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Dusan Hirjak, Anne K Thomann, Katharina M Kubera, Robert C Wolf, Haang Jeung, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Philipp A Thomann
Impulsivity is associated with distinct mental disorders but is also considered as a personality trait exhibited by healthy individuals. Current studies suggest that early stressful life events might cause higher impulsivity in the adulthood. Morphological features, which reflect early brain development, could provide valuable information regarding the origin of impulsive behavior. However, none of the previous MRI studies employed a methodology specifically designed to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and markers of brain development...
October 14, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kathrine Agergård Kaspersen, Khoa Manh Dinh, Lise Tornvig Erikstrup, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Ole Birger Pedersen, Erik Sørensen, Mikkel Steen Petersen, Henrik Hjalgrim, Klaus Rostgaard, Kaspar Rene Nielsen, Henrik Ullum, Christian Erikstrup
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine whether low-grade inflammation (LGI) is associated with a subsequently increased risk of infection. METHODS: We included 15,754 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. LGI was defined as a C-reactive protein level between 3 and 10 mg/L. Infections were identified by ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and ATC-codes in the Danish Prescription Register...
2016: PloS One
Ido Mizrahi, Rana Eltawil, Nadav Haim, Sami A Chadi, Bo Shen, Tolga Erim, Giovanna DaSilva, Steven D Wexner
BACKGROUND: The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) is a novel endoscopic tool that enables non-surgical management of gastrointestinal (GI) defects. The aim of this study was to report our experience with OTSC for patients with GI defects. METHODS: A prospectively maintained IRB-approved institutional database was queried for all patients treated with OTSC from 2012 to 2015. Primary outcome was the clinical success of the OTSC for the individual indication. Secondary outcome was the number of additional procedures needed following OTSC...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Júnia Maria Geraldo Gomes, Sabrina Pinheiro Fabrini, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the effects of glycemic index (GI) on body composition, and on inflammatory and metabolic markers concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects and methods: In this randomized controlled parallel trial, twenty subjects (aged 42.4 ± 5.1 years, BMI 29.2 ± 4.8 kg.m-2) were allocated to low GI (LGI) (n = 10) or high GI (HGI) (n = 10) groups. Body composition, inflammatory and metabolic markers were assessed at baseline and after 30 days of intervention...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Stephen Bawden, Mary Stephenson, Yirga Falcone, Melanie Lingaya, Elisabetta Ciampi, Karl Hunter, Frances Bligh, Jorg Schirra, Moira Taylor, Peter Morris, Ian Macdonald, Penny Gowland, Luca Marciani, Guruprasad Aithal
AIMS: To investigate the acute and longer term effects of low (LGI) v high (HGI) glycaemic index diets on hepatic fat and glycogen accumulation and related blood measures in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Eight healthy males (age = 20.1 ± 0.4y, BMI=23.0 ± 0.9 kg/m2) attended a test day before and after a 7-day macronutrient and energy matched HGI or LGI diet, followed by a minimum 4 week wash-out period, and then returning to repeat the intervention with the alternative diet...
September 4, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jianmin Zhang, Guojie Cao, Xuebin Xu, Marc Allard, Peng Li, Eric Brown, Xiaowei Yang, Haijian Pan, Jianghong Meng
Listeria monocytogenes is a significant foodborne pathogen causing severe systemic infections in humans with high mortality rates. The objectives of this work were to establish a phylogenetic framework of L. monocytogenes from China and to investigate sequence diversity among different serotypes. We selected 17 L. monocytogenes strains recovered from patients and foods in China representing serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 1/2c. Draft genome sequences were determined using Illumina MiSeq technique and associated protocols...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Showkat A Kadla, Nisar A Shah, Muzafar A Bindroo, Bilal A Khan, Adil Farooq, Wajeed Yousf, Bilal A Wani
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Gastric cancer is highly prevalent in Kashmir, as are lower gastrointestinal (LGI) malignancies. Colonic cancer, gastric cancer, and coeliac disease are the most important gastrointestinal (GI) causes of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) worldwide. Approximately 9% of patients with IDA present with a suspicious lesion in the GI tract upon examination. However, the absence of GI symptoms and a possible lesion accounting for blood loss in IDA have not been studied in this zone with a high prevalence of GI malignancy...
June 2016: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Francesco S Ielasi, Mitchel Alioscha-Perez, Dagmara Donohue, Sandra Claes, Hichem Sahli, Dominique Schols, Ronnie G Willaert
UNLABELLED: The first step in the infection of humans by microbial pathogens is their adherence to host tissue cells, which is frequently based on the binding of carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectin-like adhesins) to human cell receptors that expose glycans. In only a few cases have the human receptors of pathogenic adhesins been described. A novel strategy-based on the construction of a lectin-glycan interaction (LGI) network-to identify the potential human binding receptors for pathogenic adhesins with lectin activity was developed...
2016: MBio
M Kaviani, P D Chilibeck, P Yee, G A Zello
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
Yuanchao Zhang, Lu Zhao, Wenwei Bi, Yue Wang, Gaoxia Wei, Alan Evans, Tianzi Jiang
During human brain development, cortical gyrification, which is believed to facilitate compact wiring of neural circuits, has been shown to follow an inverted U-shaped curve, coinciding with the two-stage neurodevelopmental process of initial synaptic overproduction with subsequent pruning. This trajectory allows postnatal experiences to refine the wiring, which may manifest as endophenotypic changes in cortical gyrification. Diving experts, typical elite athletes who commence intensive motor training at a very young age in their early childhood, serve ideal models for examining the gyrification changes related to long-term intensive diving training...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christos Eftychiou, David S Barmby, Simon J Wilson, Salahaddin Ubaid, Andrew J Markwick, Loukia Makri, Jonathan M Blaxill, James C Spratt, Mark Gunning, John P Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with outcomes following rotational atherectomy (RA). BACKGROUND: RA is an effective way to mechanically modify heavily calcified lesions before stenting; however its outcomes are not well defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective evaluation of all patients who underwent RA in three large UK centers (Leeds General Infirmary (LGI), Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh (RIE) and University Hospital of North Staffordshire (UHNS)) from March 2005 to January 2013...
June 3, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Jinhua Wei, Weijun Heng, Jianbo Gao
Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings.The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tao Wang, Feng Shi, Yan Jin, Weixiong Jiang, Dinggang Shen, Shifu Xiao
UNLABELLED: MicroRNA107 (Mir107) has been thought to relate to the brain structure phenotype of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we evaluated the cortical anatomy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and the relation between cortical anatomy and plasma levels of Mir107 and beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Twenty aMCI (20 aMCI) and 24 cognitively normal control (NC) subjects were recruited, and T1-weighted MR images were acquired. Cortical anatomical measurements, including cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and local gyrification index (LGI), were assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
C Ecker, D Andrews, F Dell'Acqua, E Daly, C Murphy, M Catani, M Thiebaut de Schotten, S Baron-Cohen, M C Lai, M V Lombardo, E T Bullmore, J Suckling, S Williams, D K Jones, A Chiocchetti, D G M Murphy
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, which is accompanied by differences in gray matter neuroanatomy and white matter connectivity. However, it is unknown whether these differences are linked or reflect independent aetiologies. Using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, we therefore examined 51 male adults with ASD and 48 neurotypical controls to investigate the relationship between gray matter local gyrification (lGI) and white matter diffusivity in associated fiber tracts...
July 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Daiki Sasabayashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Shimako Nishiyama, Tsutomu Takahashi, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups...
April 19, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
M H Rouhani, R Kelishadi, M Hashemipour, A Esmaillzadeh, P J Surkan, A Keshavarz, L Azadbakht
Although the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on insulin resistance are well documented in adults, the complex interaction among glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, and adipokine concentration has not been well studied, especially among adolescents. We investigated the effect of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet on insulin concentration, fasting blood sugar (FBS), inflammatory markers, and serum adiponectin concentration among healthy obese/overweight adolescent females. In this parallel randomized clinical trial, 2 different diets, an LGI diet and a healthy nutritional recommendation diet (HNRD) with similar macronutrient composition were prescribed to 50 obese and overweight adolescent girls with the same pubertal status...
April 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Osamu Watanabe
Antibodies against various neural surface antigens induce cognitive impairments. Anti-VGKC (voltage gated potassium channel) complex antibodies are well known as one of the causative autoantibodies. An anti-VGKC antibody was identified as the autoantibody in acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome), which causes muscle cramps and difficulty in opening the palm of the hands. However, this antibody also tests positive in autoimmune limbic encephalitis, which has a subacute progress and causes poor memory or epilepsy attacks...
April 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Mohammad I El Mouzan, Mohammad A Al Mofarreh, Omar I Saadah, Abdulrahman A Al-Hussaini, Khalid A Al-Saleem, Ali I Al Mehaidib
BACKGROUND/AIM: Linear growth impairment (LGI) is one of the most important features peculiar to children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this report is to define the impact of IBD on the linear growth of children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). SETTING AND DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from a cohort of newly- diagnosed children with IBD from 2003 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively...
March 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Suhail A R Doi, David L Paterson, Stefan K Helms, Laith Yakob, Samantha J McKenzie, Kjetil Garborg, Frida Emanuelsson, Neil Stollman, Matthew P Kronman, Justin Clark, Charlotte A Huber, Thomas V Riley, Archie C A Clements
GOALS: The aim of this study was to compare upper gastrointestinal (UGI) versus lower gastrointestinal (LGI) delivery routes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for refractory or recurrent/relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). BACKGROUND: FMT has been proven to be a safe and highly effective therapeutic option for CDI. Delivery, however, could be via the UGI or LGI routes, and it is unclear as to which route provides better clinical outcome. STUDY: A systematic search for studies that reported the use of FMT for CDI treatment was conducted...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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