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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621315/molecular-evolution-of-dnmt1-in-vertebrates-duplications-in-marsupials-followed-by-positive-selection
#1
David Alvarez-Ponce, María Torres-Sánchez, Felix Feyertag, Asmita Kulkarni, Taylen Nappi
DNA methylation is mediated by a conserved family of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts). The human genome encodes three active Dnmts (Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b), the tRNA methyltransferase Dnmt2, and the regulatory protein Dnmt3L. Despite their high degree of conservation among different species, genes encoding Dnmts have been duplicated and/or lost in multiple lineages throughout evolution, indicating that the DNA methylation machinery has some potential to undergo evolutionary change. However, little is known about the extent to which this machinery, or the methylome, varies among vertebrates...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563491/rna-cytosine-methylation-and-methyltransferases-mediate-chromatin-organization-and-5-azacytidine-response-and-resistance-in-leukaemia
#2
Jason X Cheng, Li Chen, Yuan Li, Adam Cloe, Ming Yue, Jiangbo Wei, Kenneth A Watanabe, Jamile M Shammo, John Anastasi, Qingxi J Shen, Richard A Larson, Chuan He, Michelle M Le Beau, James W Vardiman
The roles of RNA 5-methylcytosine (RNA:m5 C) and RNA:m5 C methyltransferases (RCMTs) in lineage-associated chromatin organization and drug response/resistance are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the RCMTs, namely NSUN3 and DNMT2, directly bind hnRNPK, a conserved RNA-binding protein. hnRNPK interacts with the lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs), GATA1 and SPI1/PU.1, and with CDK9/P-TEFb to recruit RNA-polymerase-II at nascent RNA, leading to formation of 5-Azacitidine (5-AZA)-sensitive chromatin structure...
March 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527415/identification-and-characterization-of-the-cytosine-5-dna-methyltransferase-gene-family-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#3
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
Cytosine DNA methylation is highly conserved epigenetic modification involved in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes. It was established and maintained by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases) in plants. Through genome-wide identification, eight putative SmC5-MTase genes were identified from the genome of Salvia miltiorrhiza , a well-known traditional Chinese medicine material and an emerging model medicinal plant. Based on conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis, eight SmC5-MTase genes were divided into four subfamilies, including MET , CMT , DRM and DNMT2 ...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444437/mutations-in-cytosine-5-trna-methyltransferases-impact-mobile-element-expression-and-genome-stability-at-specific-dna-repeats
#4
Bianca Genenncher, Zeljko Durdevic, Katharina Hanna, Daniela Zinkl, Mehrpouya Balaghy Mobin, Nevcin Senturk, Bruno Da Silva, Carine Legrand, Clément Carré, Frank Lyko, Matthias Schaefer
The maintenance of eukaryotic genome stability is ensured by the interplay of transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional mechanisms that control recombination of repeat regions and the expression and mobility of transposable elements. We report here that mutations in two (cytosine-5) RNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 and NSun2, impact the accumulation of mobile element-derived sequences and DNA repeat integrity in Drosophila. Loss of Dnmt2 function caused moderate effects under standard conditions, while heat shock exacerbated these effects...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402971/identification-and-caste-dependent-expression-patterns-of-dna-methylation-associated-genes-in-bombus-terrestris
#5
Beibei Li, Li Hou, Dan Zhu, Xilian Xu, Shiheng An, Xianhui Wang
DNA methylation has been proposed to play critical roles in caste fate and behavioral plasticity in bumblebees, however, there is little information on its regulatory mechanisms. Here, we identified six important genes mediating the modification of DNA methylation and determined their expression patterns in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. There is a complete functional DNA methylation system, including four DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1a, DNMT1b, DNMT2, and DNMT3), a DNA demethylase (Ten-eleven translocation), and a methyl-CpG-binding domain protein in B...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157677/dna-methylation-affects-the-lifespan-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-workers-evidence-for-a-regulatory-module-that-involves-vitellogenin-expression-but-is-independent-of-juvenile-hormone-function
#6
Carlos A M Cardoso-Júnior, Karina R Guidugli-Lazzarini, Klaus Hartfelder
The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers...
January 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033456/the-dna-methyltransferase-family-a-versatile-toolkit-for-epigenetic-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Frank Lyko
The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) family comprises a conserved set of DNA-modifying enzymes that have a central role in epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have shown that the functions of the canonical DNMT enzymes - DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B - go beyond their traditional roles of establishing and maintaining DNA methylation patterns. This Review analyses how molecular interactions and changes in gene copy numbers modulate the activity of DNMTs in diverse gene regulatory functions, including transcriptional silencing, transcriptional activation and post-transcriptional regulation by DNMT2-dependent tRNA methylation...
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027601/dnmt1-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b-proteins-are-differently-expressed-in-mouse-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#8
Fatma Uysal, Saffet Ozturk, Gokhan Akkoyunlu
DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms and plays important roles during oogenesis and early embryo development in mammals. DNA methylation is basically known as adding a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. This mechanism is composed of two main processes: de novo methylation and maintenance methylation, both of which are catalyzed by specific DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes. To date, six different DNMTs have been characterized in mammals defined as DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3C, and DNMT3L...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843151/reduced-levels-of-methyltransferase-dnmt2-sensitize-human-fibroblasts-to-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-that-is-accompanied-by-changes-in-proliferation-related-mirna-expression
#9
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Anna Deregowska, Ewelina Semik, Tomasz Zabek, Maciej Wnuk
Methyltransferase DNMT2 is suggested to be involved in the regulation of numerous processes, however its biological significance and underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we have used WI-38 and BJ human fibroblasts as an in vitro model system to investigate the effects of siRNA-based DNMT2 silencing. DNMT2-depleted cells were found to be sensitive to oxidative stress conditions as judged by increased production of reactive oxygen species and susceptible to DNA damage that resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation...
April 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684555/statistically-robust-methylation-calling-for-whole-transcriptome-bisulfite-sequencing-reveals-distinct-methylation-patterns-for-mouse-rnas
#10
Carine Legrand, Francesca Tuorto, Mark Hartmann, Reinhard Liebers, Dominik Jacob, Mark Helm, Frank Lyko
Cytosine-5 RNA methylation plays an important role in several biologically and pathologically relevant processes. However, owing to methodological limitations, the transcriptome-wide distribution of this mark has remained largely unknown. We previously established RNA bisulfite sequencing as a method for the analysis of RNA cytosine-5 methylation patterns at single-base resolution. More recently, next-generation sequencing has provided opportunities to establish transcriptome-wide maps of this modification...
September 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575027/linking-epigenetic-function-to-electrostatics-the-dnmt2-structural-model-example
#11
Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Gustavo Fioravanti Vieira, Marialva Sinigaglia, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The amino acid sequence of DNMT2 is very similar to the catalytic domains of bacterial and eukaryotic proteins. However, there is great variability in the region of recognition of the target sequence. While bacterial DNMT2 acts as a DNA methyltransferase, previous studies have indicated low DNA methylation activity in eukaryotic DNMT2, with preference by tRNA methylation. Drosophilids are known as DNMT2-only species and the DNA methylation phenomenon is a not elucidated case yet, as well as the ontogenetic and physiologic importance of DNMT2 for this species group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476776/cytosine-methylation-by-dnmt2-facilitates-stability-and-survival-of-hiv-1-rna-in-the-host-cell-during-infection
#12
Rachana Roshan Dev, Rakesh Ganji, Satya Prakash Singh, Sundarasamy Mahalingam, Sharmistha Banerjee, Sanjeev Khosla
The enigmatic methyltransferase, DNMT2 (DNA methyltransferase 2), structurally resembles a DNA methyltransferase, but has been shown to be a tRNA methyltransferase targeting cytosine within a specific CpG in different tRNA molecules. We had previously shown that, during environmental stress conditions, DNMT2 is re-localized from the nucleus to the cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) and is associated with RNA-processing proteins. In the present study, we show that DNMT2 binds and methylates various mRNA species in a sequence-independent manner and gets re-localized to SGs in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208632/cross-talk-between-dnmt2-dependent-trna-methylation-and-queuosine-modification
#13
REVIEW
Ann E Ehrenhofer-Murray
Enzymes of the Dnmt2 family of methyltransferases have yielded a number of unexpected discoveries. The first surprise came more than ten years ago when it was realized that, rather than being DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 enzymes actually are transfer RNA (tRNA) methyltransferases for cytosine-5 methylation, foremost C38 (m5C38) of tRNAAsp. The second unanticipated finding was our recent discovery of a nutritional regulation of Dnmt2 in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Significantly, the presence of the nucleotide queuosine in tRNAAsp strongly stimulates Dnmt2 activity both in vivo and in vitro in S...
February 10, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177119/downregulation-of-methyltransferase-dnmt2-results-in-condition-dependent-telomere-shortening-and-senescence-or-apoptosis-in-mouse-fibroblasts
#14
Anna Lewinska, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Ewa Kwasniewicz, Maciej Wnuk
Dnmt2 is a highly conserved methyltransferase of uncertain biological function(s). As Dnmt2 was considered as a driver of fruit fly longevity and a modulator of stress response, we decided to evaluate the role of Dnmt2 during stress-induced premature senescence in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Stable knockdown of Dnmt2 resulted in hydrogen peroxide-mediated sensitivity and apoptosis, whereas in the control conditions, senescence was induced. Cellular senescence was accompanied by elevated levels of p53 and p21, decreased telomere length and telomerase activity, increased production of reactive oxygen species and protein carbonylation, and DNA damage...
December 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819523/the-rna-methyltransferase-dnmt2-methylates-dna-in-the-structural-context-of-a-trna
#15
Steffen Kaiser, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Stefanie Kellner, Dirk Schneider, Albert Jeltsch, Mark Helm
The amino acid sequence of Dnmt2 is very similar to the catalytic domains of bacterial and eukaryotic DNA-(cytosine 5)-methyltransferases, but it efficiently catalyzes tRNA methylation, while its DNA methyltransferase activity is the subject of controversial reports with rates varying between zero and very weak. By using composite nucleic acid molecules as substrates, we surprisingly found that DNA fragments, when presented as covalent DNA-RNA hybrids in the structural context of a tRNA, can be more efficiently methylated than the corresponding natural tRNA substrate...
September 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806111/genome-wide-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-microrna-in-bombyx-mori-infected-with-nucleopolyhedrosis-virus
#16
Ping Wu, Xiaoxu Jiang, Xijie Guo, Long Li, Tao Chen
Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) is a major pathogen that threatens the growth and sustainability of the sericulture industry. Since microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in host-pathogen interactions, in this study we investigated the effects of BmNPV infection on silkworm microRNAs expression profile. To achieve this, we constructed and deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries generated from BmNPV infected and un-infected larvae. The results revealed that 38 silkworm miRNAs were differentially expressed after BmNPV infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805064/comprehensive-dna-methylation-analysis-of-the-aedes-aegypti-genome
#17
Cassandra Falckenhayn, Vitor Coutinho Carneiro, Anderson de Mendonça Amarante, Katharina Schmid, Katharina Hanna, Seokyoung Kang, Mark Helm, George Dimopoulos, Marcelo Rosado Fantappié, Frank Lyko
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are important vectors of viral diseases. Mosquito host factors play key roles in virus control and it has been suggested that dengue virus replication is regulated by Dnmt2-mediated DNA methylation. However, recent studies have shown that Dnmt2 is a tRNA methyltransferase and that Dnmt2-dependent methylomes lack defined DNA methylation patterns, thus necessitating a systematic re-evaluation of the mosquito genome methylation status. We have now searched the Ae. aegypti genome for candidate DNA modification enzymes...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687053/dna-methyltransferases-exhibit-dynamic-expression-during-spermatogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Fatma Uysal, Gokhan Akkoyunlu, Saffet Ozturk
DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic marks and plays critically important functions during spermatogenesis in mammals. DNA methylation is catalysed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes, which are responsible for the addition of a methyl group to the fifth carbon atom of the cytosine residues within cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) and non-CpG dinucleotide sites. Structurally and functionally five different DNMT enzymes have been identified in mammals, including DNMT1, DNMT2, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L...
December 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659861/cytotoxic-and-cytostatic-side-effects-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-non-viral-gene-carrier
#19
Gizem Bor, Jennifer Mytych, Jacek Zebrowski, Maciej Wnuk, Gülşah Şanlı-Mohamed
Although chitosan nanoparticles (CNs) became a promising tool for several biological and medical applications owing to their inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability features, studies regarding their effects on cytotoxic and cytostatic properties still remain insufficient. Therefore, in the present study, we decided to perform comprehensive analysis of the interactions between CNs-pKindling-Red-Mito (pDNA) and different cell line models derived from blood system and human solid tissues cancers. The resulting CNs-pDNA was investigated in terms of their cellular uptake, transfection efficiency, and physico-chemical, cytotoxic and cytostatic properties...
November 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281847/-dnmt2-is-the-most-evolutionary-conserved-and-enigmatic-cytosine-dna-methyltransferase-in-eukaryotes
#20
REVIEW
V V Ashapkin, L I Kutueva, B F Vanyushin
Dnmt2 is the most strongly conserved cytosine DNA methyltransferase in eukaryotes. It has been found in all organisms possessing methyltransferases of the Dnmt1 and Dnmt3 families, whereas in many others Dnmt2 is the sole cytosine DNA methyltransferase. The Dnmt2 molecule contains all conserved motifs of cytosine DNA methyltransferases. It forms 3D complexes with DNA very similar to those of bacterial DNA methyltransferases and performs cytosine methylation by a catalytic mechanism common to all cytosine DNA methyltransferases...
March 2016: Genetika
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