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musculoskeletical diseases

Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Neige M Journy, Kieran McHugh, Richard W Harbron, Mark S Pearce, Amy Berrington de Gonzalez
OBJECTIVE: To describe medical conditions associated with the use of CT in children or young adults with no previous cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Radiologists' reports for scans performed in 1995-2008 in patients <22 years of age were collected from the Radiology Information System in 44 hospitals of Great Britain. By semantic search, an automated procedure identified 192 medical conditions within the radiologists' reports. Manual validation of a subsample by a paediatric radiologist showed a satisfactory performance of the automatic coding procedure...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Leyla Baykal Selçuk, Deniz Aksu Arıca, Hanife Baykal Şahin, Savas Yaylı, Sevgi Bahadır
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the pilosebaceous unit in the skin. Isotretinoin is a synthetic vitamin A derivative regarded as the most effective agent in the treatment of acne. There have recently been increasing reports of adverse effects of isotretinoin on the skeletal system. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the rheumatic side-effects triggered by this drug, and particularly the prevalence of sacroiliitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-three patients receiving isotretinoin due to moderate or severe acne vulgaris were included...
October 20, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Sylwia Szotek, Joanna Dawidowicz, Brian Eyden, Natalia Matysiak, Aleksander Czogalla, Grzegorz Dudzik, Anna Leśniewicz, Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Fascia lata is an important element of the fascial system, which forms the continuum of connective tissue throughout the body. This deep fascia envelops the entire thigh and hip area and its main function is to transmit mechanical forces generated by the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremities. Fascia lata is also known as a useful and easily harvested graft material. Despite its crucial role in lower extremity biomechanics and wide-ranging applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, both the structure of fascia lata and particularly the cells populating this tissue are relatively unexplored and therefore poorly understood...
October 20, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
N C Harvey, E Biver, J-M Kaufman, J Bauer, J Branco, M L Brandi, O Bruyère, V Coxam, A Cruz-Jentoft, E Czerwinski, H Dimai, P Fardellone, F Landi, J-Y Reginster, B Dawson-Hughes, J A Kanis, R Rizzoli, C Cooper
The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing...
October 20, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Erin B Chapman, Jena Hansen-Honeycutt, Alan Nasypany, Russell T Baker, Jim May
BACKGROUND: Appropriate assessment and interventions for breathing patterns prior to assessment of the patient's musculoskeletal complaint may be beneficial. Breathing pattern disorders (BPDs) are remediable and influenced by biochemical, biomechanical, psychological, and/or unknown factors. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to demonstrate the integratration of a BPD assessment into a standard clinical musculoskeletal orthopedic examination. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT: The observation of a patient's breathing pattern begins when they enter the clinic, is followed by palpation and orthopedic tests, which allows for proper classification of BPDs...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Orjan Skogar, Johan Lokk
This review focuses on the diagnosis and management of Parkinson-related pain which is one of the more frequently reported nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Pain is ranked high by patients as a troublesome symptom in all stages of the disease. In early-stage PD, pain is rated as the most bothersome symptom. Knowledge of the correct diagnosis of pain origin and possible methods of treatments for pain relief in PD is of great importance...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Shirley J Ingram, Gabrielle McKee, Mary B Quirke, Niamh Kelly, Ashling Moloney
BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common presentation to emergency departments (EDs). Pathways for patients with non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) chest pain are not optimal. An advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain service was commenced to address this. The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes of non-ACS patients discharged from ED to an advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain clinic and compare by referral type (nurse or ED physician). METHODS: The service consisted of advanced cardiology nurse or ED physician consultation in the ED and discharge to advanced nurse-led chest pain clinic review less than 72 hours after discharge...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Harry Hx Wang, Jia Ji Wang, Kenny D Lawson, Samuel Ys Wong, Martin Cs Wong, Fang Jian Li, Pei Xi Wang, Zhi Heng Zhou, Yao Qun Yeong, Sian M Griffiths, Stewart W Mercer
OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity (having ≥2 chronic conditions within an individual) is a rapidly increasing problem particularly among hypertensive patients. This study compared the prevalence of hypertension and those with multimorbidity in three study populations. DESIGN AND METHOD: We used cross-sectional data from three self-report surveys in China [N = 162,464], Scotland [N = 36,921], and Hong Kong [N = 29,187]. A consistent methodology was adopted to select representative samples of the household resident population of all ages by multi-stage stratified random sampling in each area...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ugo Corrà
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a specialized subtype of exercise testing that provides a more accurate and objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CPET relies on measurement of ventilatory gases during exercise, i.e., a non-invasive procedure that involves the acquisition of expired ventilation and concentrations of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) during progressive exercise. The non-invasive measurement of ventilation and expired gases permits the most accurate and reproducible quantification of CRF, a grading of the etiology and severity of impairment, and an objective assessment of the response to an intervention...
October 14, 2016: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Johannes Roth, Viviana Ravagnani, Marina Backhaus, Peter Balint, Alessandra Bruns, George A Bruyn, Paz Collado, Lorenia De la Cruz, Severine Guillaume-Czitrom, Troels Herlin, Cristina Hernandez, Annamaria Iagnocco, Sandrine Jousse-Joulin, Stefano Lanni, Vibke Lilleby, Clara Malattia, Silvia Magni-Manzoni, Consuelo Modesto, Ana Narrodi, Juan-Carlos Nieto, Sarah Ohrndorf, Linda Rossi, Anne-Marit Selvaag, Nanno Swen, Tracy Ting, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Patricia Vega-Fernandez, Jelena Vojinovic, Daniel Windschall, Maria-Antonietta D'Agostino, Esperanza Naredo
Objectives Musculoskeletal ultrasonography (US) has the potential to be an important tool in the assessment of disease activity in childhood arthritides. To assess pathology, clear definitions for synovitis need to be developed first. The aim of this study was to develop and validate these definitions through an international consensus process. Methods The decision on which US techniques to use, the components to be included in the definitions as well as the final wording were developed by 31 ultrasound experts in a consensus process...
October 16, 2016: Arthritis Care & Research
Clara Cavero-Carbonell, Silvia Gimeno-Martos, Lucía Páramo-Rodríguez, María José Rabanaque-Hernández, Carmen Martos-Jiménez, Óscar Zurriaga
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential risks of drug use during pregnancy, consumption has increased in recent decades. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk of congenital anomalies (CA) associated with the use of drugs in primary care in pregnant women residents in the Valencia Region. METHODS: A case-control study, considering a case as a less than one year old live birth in 2009-2010, diagnosed with a CA and resident in the Valencia Region, obtained from the CA population-based registry...
October 13, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Toru Akiyama, Kosuke Uehara, Koichi Ogura, Yusuke Shinoda, Shintaro Iwata, Kazuo Saita, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Fumihiko Nakatani, Tsukasa Yonemoto, Hirotaka Kawano, Aileen M Davis, Akira Kawai
BACKGROUND: The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is a widely used disease-specific patient-completed questionnaire for the assessment of physical function in patients with musculoskeletal tumors; however, there had not been the validated Japanese version of the TESS. The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the TESS in patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremity. METHODS: After developing a Japanese version of the TESS, the questionnaire was administered to 53 patients to examine its reliability and validity in comparison with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Short Form-36 (SF-36)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Jonas Geuens, Thijs Willem Swinnen, Rene Westhovens, Kurt de Vlam, Luc Geurts, Vero Vanden Abeele
BACKGROUND: Chronic arthritis (CA), an umbrella term for inflammatory rheumatic and other musculoskeletal diseases, is highly prevalent. Effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for CA are available, with the exception of osteoarthritis, but require a long-term commitment of patients to comply with the medication regimen and management program as well as a tight follow-up by the treating physician and health professionals. Additionally, patients are advised to participate in physical exercise programs...
October 13, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Kevin R Math, Jennifer L Berkowitz, Stephen A Paget, Yoshimi Endo
Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in confirming the diagnosis of musculoskeletal (MSK) infection and determining the severity and extent of disease. The clinical diagnosis may be challenging due to the nonspecific presentation of pain and swelling. There are certain features that are pathognomonic for infection. Pre-existing conditions an make diagnosing infection difficult. Prior surgery can create artifacts on advanced imaging modalities such as computed tomography and MRI, obscuring the tissues immediately around the hardware...
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Sharon L Kolasinski, Andrew S Chi, Angel J Lopez-Garib
Systemic rheumatic diseases frequently pose diagnostic challenges to the clinician. The precise nature of the disorder can be obscure and different disorders can present with similar symptoms, such as joint pain. Plain radiographs provide an appropriate starting point for detection of joint abnormalities. Musculoskeletal ultrasound and MRI offer greater sensitivity in detecting synovitis, tenosynovitis and bony erosions, among other features. However, due to the rarity of these diseases and lack of prospective longitudinal trials, a broader picture of the epidemiology of these findings and their implications for treatment and outcomes remains to be determined...
November 2016: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
Motti Ratmansky, Amir Minerbi, Leonid Kalichman, John Kent, Osnat Wende, Aharon S Finestone, Simon Vulfsons
OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus on a position paper on the use of intramuscular stimulation (IMS) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) by physicians in Israel. METHODS: The Israeli Society of Musculoskeletal Medicine ran a modified Delphi process to gather opinions from a multidisciplinary expert panel. Eight experts in the treatment of MPS were chosen and asked to participate, and six participated. The position paper was iterated three times. RESULTS: After three iterations, general consensus was reached by all six experts...
October 14, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Hannah A Blair, James E Frampton
Methoxyflurane (Penthrox(®)) is a halogenated ether first used clinically as a volatile inhalational anaesthetic. It has been used as an analgesic in Australia and New Zealand for the past 30 years. In the UK and Europe, methoxyflurane has been approved for the emergency relief of moderate to severe trauma pain in conscious adult patients. Methoxyflurane is self-administered using a hand-held inhaler. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of methoxyflurane and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Michiro Susa, Kazutaka Kikuta, Robert Nakayama, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Keisuke Horiuchi, Sota Oguro, Masanori Inoue, Hideki Yashiro, Seishi Nakatsuka, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Chiba, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Historically, local control of recurrent sarcomas has been limited to radiotherapy when surgical re-resection is not feasible. For metastatic carcinomas to the bone or soft tissue, radiotherapy and some interventional radiology treatment along with other systemic therapies have been widely advocated due to the possibility of disseminated disease. These techniques are effective in alleviating pain and achieving local control for some tumor types, but it has not been effective for prolonged local control of most tumors...
October 13, 2016: BMC Cancer
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