volume (QUADSVOL), and muscle fascicle pennation angle (QUADSθ p)], as well as pre-training strength, to the individual changes in strength after 12 weeks of knee extensor RT...
February 26, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239657/tissue-resident-macrophages-can-contain-replication-competent-virus-in-antiretroviral-naive-siv-infected-asian-macaques
#2
Sarah R DiNapoli, Alexandra M Ortiz, Fan Wu, Kenta Matsuda, Homer L Twigg, Vanessa M Hirsch, Kenneth Knox, Jason M Brenchley
SIV DNA can be detected in lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages of chronically SIV-infected Asian macaques. These macrophages also contain evidence of recently phagocytosed SIV-infected CD4(+) T cells. Here, we examine whether these macrophages contain replication-competent virus, whether viral DNA can be detected in tissue-resident macrophages from antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-treated animals and humans, and how the viral sequences amplified from macrophages and contemporaneous CD4(+) T cells compare. In ARV-naive animals, we find that lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages contain replication-competent virus if they also contain viral DNA in ARV-naive Asian macaques...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239655/alterations-in-sarcomere-function-modify-the-hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic-transition-phase-of-mammalian-cardiomyocyte-development
#3
Benjamin R Nixon, Alexandra F Williams, Michael S Glennon, Alejandro E de Feria, Sara C Sebag, H Scott Baldwin, Jason R Becker
It remains unclear how perturbations in cardiomyocyte sarcomere function alter postnatal heart development. We utilized murine models that allowed manipulation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MYBPC3) expression at critical stages of cardiac ontogeny to study the response of the postnatal heart to disrupted sarcomere function. We discovered that the hyperplastic to hypertrophic transition phase of mammalian heart development was altered in mice lacking MYBPC3 and this was the critical period for subsequent development of cardiomyopathy...
February 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239167/fungal-infection-jnk-inhibitors-boost-antifungal-immunity
#4
Alexandra Flemming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238766/a-split-brain-case-study-on-the-hemispheric-lateralization-of-inhibitory-control
#5
Nicholas D'Alberto, Margaret Funnell, Alexandra Potter, Hugh Garavan
Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying inhibitory control is crucial given its role in various disease states and substance abuse/misuse. Neuroimaging research examining inhibitory control has yielded conflicting results on the relative importance of the left and right hemisphere during successful inhibition of a motor response. In the current study, a split-brain patient was examined in order to assess the independent inhibitory capabilities of each hemisphere. The patient's right hemisphere exhibited superior inhibitory ability compared to his left hemisphere on three inhibitory control tasks...
February 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238593/her2-enriched-subtype-as-a-predictor-of-pathological-complete-response-following-trastuzumab-and-lapatinib-without-chemotherapy-in-early-stage-her2-positive-breast-cancer-pamela-an-open-label-single-group-multicentre-phase-2-trial
#6
Antonio Llombart-Cussac, Javier Cortés, Laia Paré, Patricia Galván, Begoña Bermejo, Noelia Martínez, Maria Vidal, Sònia Pernas, Rafael López, Montserrat Muñoz, Paolo Nuciforo, Serafín Morales, Mafalda Oliveira, Lorena de la Peña, Alexandra Peláez, Aleix Prat
BACKGROUND: HER2-positive breast cancer consists of four intrinsic molecular subtypes-luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and basal-like-and a normal-like subtype, with the HER2-enriched subtype having the highest activation of the EGFR-HER2 pathway. We aimed to test the hypothesis that patients with the HER2-enriched subtype benefit the most from dual HER2 blockade. METHODS: PAMELA is an open-label, single-group, phase 2 trial done in 19 hospitals in Spain. We recruited female patients aged at least 18 years with previously untreated, centrally confirmed HER2-positive, stage I-IIIA invasive breast cancer regardless of hormone receptor status...
February 23, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237813/newly-acquired-audio-visual-associations-bias-perception-in-binocular-rivalry
#7
Wolfgang Einhäuser, Philipp Methfessel, Alexandra Bendixen
When distinct stimuli are presented to the two eyes, their mental representations alternate in awareness. Here, such "binocular rivalry" was used to investigate whether audio-visual associations bias visual perception. To induce two arbitrary associations, each between a tone and a grating of a specific color and motion direction, observers were required to respond whenever this combination was presented, but not for other tone-grating combinations. After about 20 minutes of this induction phase, each of the gratings was presented to one eye to induce rivalry, while either of the two tones or no tone was played...
February 22, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237512/depression-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-psoriatic-arthritis-among-patients-with-psoriasis-a-population-based-study
#8
Ryan T Lewinson, Isabelle A Vallerand, Mark W Lowerison, Laurie M Parsons, Alexandra D Frolkis, Gilaad G Kaplan, Andrew G M Bulloch, Mark G Swain, Scott B Patten, Cheryl Barnabe
The factors that contribute to the development of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among patients with psoriasis are not well known; however, systemic inflammation is believed to be important. On the basis of recent laboratory work demonstrating that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that patients with psoriasis who develop MDD are at increased risk of subsequently developing PsA. We utilized The Health Improvement Network, a primary care medical records database, to identify 73,447 individuals with psoriasis...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237458/inattention-and-reaction-time-variability-are-linked-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-volume-in-adolescents
#9
Matthew D Albaugh, Catherine Orr, Bader Chaarani, Robert R Althoff, Nicholas Allgaier, Nicholas D'Alberto, Kelsey Hudson, Scott Mackey, Philip A Spechler, Tobias Banaschewski, Rüdiger Brühl, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Anna Cattrell, Patricia J Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Jürgen Gallinat, Robert Goodman, Penny Gowland, Yvonne Grimmer, Andreas Heinz, Viola Kappel, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Jani Penttila, Luise Poustka, Tomáš Paus, Michael N Smolka, Maren Struve, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Alexandra S Potter
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have most commonly reported volumetric abnormalities in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortices. Few studies have examined the relationship between ADHD symptomatology and brain structure in population-based samples. We investigated the relationship between dimensional measures of ADHD symptomatology, brain structure, and reaction time variability-an index of lapses in attention. We also tested for associations between brain structural correlates of ADHD symptomatology and maps of dopaminergic gene expression...
January 13, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236965/ror-family-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#10
Sigmar Stricker, Verena Rauschenberger, Alexandra Schambony
ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236761/activity-associated-with-speech-articulation-measured-through-direct-cortical-recordings
#11
Alexandra Basilakos, Julius Fridriksson, Chris Rorden, Roozbeh Behroozmand, Taylor Hanayik, Thomas Naselaris, John Del Gaizo, Jesse Breedlove, W A Vandergrift, Leonardo Bonilha
The insula has been credited with a role in a number of functions, including speech production. Here, we recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) signals from the left insula during pseudoword articulation in two patients undergoing pre-surgical monitoring for the management of medically-intractable epilepsy. Event-related band power (ERBP) activity from electrodes implanted in the superior precentral gyrus of the insula (SPGI) was compared to that of other left hemisphere regions implicated in speech production...
February 22, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236663/catalytic-competence-structure-and-stability-of-the-cancer-associated-r139w-variant-of-the-human-nad-p-h-quinone-oxidoreductase-1-nqo1
#12
Wolf-Dieter Lienhart, Emilia Strandback, Venugopal Gudipati, Karin Koch, Alexandra Binter, Michael K Uhl, David M Rantasa, Benjamin Bourgeois, Tobias Madl, Klaus Zangger, Karl Gruber, Peter Macheroux
The human NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) is an essential enzyme in the antioxidant defence system. Furthermore, NQO1 protects tumour suppressors like p53, p33(ING)(1b) and p73 from proteasomal degradation. The activity of NQO1 is also exploited in chemotherapy for the activation of quinone-based treatments. Various single nucleotide polymorphisms are known, such as NQO1*2 and NQO1*3 yielding protein variants of NQO1 with single amino acid replacements, i.e. P187S and R139W, respectively...
February 25, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236481/biomass-assessment-of-microbial-surface-communities-by-means-of-hyperspectral-remote-sensing-data
#13
Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Max Paul, Alexandra Tamm, Jennifer Caesar, Burkhard Büdel, Paula Escribano, Joachim Hill, Bettina Weber
Dryland vegetation developed morphological and physiological strategies to cope with drought. However, as aridity increases, vascular plant coverage gets sparse and microbially-dominated surface communities (MSC), comprising cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and bryophytes together with heterotropic bacteria, archaea and fungi, gain relevance. Nevertheless, the relevance of MSC net primary productivity has only rarely been considered in ecosystem scale studies, and detailed information on their contribution to the total photosynthetic biomass reservoir is largely missing...
February 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236457/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-ischemic-events-in-men-and-women-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#14
Serdar Farhan, Usman Baber, Birgit Vogel, Melissa Aquino, Jaya Chandrasekhar, Michela Faggioni, Gennaro Giustino, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Joesph Sweeny, Srushti Shah, Pooja Vijay, Nitin Barman, Pedro Moreno, Jason Kovacic, George Dangas, Annapoorna Kini, Roxana Mehran, Samin Sharma
Studies have shown worse outcome for women compared with men after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed to investigate the risk of ischemic events after PCI in women versus men stratified by the presence or absence of DM. A total of 17,154 consecutive patients from a single-center PCI registry enrolled from January 2009 to December 2014 were categorized accordingly: female/non-DM, female/DM, male/non-DM, and male/DM. End points included death and myocardial infarction (MI) at 1 year...
January 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236264/does-substantiated-childhood-maltreatment-lead-to-poor-quality-of-life-in-young-adulthood-evidence-from-an-australian-birth-cohort-study
#15
Amanuel Alemu Abajobir, Steve Kisely, Gail Williams, Lane Strathearn, Alexandra Clavarino, Jake Moses Najman
PURPOSE: To examine the independent effect of single and multiple forms of substantiated childhood maltreatment (CM) on quality of life (QoL), controlling for selected potential confounders and/or covariates, and concurrent depressive symptoms. METHODS: We used data from a prospective pre-birth cohort of 8556 mothers recruited consecutively during their first antenatal clinic visit at the Mater Hospital from 1981 to 1983 in Brisbane, Australia. The data were linked to substantiated cases of CM reported to the child protection government agency up to the age of 14 years...
February 24, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236259/a-retrospective-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-study-of-the-effects-of-age-on-cns-vital-signs-scores-in-high-school-athletes
#16
Sharon D Rogers, Patrick J Smith, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
INTRODUCTION: Current recommendations for concussion management acknowledge the importance of objective assessments of neuropsychological (NP) ability, and computerized NP assessments have been widely integrated into the concussion management protocols of high schools. The optimal intervals for baseline test administration in high-school athletes are currently uncertain. The ability to accurately detect subtle NP deficits is particularly important for high-school athletes, in which concussions are increasingly recognized for adverse effects to the developing brain...
February 24, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235969/how-do-organisational-characteristics-influence-teamwork-and-service-delivery-in-lung-cancer-diagnostic-assessment-programmes-a-mixed-methods-study
#17
Gladys N Honein-AbouHaidar, Terri Stuart-McEwan, Tom Waddell, Alexandra Salvarrey, Jennifer Smylie, Mark J Dobrow, Melissa C Brouwers, Anna R Gagliardi
OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic assessment programmes (DAPs) can reduce wait times for cancer diagnosis, but optimal DAP design is unknown. This study explored how organisational characteristics influenced multidisciplinary teamwork and diagnostic service delivery in lung cancer DAPs. DESIGN: A mixed-methods approach integrated data from descriptive qualitative interviews and medical record abstraction at 4 lung cancer DAPs. Findings were analysed with the Integrated Team Effectiveness Model...
February 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235822/transient-translational-quiescence-in-primordial-germ-cells
#18
Nathalie Oulhen, S Zachary Swartz, Jessica Laird, Alexandra Mascaro, Gary Wessel
Stem cells in animals often exhibit a slow cell cycle and/or low transcriptional activity referred to as quiescence. Here we report that the translational activity in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the sea urchin embryo (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) is quiescent. We measured new protein synthesis with O-propargyl-puromycin, and L-homopropargylglycine, Click-iT technologies and determined that these cells synthesize protein at only 6% the level of their adjacent somatic cells. Knock-down of translation of the RNA-binding protein Nanos2 by morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotides, or knock-out of the Nanos2 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a significant, but partial increase (47%) in general translation specifically in the PGCs...
February 24, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231143/modified-atmosphere-systems-and-shelf-life-extension-of-fish-and-fishery-products
#19
REVIEW
Christina A Mireles DeWitt, Alexandra C M Oliveira
This review aims at summarizing the findings of studies published over the past 15 years on the application of modified atmosphere (MA) systems for shelf life extension of fish and fishery products. This review highlights the importance of CO₂ in the preservation of seafood products, and underscores the benefits of combining MA technology with product storage in the superchilled temperature range. It is generally accepted that MA technology cannot improve product quality and should not be utilized as a substitute for good sanitation and strict temperature control...
June 28, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230693/a-plant-based-nutrition-program
#20
Joanne Evans, Alexandra Magee, Kathy Dickman, Rebecca Sutter, Caroline Sutter
: Proper nutrition is an important but often overlooked component of preventive care and disease management. Following a plant-based diet in particular has been shown to have dramatic effects on health and well-being in a relatively short period of time. For this reason, nurses at three faculty-led community health clinics participated in a nutrition educational program, following a plant-based diet for 21 days. They sought to improve their knowledge of plant-based nutrition and experience firsthand the benefits of such a diet...
March 2017: American Journal of Nursing
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